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INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
The study examined the effect of information communication technology on the academic performance of students in tertiary schools located in Lagos State. The descriptive research survey was used in order to assess the opinions of the selected respondents using the questionnaire as the research instrument. A total of 300 respondents were selected to represent the entire population of the study. A total of three null hypotheses were formulated in this study and tested with the use of independent t-test statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the data analyses, the findings that emerged are as follows: there is a significant relationship between ICT and students’ learning behaviour in the school, there is a significant relationship between students’ perception of ICT and students’ academic achievement in school, and there is a significant difference between the perception of teachers and students on the use of information communication technology. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made: computer appreciation courses should be made compulsory for all academic staff in the school and an arrangement should be made to procure personal computer by all academic staff. The management of the school should make arrangement with a company dealing on computer, such staff can have computer on loan bases if it expensive to procure.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose of the Study 5
Objectives of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Research Hypotheses 6
Significance of the Study 7
Scope of the Study 8
Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10
The Concept and Nature of Information Communication Technology 10
Influence of Information Communication Technology on Tertiary
Students’ Learning Behaviour 15
Relationship between Information Communication Technology and
Tertiary Students’ Academic Achievement 19
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Challenges in University 21
Gender Differences in the Use of Information Communication Technology
among Full-time Students in Tertiary Institutions 25
Summary of Review 31
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 33
Research Design 33
Sample Size 34
Sampling Technique 34
Research Instrument 35
Validity of the Instrument 35
Reliability of the Instrument 36
Procedure for Data Collection 36
Data Analysis 37
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 38
Descriptive Analysis of Bio-Data of the Respondents According to Sex,
Age, Marital Status, Qualification, Duration of Service etc 38
Descriptive Analysis of the Research Questions 42
Descriptive Analysis of Bio-Data of the Students’ according to Sex,
Age, Religion and Type of Programme 45
Descriptive Analysis of the Research Questions 48
Testing of Hypotheses 51
Summary of Findings 54
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
Summary of the Study 55
Background to the Study
The predominant means of instruction has traditionally been through verbal medium, either as spoken lecture or written text. As more instructional resources of many different media types become available to students, especially the Sandwich ones through the internet, there is a need for educators to understand when these sources may be used effectively for instruction, as well as a need for students to develop an additional set of literacy skills in order to learn from these sources (Anyakoha, 1990).
Tyner (2000) argued that in the information age, the concept of literacy has been simultaneously broadened and splintered into many literacies in part because the all purpose word literacy seems hopelessly anachronistic, tainted with the nostalgic ghost of a fleeting industrial age. The term information communication technology is among several terms that have been associated with literacy to emphasize that literacy extends beyond reading and writing the alphabetic codes, and should include a variety of audio-visual forms of representation. Associating information communication technology with literacy also highlights a belief among many scholars and educators that conceptions of literacy or studentship and how it is developed should not focus exclusively on printed materials but should include electronic media that have moved into the mainstream of communication especially at the end of the twentieth century.
Implicit in these views is that research and practice related to literacy must be transformed to accommodate new ways of accessing, process and using information by students generally and the Sandwich students in particular (Aaron, 1997). Information encompasses a wide range of things ranging from oral to printed words, figures, statements, files and documents to such intangible elements as sound signals, rays and waves. Whatever the form information takes, the essence of information is that it conveys messages.
UNESCO (1979), defined information simply as “set of data recorded in a methodical manner” which includes: any item of knowledge capable of facilitating the operation of a system; and any numerical or alpha-numerical quantity processed by the machine, the aggregate of information constitutes the data and results of a problem. According to Adamson (1998), who claims that the term information technology refers to the application of scientific knowledge. Information communication technology , therefore can be defined as the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictoral, textual and numerical information by a micro-based combination of computing and telecommunication.
Telecommunication is a special kind of communication in which information is conveyed over a long distance. Information communication technology (ICT) also refers to the more efficient and effective way of storing, accessing and updating information processes involving paper (Uzor, 2000). In recent time, full-time students, especially, have benefited from the use of information communication technology (ICT) such as computer, television, telephone and the internet as a veritable sources of information in their academic career or pursuit.
Onuoha (2000), posited that the advent of information technology has made education simple and easy for students especially, the adolescents in the full-time studies in our school system. Onuoha claimed that information communication technology has helped students in many ways such as project writing and collection of necessary information leading to effective studies.
He further stated that information communication technology has created a remarkable balance and effectiveness in the daily activities of students mostly the Sandwich students who are in the habits of using the computer and the internets to carry out faster storage and retrieval of information in the academic environment or school.
As Adelekunnu (1994) puts it, the training given to children in order to help them meet the demands of the society in which they live is called socialization. According to him, information communication technology (ICT) can be used to assist students to get along with others, achieving self-reliance and educational success. Also, it can help them to achieve professional success and to adhere to societal values and norms. With information technology, students achieve high academic laurels in school.
Statement of the Problem
The problem inherent in information communication technology and students’ academic achievement cannot be overemphasized. This is because, since the advent of ICT, many students who are not information communication technology complaint, find it difficult to use vital information generated from the internet to carry out effective and result-oriented class work. This has in any case, affected their academic achievement, because a situation students cannot access information in order to carry out their assignments, project writing, or do other important academic work through the materials gathered with the aid of ICT, their learning outcomes suffer a set back.
On the other hand, many students these days focus their attention on watching television, listening to the radio, fiddling their blackberry phones and so on instead of reading effectively their books. This has caused many students to lag behind in their academic career, because the time they would have used for intensive studies, is diverted to watch television and other unwanted acts associated with ICT.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to carry out an investigation of the influence of information communication technology on students’ academic performance in selected tertiary institutions in Lagos State.
Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are:
1. Determine whether there is a relationship between ICT utilization and students’ overall academic performance in schools.
2. Evaluate whether students’ perception of information communication technology differ from their teachers’.
3. Determine whether there is gender difference in the use of ICT among full-time students.
The following research questions were raised in this study:
1. Is there any relationship between information communication technology and students’ academic achievement?
2. Will the perception of students on information communication technology differ from that of their teachers?
3. Is there any gender difference in use of information communication technology among full-time students?
The undermentioned hypotheses would be tested in this study.
1. There will be no significant relationship between information communication technology and students’ learning behaviour.
2. There will be no significant relationship between information communication technology and students academic achievement.
3. There will be no significant difference between the perception of students on information communication technology from that of their teachers.
Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following:
Students will benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study because it will help them to be more aware of the information communication technology in the school. This study will enable students to get more involved in the utilization of information communication technology due to the benefits derivable from it.
Teachers will find this study beneficial because with the findings and recommendations of this study, teachers would avail themselves of the opportunity to get involved in the use of information communication technology because of the numerous benefits that can be derived from it.
Parents would benefit from this study because it will enable them to know the benefits their children/wards derive from using the information communication technology in their academic work or activities. Parents themselves, will avail themselves of the opportunity of knowing the importance of information communication technology through this study and those who do not use information communication technology would start to use it as it is beneficial to all human activities.
The School Authority will assist the school authority to be able to know more about information communication technology and its functions especially in the life of the full-time student. The recommendations of this study will enable the school authority to expand its policy on the availability and usage of information communication technology in the school system in Nigeria.
The society will benefit from this study, because it will assist the society to be information communication technology friendly due to the advantages it has. This study will afford the society to know more about information communication technology and its functions in the world today.
Scope of the Study
This study covers the investigation into full-time studentship and information communication technology utilization in selected institutions in Lagos State.
Definition of Terms
Operational terms were defined in this study thus:
Information technology – Information communication technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a micro-based combination of computing and telecommunication. It is the newest source of information students applied in solving their academic problems in the schools.
Utilization – This is the making use of information communication technology in solving academic problems by students in tertiary institutions in Lagos State.
Assessment – This refers to the act of assessing and valuing of information through the accessibility of materials derived from ICT.
Evaluation – With information communication technology, students and their teachers make important evaluation of the material derive from ICT.
Acquisition – This refers to the act of acquiring information necessary for academic work by students in the tertiary institutions.