The study was carried out to determine the influence of pear pressure on academic performance of students in Ikosi, Iserin Local Government Area, District II.  The method used is Pearson moment correlation coefficient. However, the findings comprises of male and female students in Ikosi, Iserin Local Government Area which shows that (i) there is a significant relationship between peer pressure with regards to their academic performance. (ii) There is significant relationship between truancy and regular  students with regards to their academic performance (iii) There is a significant relationship between parental rearing styles and  academic performance (iv) There is significant  relationship between the school type and student academic performance. The counselors implication and recommendations were highlighted.



Title page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                        iii

Acknowledgement                                                                           iv

Abstract                                                                                           v

Table of Contents                                                                             vi


CHAPTER ONE:                                                                   

1.1 Background of the Study                                                          1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                         4

1.3 Purpose of the Study                                                                5

1.4 Research Question                                                                    5

  1.5 Research Hypothesis                                                                6                 1.6 Significance of the Study                                                          6

  1.7 Limitation of the Study                                                             7

1.8 Scope of the Study                                                                    7

1.9 Definition of Terms                                                          7



2.1 Concept of the Peer Pressure                                                   9

2.1.1 Types of the Peer Pressure                                                    10

2.3 Peer Pressure and Academic Performance                   11

2.4 School Type and Academic Performance                                16                                                 


3.1 Research Design                                                                         18

3.2 Research Area                                                                           19    

3.3 Population of the Study                                                            19

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques                                           19

3.5 Research Instrument                                                               20

3.6 Validity of the Instrument                                                         20

3.7 Reliability of Instrument                                                           21

3.8 Administration of the Instrument                                             21

3.9  Scoring of the Instrument                                                        21

3.10  Procedure for Data Analysis                                                 22

Method of Data Analysis                                                                 41



4.1 Introduction                                                                              23

4.2 Summary of the Funding                                                          26

4.3 Discussion of the Finding Hypothesis                                     27



5.1 Summary of the Study                                                              30

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                31

5.3 Recommendation                                                                      31








1.1   Background of the Study

Every growing child receives informal education from parents and significant others in the society in order to ensure easy and healthy integration to the community.

An individual who behaves in conscience or agreement with the provision of the norms and values of the society is said to have respect and acceptance as reward. On the other hand, the individual who behaves contrary to the established norms and values of the society is seeing as deviant and he/she gets punishment, shame and rejection as reward for his behaviour.

Denga (2007) associated that age of children sometimes attempts to take over child parenting by telling their age-mates to ignore what parents tell them about life generally but listen to their own directives. This influence tends to be very pervasive because the peer group for the most part has a code of conduct to which all the age mates must submit.

Those things that parents consider so intimate to discuss with their children (e.g sex issues, alcoholism, secret cults etc) are freely and openly taked about within the peer group.

However, Peer group influence has been very strong, socialization agent. The peer pressure is a common phenomenon in adolescence. In modern times, the activities of adolescent Peer pressure vary from one season of the year to another.

Adolescents are loyal to their peers and rely on them for support and understanding (Makinde, 2004).

The child learns and copies certain thing which are considered to be very vogue from members of their Peer group e.g listening to radio, watching television programme and going to movie, speech habit, club membership, dressing styles, hair do, goal setting and more than any other time, heterosocial involvement to keep abreast of the time and social milien. Whatever, the Peer group approves is adhered to by the child e.g Spaghetti strap blouses, bleaching, Yankee style, high heeled shoes, ear-rings and nose rings for boys.

Acceptability is the motivating factor- (Makinde 2004) Peer pressure is often though to be negative force on adolescent Health (add health, 1994-95) discovered that Peer influence operates at many levels, and the network of close friends and the large peer group have more significant effects on the female adolescents than their male counterpart.

According to the study, Peer influence is most often positive among the female adolescents, one possible explanation for this finding is that adolescent girls possess the necessary skill to filter the negative influence of lower risk friends.

Traditionally, in Nigeria Peer groups relationship is given through various initiation rites in different cultural setting. The moral values in such cultures were then emphasized and developed through such avenues.

However, with the influence of foreign cultures most of our cultural values in Nigeria are fast disappearing. Most youth are no longer linked to their roots but rather want to move with other age mates in their immediate environment particularly in urban centres. They seem to be more influenced by the foreign cultures which they copy from films and movies and no longer wish to identify with their culture.

The outcome of such a break away is the high level of indiscipline and moralaxity spreading like wild fire among youths some of the viles perpetrated by the young people under the influence of peer pressure including examination malpractices and racketeering vandalism, cultism, juvenile-delinquency armed robbery, prostitution rape, drug use and abuse (Olayinka 1996). This is among the fact that adolescence period, Per group influence is healthy.

1.2  Statement of the Problems

The influence of Peer-group on academic performance of students in Ikosi Iserin Local Government Area Lagos State of District II. Going through statistics from school alongside reports from both electronic and print media, Peer pressure influence have created a great setback for students in schools. There is high rate of juvenile delinquency at home, schools and in the society at large.

Teenagers in Senior Secondary Schools Ikosi Iserin Local Government Area District II of Lagos State, steal, Gang-rape indulge in alcoholism and engage in examination malpractices among others. Others indulge in an “improper and indecent” dressing with little or no regard for elders and constituted authorities. The issue of respect and obedience is out of question for them Peer especially female Peers in Ikosi secondary schools in Lagos encourage prostitution and unguarded courtship leading to high risk involvement in unwanted pregnancy, illegal abortion and abbreviations which affect them academically in schools.

1.3 Purpose of the Study                      

The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between Peer Pressure and academic performance of the students in Ikosi Iserin Local Government Area in District II of Lagos State.

Specifically, the study is aimed at finding out:

1.   The relationship between Peer pressure and students’ academic performance.

2.   The relationship between truancy and students academic performance.

3.   The relationship between parental reasoning style and students’ academic performance.

4.   The relationship between the school type and students academic performance.

1.4 Research Questions

1.   To what extent will peer pressure influence students academic performance?

2.   How can truancy affect students academic performance in schools?

3.   Does a relationship exist between the school type and students’ academic performance?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

1.   There is no significant relationship between Peer pressure and those without regard to their academic performance.

2.   There is no significant relationship between truancy and regular students with regard to academic performance.

3.   There is no significant relationship between parental rearing styles and students academic performance.

4.   There is no significant relationship between the school type and students’ academic performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this research work will provide some basic information which will help our society at large in the following ways.

1.   It will help the students to cope with schooling and how they can achieve their maximum potentials in life.

2.   It will also help teachers, educationists and administrators to be acquainted with different characteristics of the affected students and how they can be handled in other that the academic performance may be enhanced. 



2.7 Limitation of the Study

The research limited the study to secondary school students in Ikosi Iserin Local Government in District II of Lagos State because of the following:

1.   Difficulties in gaining access to some of these schools due to light management of the school.

2.   Inadequate finance is another problem faced by the researcher to carry out the research work to the large society.

1.8 Scope of the Study   

The study was restricted to senior secondary schools in Ikosi Iserin Local Government Area in District II of Lagos State. Research has proved that most children at this level are highly affected with peer pressure influence. This can be addressed to the environment that they belong to.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Peer Pressure: Adolescents are loyal to their peer and rely on them for support and understanding (Makinde 2004).

Truancy: when a student stays away from school regularly without permission (Osarenren 1996).

Norms: it means acceptable ways of life approved by individual and society (OLushakin and Ubanga, 2002).

Values: This has been defined to be “moral” principles and standards that one considers.

Important: it refers to those collective conceptions of what is good or bad desirable or undesirable, proper and improper in a culture (Shaefer, 1997).

Adolescence: The time in a persons life when he/she develops from a child into an adult. It is that period in every individual’s life, which lives between the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood maturity (Makinde, 2001).








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