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INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SANDWICH STUDENTS
The study examined the influence of information communication technology on academic performance of students at the University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria. The study reviewed relevant literatures in the following dimensions: Introduction, the concept and nature of Information Communication Technology, the utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT), the problems inhibiting utilization of Information Communication Technology, purpose of University Education in Nigeria, the relevance/Role of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Improving Quality of University Education, Information Communication Technology as a facilitator to teaching and learning and summary of review. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance scores from the questionnaire administered to 160 sandwich students at the University of Lagos, Akoka , Lagos State, in the Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. The percentage frequency counts were used to analysis the bio-data and the research questions, while the Pearson Product Moment Correlation and independent test statistical tools were used to determine the level of relationship between sandwich studentship and information communication technology (ICT). The findings include:
· That there is a perfect relationship between information communication technology and students’ academic performance at the University of Lagos.
· That there is a perfect relationship between information communication technology and students’ academic achievement at the University of Lagos.
· It was indicated in hypothesis three result that there is a significant difference between the academic performance of students who were taught using the ICT and those taught without ICT at the University of Lagos.
· Finally, it found that there is a significant gender difference in the academic performance of students due to the use of ICT at the University of Lagos.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE 1
Introduction/Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose of the Study 6
Research Questions 7
Research Hypotheses 8
Significance of the study 8
Scope of the Study 10
Definition of Terms 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 12
The Concept and Nature of Information Communication Technology 15
The Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) 20
The Problems Inhibiting Utilization of Information
Communication Technology 24
Purpose of University Education in Nigeria 27
The Relevance/Role of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Improving Quality of University Education 28
Information Communication Technology as a Facilitator to Teaching
and Learning 29
Summary of Review 30
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 32
Research design 32
Sampling technique 33
Sample size 33
Research instrument 34
Validity and Reliability 34
Procedure for data collection 35
Procedure for data analysis 35
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis and Presentation of Results 36
Result Presentation 38
Hypothesis Testing 45
Summary of Findings 49
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Discussion of Findings, Implications, Recommendations, Suggestions for Further
Research and Conclusion 50
Summary of Findings 50
Discussion of Findings 51
Implication of Results 59
Suggestion for Further Studies 63
Background to the Study
The predominant means of instruction has traditionally been through verbal medium, either as spoken lecture or written text. As more instructional resources of many different "media types become available to students, especially the sandwich ones through the internet, there is a need for educators to understand when these sources may be used effectively for instruction, as well as a need for students to develop an additional set of literacy skills in order to learn from these sources (Anyakoha, 1990). This implies that, the medium of instruction being used in the teaching and learning processes can either enhance the learning out-comes of students in any subjects or mar the outcomes. According to Uzodinma (2000), teachers have a significant role to play in the teaching and learning of the students in any school system anywhere. This is because, the method of teaching applied by the teacher in coaching the students, helps the student to excel in the classroom.
Tyner (2000) argued that in the information age. the concept of literacy has been simultaneously broadened and splinted into many literacies in part because "the all purpose word literacy seems hopelessly anachronistic, tainted with the nostalgic ghost of a fleeting industrial age. The term information communication technology is among several terms that have been associated with literacy to emphasize that literacy extends beyond reading and writing the alphabetic codes, and should include a variety of audiovisual forms of representation. This means that, the use of audio-visual as a form of teaching in the classroom, is very effective in the learning performance of the students in the Nigerian school system. Similarly, audio-visual aids gives meaningful impetus to the teaching situation in the classroom. This is because, the child learns more if what is taught in the classroom is displayed to the child by the teacher, thereby buttressing the Chinese saying that "what I see, I remember, what I hear, I forget'. Therefore, to teach the child effectively, the teacher ought to apply the audio-visual instrument which assists the vision of the child to see what the teacher has displayed in the classroom for better understanding and comprehension which by extension, compliment the learning performance of the child (Nkemdirim, 2012).
Associating Information Communication Technology (ICT) with the literacy also highlights a belief among many scholars and educators that conceptions of literacy or studentship and how it is developed should not focus exclusively on printed materials but should include electronic media that have moved into the mainstream of communication especially at the end of the twentieth century. The above statement shows that, for students to improve on their learning performance in the classroom in any subject-matter, the recent information communication technology should be used to teach the child for more effective learning out-comes of the child. As Adeleke (2009) puts it, the utilization of the modern equipment in teaching the child in the classroom, especially the use of the computer, the audio-media which include the audio-visual, the flannel boards, and other digital materials that assist the teacher to teach more effectively in the classrooms .This means that, if the teacher is very experienced and well trained, the application of the above mentioned digital equipment, will help to express the main points of the subjects in the classrooms. According to Anyanwu (2010), the application of good methods of teaching, obviously enhances the learning effectiveness of the sandwich student in any subject-matter. This also means that, the level at which students learn in the classroom, is dependent on the kind of teaching methods applied by the teacher in the classroom.
Implicit in these views is that research and practice related to literacy must be transformed to accommodate new ways of accessing, processing and using information by students generally and by the sandwich students in particular (Aaron, 1997). Information encompasses a wide range variety of things ranging from oral and printed words, figures, statements, files and documents to such intangible elements as sound signals, rays and waves. Whatever the form information takes, the essence of information is that it conveys messages. The implication of the above statements is that, the physical classroom teaching must be carried out by exemplifying the main ingredients of the subject-matter in the classroom by the teacher.
Uzoma (2007), is of the opinion that the use of printed words, sound signals, figures, statements and other forms of information communication technology by the classroom teacher, no doubt, will improve the learning performance of the sandwich students at the University of Lagos and other higher institutions in Nigeria. For the sandwich students to appreciate better the teaching in the classroom, their teachers must apply effect teaching methods which include modern equipment which help students to learn effectively, especially the sandwich students. UNESCO (1979), defined information simply as "set of data recorded in a methodical manner" which includes: any item of knowledge capable of facilitating the operation of a system; and any numerical or alpha-numerical quantity processed by the machine, the aggregate of information constitutes the data and results of a problem. (Adamson, 1998), claims that the term information technology refers to the application of scientific knowledge in teaching and situations in any given school system. Information communication technology, therefore can be defined as the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictoral, textual and numerical information by a micro-based combination of computing and telecommunication.
For instance, Amaonye (2011) is of the opinion that, the computer can be used as an instrument of solving arithmetic problems such as addition, subtraction, division, and so on. It can be used to analyse statistical data using Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS). In addition, the computer is useful for direct learning in a classroom without the presence of the teacher. This is referred to as Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). Related to this in the educational setting is that it does perform administrative and managerial functions. With the use of the computer, sandwich students can store and Retrieve a»d necessary information at will, and this will necessarily improve their academic achievement in the school. Equally, the use of the modern communication technology such as the computer, the electronic mails, the world wide web (www), the news groups, the twitter, the you tube, the facebook and so on, has widened the horizon of computer use for educational research in the world today.
According to Onwuamanam (2008), telecommunication is a special kind of communication in which information is conveyed over a long distance. Information communication technology (ICT) also refers to the more efficient and effective way of storing, accessing and updating information than processes involving paper. In the recent time, sandwich students, most especially, have benefited from the use of information communication technology (ICT) such as computer, television, telephone and the internet as a veritable sources of information in their academic career or pursuit. For instance, the sandwich students now use the internet to get information that are necessary for carrying out their assignments or and reading materials for their examinations or class tests or even for reading purposes and entertainment.
Uzoma (1999) opined that sandwich students, and most adolescents use the information communication technology especially the internet to gather vital educational information or materials, register their courses of study, check their results of JAMB, NECO, GCE, POST UME etc. Onuoha (2000), posited that the advent of information technology has made education more simple and easy for students especially, the students in the sandwich studies at University of Lagos. Onuoha claimed that information communication technology has helped sandwich students in many ways such as project writing and collection of necessary information leading to effective studies. Onuoha further stated that information communication technology has created a remarkable -. balance and effectiveness in the daily activities of students mostly the sandwich students who are in the habits of using the computer and the internets to carry out faster storage and retrieval of information in the academic environment or school. This has enabled the sandwich students to carry out more robust and effective in the school, thereby creating a positive impact on the academic achievement of the students (Brunno, 2006).
As Adelekunnu (1994) puts it, information communication technology (ICT) can be used to assist sandwich students to get along with others, thereby achieving self-reliance and educational success. Not only that, information communication technology is capable of enabling the sandwich students to socialize with their peers and associates in the academic environment and at the home front. Alamezie (2003) opines that ICT materials are capable of the sandwich students to excel in their academic career. Also, it can help f ft them to achieve professional success and to adhere to societal values and norms. With information technology, sandwich students can achieve high academic laurels in school, especially at the University of Lagos.
Statement of the Problem
The problems inherent in the use of ICT by sandwich students cannot be overemphasized. This is because, information communication technology seems to have corrupted students, especially, the adolescents and even adults who are in sandwich studies. For instance, some sandwich students are often seen glued for hours to the television and the internet watching or viewing pornographic films or pictures that are capable of bending their minds and distorting their dispositions. Studies carried out by (Asobie, Achizie and Anywanwu., 1995), have shown that some sandwich students who browse the internets often are more corrupt than those who do not.
Sandwich students who use the internet often or watch the television involved in sexual promiscuity, examination malpractices, stealing and other vices or indisciplines that are always carried out in the school, especially at the University of Lagos. In recent times, many sandwich students have been caught using Global System Mobile Network (GSM) phones to carry out or perpetrate examination malpractices; to connect friends and associates in crimes in order to excel in their examinations. This has shown that, most sandwich students do not read or study their books or the materials given to them for study, but rather depend on the information or other chips from the internet to pass their examinations. The advent of information communication technology has made many sandwich students so lazy that they cannot carry out independent and meaningful academic work without recourse to the internet or an external material to excel in their examinations at the University of Lagos.
This researcher is of the opinion that the advent of information communication technology has ingenuity of the sandwich students and has caused them exhibit low academic performance in the school. Sandwich students hardly crack their brains to do some meaningful academic work, but always hope on the utilization of information received via the mail or the internet. This has in any case lowered the standards of education in Nigeria in the contemporary period.
The above identified problems gave rise to examination of information communication technology and sandwich academic performance in school
The major purpose of this study is to carry out an investigation on the sandwich students' academic performance and information communication technology utilization at University of Lagos.
Other purposes include the following:
1. Examine whether information communication technology has influence on sandwich students' academic performance.
2. Assess whether there is a significant relationship between information communication technology and students' academic failure.
3. Assess whether sandwich students utilize ICT more often than the full- time students.
4. Determine whether there is gender difference in the academic performance of students due to the use of ICT among sandwich students.
The following research questions were raised in this study:
1. To what extent can information communication technology influence the academic performance of sandwich students?
2. Is there any relationship between information communication technology and sandwich students' academic failure?
3. Do sandwich students use Information Communication Technology more often than the full-time students at the University of Lagos?
4. Is there any gender difference in academic performance of sandwich students due to the use of information communication technology?
The under mentioned hypotheses were tested in this study.
1. There is no significant relationship between information communication technology and students’ academic performance at the University of Lagos.
2. There is no significant relationship between information communication technology and students academic failure at the University of Lagos.
3. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of students who use ICT and those who did not.
4. There is no significant gender difference in the academic performance of sandwich students due to the use of ICT.
Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following:
Sandwich students will benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study because it will help them to be more aware of the information communication technology in the school. This study will enable students to get more involved in the utilization of information communication technology due to the benefits derivable from it.
Teachers will find this study beneficial because they would avail themselves of the opportunity to get involved in the use of information communication technology because of the numerous benefits that can be derived from it. It will also assist them in sourcing out relevant information on what to teach in the school.
Parents would benefit from this study because it will enable them to know the benefits their children/wards derive from using the information communication technology in their academic work or activities. Parents themselves, will avail themselves of the opportunity of knowing the importance of information communication technology through this study and those who do not use information communication technology would start to use it as it is beneficial to all human activities.
The School Authority would to be able to know more about information communication technology and its functions especially in the life of the sandwich/full-time students. The recommendations of this study will enable the school authority to expand its policy on the availability and usage of information communication technology in the school system in Nigeria, especially in Lagos State.
The society will benefit from this study, because the general members of the society would derive knowledge of the use of information communication technology. This study will also afford the society to know more about information communication technology and its functions in the world today.
Scope of the Study
This study covered the influence of information communication technology utilization on students’ academic performance at the University of Lagos, Akaka, Lagos State, Nigeria.
Definition of Terms
Operational terms were defined in this study thus:
Sandwich Studentship: This refers to students who are involved in sandwich studies. Students who were admitted without Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB).
Information technology – Information communication technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a micro-based combination of computing and telecommunication. It is the newest source of information students applied in solving their academic problems in the schools.
Utilization – This is the making use of information communication technology in solving academic problems by students in tertiary institutions in Lagos State.
Assessment – This refers to the act of assessing and valuing of information through the accessibility of materials derived from ICT.
Evaluation – With information communication technology, students and their teachers make important evaluation of the material derive from ICT.
Acquisition – This refers to the act of acquiring information necessary for academic work by students in the tertiary institutions.