INFLUENCE OF TEACHER- EFFECTIVENESS ON INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE


Content

ABSTRACT

The study attempted to investigate the appraising instructional materials as being used in secondary schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The study equally reviewed some important and extensive literatures under sub-headings. The descriptive research survey design was applied in the assessment of respondents opinions towards the subject matter. In this study, four null hypotheses were formulated and tested with the application of the independent t-test and the Pearson Product Moment Correltional Coefficient Statistical tools at 0.05 significance level. Also, the simple percentage frequency counts was used to analyse the questionnaire response of the selected respondents together with the research questions. A total of 120 (one hundred and twenty) respondents, 60 (sixty) male and 60 (sixty) female teachers were selected for this study. At the end of the data analyses, the following results were obtained thus: that there is a significant effect of the use of instructional materials on teachers performance, that effective use of instructional materials will significantly affect students academic performance in the school, there is a significant relationship between the use of instructional materials and learning behaviour of students in the school, and that there is no significant gender difference in the use of instructional materials among teachers in secondary schools. Based on the conclusions, it was recommended that: there should be allocation of more time to the practical aspects of educational technology in secondary schools, Government should subsidise the cost of students practical work on Education Technology, and graduates from other disciplines coming into teaching profession as a last resort due to high rate of unemployment; should be discouraged. This is because they are not well equipped for the tasks which they are to perform.

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                       

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Research Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope and Limitations of the Study

 


CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       The Concept and Nature of Teaching.

2.2       Teaching and Related Concepts

2.3       The Concept and Nature of Learning.

2.4       Factors that Affect Learning

2.5       The Concept and Nature of Teaching Materials

2.6       Types of Teaching Materials.

2.7       The Importance of Teaching Resources in Teaching and Learning Processes.

2.8       The Effect of Disuse of Teaching Materials on Students Academic Performance in English Language.

2.9       The Function of Teaching Resources.

2.10     Teacher-Factor and Students Academic Performance in English Language. 

2.11     The Effect of Teaching Methods on Students Academic Performance in English language.

2.12     Teachers Qualification and Students Academic Performance in English Language.

2.12     Teachers Qualification and Students Academic Performance in English Language.

 

                                                                 CHAPTER THREE       

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0       Introduction

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Population of the Study

3.3       Sample and Sampling Technique

3.4       Research Instrument

3.5       Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Validity of the Instrument

3.7       Procedure for Data Collection

3.8       Data Analysis

 


CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

4.1       Introduction

4.2       Description of Data According to Sex, Age, Marital Status, Religion, Qualification and Years of Experience.

4.3       Analyses of Participants Reponses to the Research Questions.

4.4       Testing Hypotheses

4.5       Summary of Findings

 


CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Introduction

5.2       Summary of the Study

5.3       Conclusions

5.4       Recommendations


References

 


References

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

For thousand years, man had been seeking ways in which he could increase the effectiveness of his teaching. Twenty-three centuries ago, Aristotle identified those important elements in the process of teaching. According to him, teaching consists of a communicator, the message and the receiver of the message. He further suggested that the oral teacher must not only try to make the assignment of his speech (message) demonstrative and worthy of belief. Lesswell (2008), talked about ingredients of teaching in the form of this simple question; who says what?, for what purpose? To whom? In what situation? By what means? With what effect? The age of books and chalkboard dragged on over the centuries in electronics and communication, thus bringing longevity to this age and its technology in the classroom.

 

Teacher effectiveness according to 0nyeoma (2004), is the efficiency and skill a classroom teacher possesses in the teaching and learning processes. It is in any case, the expertise a teacher has in the delivery of the lesson in any subject-matter. Without instructional materials, teachers in English language may not effectively carry out an efficient presentation of the subject in the classroom. Therefore, Akande (1998), asserts that teaching aids are very essential in the delivery of any subject in the classroom. Akande defines instructional materials as things that assist the teacher perform well in the classroom, thereby helping students to learn effectively. Teachers creditable performances in the classrooms through the use of instructional materials, make students to record higher academic achievement in the schools. Therefore, it is the opinion of Adesomoju (2002), that both teachers effectiveness and proper use of instructional materials, add to the effective academic achievement of students in English language as a compulsory subject in schools. Teacher-effectiveness means the totality of the teachers knowledge of what to teach, the skilful handling of classroom presentation through good and effective methods of delivery, using relevant teaching and learning aids to drive home the points of teaching (Adimorah, 1998). Teacher effectiveness by a teacher comes through experience, years of training in educational institutions and skill in classroom presentation.

   

The radio cassette and tape recorder have been developed to enable millions of masses learn anywhere and anytime. The visual first came into prominence in educational scene during the first two decades of the 20th century and such visuals include all materials generally used in classroom instructions. As from 1947, ideas developed in favour of combining the library with visual development. It is on this ground that the term instructional resources or materials evolved (Nwankwo, 2000). The introduction of technology into education has thrown light into technological innovation e.g. (hardware) machine and (Software) materials or transparencies, are used as instructional materials in the English language classroom teaching.

Davies (1990) maintained that all media to a varying degrees, help perception, understanding, transfer of training, provide reinforcement, and extension. Some media as instructional materials, are essential to the attainment of goals and objectives in subjects offered in the classrooms, especially English language. Such media must be obtained and used if the objectives are to be achieved. Media like maps and pictures are described as criterion media and are also used to learn and achieve skill of mastery in English language and any other kind of subject in the classroom teaching / learning situation. According to Hoben (1991), there is little from evidence in the research literature and that a single medium of instruction will suffice ever, if only because it will become unbearably monotonous, but variety among instructional media can make the teaching of English language more effective in the classroom.

According to Aina (2002), instructional materials are those materials or resources used in any teaching exercise to promote greater understanding of the learning experiences. They are used to provide the richest possible learning environment which help learners and the teachers to achieve specific objectives. They also assist the teacher to communicate more effectively and the learner to learn more meaningfully and permanently. Instructional materials form a vital aspect of teaching and learning in secondary schools, hence its importance in school curriculum. Nwagbara (2002) notes that instructional materials enhance retention and permanence in learning. According to her, enormous benefits accrue from teaching and learning with the aid of culturally relevant and adequate instructional materials, especially, for the primary and secondary school levels of education in Nigeria.

 

One of the goals of teacher education as enunciated in the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004), is the production of highly motivated, conscientious and effective teachers for all levels of educational system in Nigeria. Such teachers are expected to be professionally and academically qualified to perform their duties effectively. In order to standardize the quality of education, Mujis and Reynolds (2005), identify the teacher as a major factor in students learning outcomes using appropriate instructional material, specically in English language. Fracer (1992) and Olorojaye (1997), identify students availability, school resources (instructional materials) and classroom environment as crucial factors to effective learning. Resource availability, allocation and utilization have been perceived as indicators of effectiveness in the school situation, which in any case, have resulted in students high academic achievement in schools. Resources in the school situation include human as well as physical and material resources. The primary function of the teacher according to Omoniyi (2000), is to facilitate learning in English language among students. One of the ways of bringing about effective learning in English language is to make the experience real. This involves using real life examples that are related to the learners’ experiences. The other alternative involves the use of representations. The use of representations involves the use of instructional materials and devices which help the teacher to make realistic approach to the teacher’s job in the classrooms.

 

Teaching materials according to Omoniyi (2000), will include making available materials to the students, making procedures for any investigation simple and clear and clarifying procedures and giving encouragements to students in the classroom. Bajah (1998), notes that the quality of any teaching is judged by the effect which it has on learners and the society. Okebukola (2009), posits that what is on ground in the education sector as at December 31, 2008 shows that not only are numbers of school enrolment low, but the quality of learning outcomes in all subjects across board, including English language is poor. The curriculum, which is one of the resources for effective learning in English language, is not appropriate for the needs of a modern society which seeks to create a competitive and efficient economy.

 

Okebukola (2005), posits that Nigeria was one of the nations which spent a high proportion of her resources on the academic pursuit of her students at all levels and that Nigeria was the second best at the secondary and tertiary levels of education in terms of resources commitment. Yet, Adeyegbe (2007), said that despite the enormity of funds pushed into education, the results are not in tandem with the financial commitment. Ayo (2004) observes that students performance in the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) in five subjects English Language, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology in 1998 and 2002 is very poor. This was attributed to the non-effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of those subjects especially English language.

 

Modern researchers such as (Ethel, et al 2007), have tried their ability of using varied media to see successful attainment of their goals and objectives. For instance, a study of programmed instruction journalism course at Marshall University USA in 1990, showed that students prefer tape recording while others preferred conventional materials. Audio-visual materials can provide a rich variety of sensory experiences in language studies and are useful for amplifying and reinforcing the concepts that have been presented in textbooks. For certain types of learning especially in English language, some students may grasp the flow and structure of ideas more easily through films or television programmes than through textbooks, assignments and lectures (Anyanwu, 2000).

 

In a collection of varied and integrated learning activities in English language, each method of teaching makes particular contribution in cooperation with several other media of instructions. Modern researchers such as Alozie et al (2008), are no longer studying the effects of isolated educational materials, they are considering integrated system that involve many variables of instructional media on the teaching-learning situation in English language. Schram (2006), proposed that each medium of instruction should be considered as part of teaching/learning system in English language. Thus, certain ways of combining these media such as television with tutorial media may be immensely more effective than one alone. In evaluating the combination of instructional or teaching resources effectiveness, they should be tried out in the environment where they will be properly utilized. Views from the angle of the contributions, ways of definitions, history and perception of the instructional media on teaching in Junior Secondary Schools could broaden or widen the horizons of the users on its impact in the teaching and learning processes in the English language classrooms (Adeleke, 2001).

 

Teaching resources which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum which includes English language.  Wales (2005) was of the opinion that the use of instructional materials would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students.  Savoury (2008) also added that, a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish aparthy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse student’s interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves. Like other teaching subjects in the school curriculum, the teaching and learning of any subject in school cannot be effectively achieved without the aid of instructional resources.

 

 According to Savoury (2008), for long, instructional resources had not really been used in schools. Most teachings were done verbally without really making use of the few available materials. It is proper for teachers to make use of instructional resources needed in every situation for their teaching. Savoury (1998) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are good for teaching such as pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips and models. It is interesting to note that a large percentage of trained teachers and those undergoing professional training courses in English language, can teach with some of the teaching resources. They do so consciously because they know that the use of teaching resources have positive effect on learning outcomes of students as their cognate experience during teaching practice supervision reveals (Adeyanju, 2003). Adeyanju also revealed that in an on-going action research by investigators in Winneba District Ghana, a survey sample of teachers with several years of teaching experience of between (3) and twenty five (25) years, claimed that learning aid improved methodology. They also claimed that learning aids reduced their talk and chalk method. In view of the observations above, this study attempted to identify the influence of teaching effectiveness and instructional materials on academic achievement of students in senior secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

The non-effective teaching by many teachers as a result of lack of training and experiences, coupled with the seemingly non-availability, inadequate-allocation and lack of utilization of teaching materials or instructional aids, have been perceived as indicators of poor performance of students in English language in secondary schools. Obilade (1998), observed that the two major obstacles that hinder efforts at successful resource management in education, are those of waste and underutilization or underemployment of teaching materials in classroom presentation. It is found by (Onyejiuwa, 2000), that ineffective teaching and non-application of teaching materials by teachers in English language, are major problems or cause of low academic achievement of students in English language studies. Many English language teachers carry out ineffective teaching and do not use the necessary materials to teach in the classrooms, and some of them who use the teaching aids, are perceived to be inexperienced in the application of the materials. This has caused ineffectiveness in the teaching and learning of the subject, and the resultant effect is that, many of their students have performed dismally in their examinations and tests in the subject.

 

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of teacher-effectiveness and instructional materials on academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

The specific objectives include the followings:

1.         To determine whether teacher-effectiveness in English language affects students performance in secondary schools in Lagos State. 

2.         To examine the effect of the use of teaching materials on students performance in English language in secondary schools in Lagos State.

3.         To investigate whether students academic achievements depend on the teaching methods used by teachers in English language in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

 

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were drawn for the study:

1.         Do teacher-effectiveness in English language affect student’s performance in Lagos State secondary schools?

2.         Will there be any relationship between the use of teaching materials and students performance in English language in Lagos State secondary schools?

3.         Will there be any relationship between the teaching methods and students academic performance in English language in Lagos State secondary schools?

 

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested for this study:

1.         There will be no significant effect of teacher-effectiveness on students academic performance in English language in Lagos State secondary schools.

2.         There will be no significant relationship between the use of teaching materials and students academic performance in English language in Lagos State secondary schools.

3.         There will be no significant relationship between teaching methods and students academic performance in English language in Lagos State secondary schools.

 

 

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study examined teaching resources and teaching effectiveness in Mainland Local Government area of Lagos State. Therefore, if this study was successfully carried out, it was expected to benefit the following individuals and groups:

Researchers: This study was expected to add to the bank of knowledge in the academic field in that, other researchers are expected to benefit and can replicate the study using other local government areas and states in Nigeria since environmental factors in Lagos State differ from those of other states. Other environmental factors that occur in the rural areas may influence the outcomes of such studies. Generally, this study was expected to add or contribute to knowledge in the area of educational administration.

Government: Governments at the three tiers (Federal, State and Local) are expected to benefit from this study in that it will show whether government was performing well in the area of providing resources in the schools. Also, a well educated citizen will not give the government problems and this will lead to socio-economic and political development.

Students: The students are the primary beneficiaries of this study because the study was expected to expose what impeded learning and suggested solution(s). This would make learning easier for the students.

Teachers: Teachers find it difficult when resources to use are unavailable or inadequate. If the suggestions from the outcomes of this study were carried out and government is able to implement the suggestions by providing adequate and quality resources in the public schools, the work of the teachers in imparting knowledge to the students would be made easy.

1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study was limited to secondary schools in Mainland Local Government area of Lagos State. This study attempted to identify the various types of resources and the extent to which they could influence teaching effectiveness and academic performance of students in schools.

 

 


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