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INSPECTORATE SERVICE OF EDUCATION UNIT AND QUALITY CONTROL IN EDUCATION DISTRICT VI OF LAGOS STATE
The study examined Inspectorate Service of Education Unit and Quality Control in Public Secondary Schools in Education District VI of Lagos State. The purpose of the study was to assess the extent to which Lagos State Educational Inspectorate has been effective in its role as an agent of quality control in secondary schools in Lagos State. Four research questions and four research hypotheses were postulated to guide the hypotheses investigation that followed. A structured questionnaire validated and found reliable was used for data collection. A sample of 300 respondents consisting of State Inspectors, Principals, Vice Principals, Teachers, Ministry of Education Officials and Students were used for the study. Data collected were analysed by using chi-square statistics. The result of the analysis revealed that (1) there was significant relationship between the effects of school supervision and academic performance of students. (2) There was significant relationship between the relevant strategies employed by the Inspectors and school system. (3) The roles of the principals have significant impact on the school supervision. (4) There was significant relationship between the Inspectors hindrance to schools supervision and quality assurance in schools. Based on the findings, the study recommended that various tiers of government should formulate clear policies on students enrolment, funding and provision of facilities as well as quality assurance. The study therefore concluded that teachers and Inspectors should be mandated to attend regular trainings, workshops and conferences to improve their supervision skills.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 5
Purpose of the Study 9
Research Questions 10
Research Hypotheses 10
Significance of the Study 11
Definition of Terms 11
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Meaning of Supervision and Quality control 16
Differences between Inspection and Supervision 24
Traditional Versus Present Day Supervision 26
The Basis for Supervision 28
Scope of Inspection 29
Norms for Inspection 31
Duties of the Inspectors of Education 34
Hindrances to Effective Inspection of Schools 41
Strategies for Improving Inspectors’ Performance 43
Summary of Review 51
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 53
Population of the Study 53
Sample and Sampling Technique 53
Research Instrument 54
Validity of the Instrument 54
Reliability of the Instrument 55
Procedure of Data Analysis 55
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Section A: Analysis of Background Information 56
Section B: Analysis Research Questions and Test of Hypotheses 60
Summary of Findings 64
Discussion of Findings 65
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Background to the Study
This study intends to investigates the extent to which Lagos State educational inspectorate has been effective in its role as an agent of quality control in Lagos State secondary schools. It also examines how efficient it is in the performance of its duties as a quality control factor in line with the provisions of the National Policy on Education (2004).
The purpose of inspection and supervision is to ensure that the standard of instruction is not compromised. This is what the inspectors refer to as quality assurance. Quality control (assurance) which exists in every field of life, considers the functionality of systems and procedures used to shape the inputs on one hand and measuring the standard of the output or product on the other hand.
In education administration, quality control is concerned with effective planning, control, tone, teaching aids, measurement, maintenance and improvement of education services rendered to the society Ejiogu (2004). The National Policy on Education (2004) stated that the objective of inspection/ supervision is to ensure quality control through regular inspection and continuous supervision of instruction and other educational services. Ogunnu (2000) noted that schools supervision is the art of overseeing the activities of teaching and non-teaching staff in a school system to ensure that they conform to generally accepted principles and practice of education as stipulated by the authority.
There have been various comments and articles on the strategies to arrest the falling standards of education in the country. Osiyale (2004) remarked that policy inconsistency and misplaced priorities of successive governments since independence have been identified as the basic problem of Nigeria’s educational system. Many Nigerians apportioned the blame on teachers, parents/ students, and education authorities. Parents blame teachers, teachers blame parents or students while education authorities are not left out in this act of bulk-passing.
Nwafuluku (2003) asserts that not only supervision but some other indices determine quality control in an educational enterprise, and these include the availability of workable policy, adequacy of modern teaching and learning models, adequate funding, continuous appraisal and upgrading of the educational programmes and personnel, availability of teaching staff, regular staff training and development programme. However, the immediate concern is to examine the extent to which the inspectorate unit of Lagos State Ministry of Education has been effective in discharging its role as the agent of quality control in Lagos State Secondary Schools.
The Lagos State Ministry of Education under the current civilian administration has a vision to provide qualitative and free education. Its mission is to provide citizens with good quality education in partnership with private sectors, parents, stakeholders, non-governmental organizations and competent Teachers in a conducive learning environment. The Lagos Government’s Policy thrust on Education Upholds;
· Construction of Millennium schools in the state,
· Refurbishment of school buildings, laboratories and Libraries,
· Provision of School furniture, tools, workshops, equipment,
· Provision of books, computers, instruction materials,
· Curriculum review, entrepreneurial and technical training,
· Teachers empowerment, welfare and enhancement programmes,
· Community Based Vocational Education,
· Eradication of Moral Decadence in schools,
· Operation Green and clean the Environment in schools, and
· Functional Scholarship schemes
The Lagos State Post Primary Teaching Service Law came into force on the 1st of March, 2005 though the bill was passed on June 7th 2005 by the Lagos State House of Assembly. It repealed the Lagos State Teaching Service Law (No 5 of 1989).The law which divided the state Ministry Of Education into six Education Districts has the following benefits:
1. It provides for the enhancement of the career of teachers in post primary teaching service in that they can rise to the level of permanent Secretary.
2. It ensures decentralized effective management of the post primary school systems; thus
a) Bringing administration closer to the teachers.
b) Making it easier to disseminate information faster to schools.
c) Treating Staff complaints more quickly
d) Aiding promotion interviews to be conducted fast with quick release of results
e) Bringing workers, students, and parents nearer to the government
f) Giving immediate attention to all documents and applications by the staff.
These breed healthy competitions among the Education Districts to enhance excellence in the performance of teachers and students.
The state law on Education of 1st March, 2005, also provided for five departments in each of the Education District offices as follows:
· Co-curricular, Science and Technology.
· Inspectorate [Quality Assurance]
· School Administration
The law also provided District standing committees thus:
· Funds Allocation and Management Committee.
· District Tenders Board Committee
· Community Relations Committee
· District Coordinating Committee
· Personnel Management Board [junior and Senior]
Below are the Education Districts at a glance as at January 2010
Local Government Areas Location
Alimosho, Agege and Ifako/Ijaye. Agege
Ikorodu, Shomolu and Kosofe Ikeja
Epe, Ibeju-Lekki, Etiosa and Lagos Island Ikoyi
Surulere, Mainland and Apapa Sabo-Yaba
Badagry, Ojo, Amuwo Odofin and Ajeromi Agboju
Ikeja, Mushin and Oshodi-Isolo Oshodi
Statement of the Problem
The following are the problems of the study:
1. Continuous decline in standard of education,
2. Increase in School Population,
3. Inadequate Number of Inspectors,
4. Inadequate Number of Instructional Aids,
5. Unavailability of text books,
6. Poor Classroom Condition,
7. Weak Student Attitude to Learning, and
8. Poor Environmental Factor.
Continuous decline in standard of education
There had been a public outcry on the continual decline in the standards of education in the country especially as indicated in public examination and the performance of education outputs that are inadequate for employment. For instance, in the year 2012 number of candidates that sat for the West African Senior School Certificate Examination [WASSCE] were 1,572,224 while number of candidates with five credits including English and Mathematics were 649,156 (38.81 percent) in the year 2014 number of candidates that sat for the West African Senior School Certificate Examination [WASSCE] were 1,692,435 while number of candidates with five credits including English and Mathematics were 529,425 (31.2 percent). Employers of labour also complain about low performance of graduates from the nations institutions of higher learning.
Increase in School Population
The Lagos State Government of Nigeria set up the Lagos State Inspectorate Service in 2009 partly as machinery for inspection of schools and maintenance of standards. Fagbamiye 2001, noted that when school population increased through various Free Education Programmes. There was also an increase in the school population from 1.9million students in secondary school in 2006to 2.9million in 2009 and about 3.5million in 2012.
Inadequate Number of Inspectors
He contended that the available number of inspectors even as at 2000 was inadequate for the number of schools with the result that some schools were not inspected once in two years. The Bagauda Seminar (2000), recommended one inspector to two hundred teachers. In view of the shortage of personnel in the Inspectorate Division of the ministries of Education (2007) stressed that inspectors of schools should be acquainted with their new roles as advisors, guides, catalysts and source of ideas to teachers in their instructional endeavors.
Unavailability of Textbooks
Filler (2010) noted that students who have used two or more books were almost three times better than those who have no textbooks in schools. Inadequate supply of textbooks in school is having a toll of teaching and learning activities in many schools. Its importance cannot be overemphasized since they are indispensable to quality education.
Mapederun (2010) also emphasized that the availability and adequacy of textbooks affect the academic performance positively. Effective teaching and learning depends on the availability of suitable adequate resources such as books. Goal attainment in any school depends on adequate supply and utilization of educational resources which enhance proper teaching and learning process with in a conducive environment.
Poor Classroom Conditions
Students in school building in poor condition had achievement that was 6% below schools in fair conditions and 11% below schools in excellent condition. (Edwards 2012)
Poor classroom conditions can encroach upon the teachers sense of personal safety. Student learning is influenced most directly by classroom conditions.
Weak student Attitude to Learning
Without positive attitude and perceptions, students have little chance of learning proficiently. The concept of attitude includes ways of feeling, thinking and behaving and maintaining an expression of one’s identity within the environment.
Poor Environmental Factor
Decaying environmental conditions such as peeling paint, crumbling plaster, non-functioning toilet, poor lighting, inadequate ventilation and imperative heating and cooling systems can affect the learning as well as the health and the morale of staff and student.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of study is to examine and determine the extent to which the Lagos State Inspectorate Service has justified its being setup as an agent of quality control in Lagos State Secondary Schools. This study is to find out the role of the inspectors of education as agents of quality assurance in Lagos State and also evaluate their work in the light of the policy objectives for which they are setup. Specifically, it seeks to identify the knowledge of inspectors on their duties and strategies for improvement.
The study will also highlight the problems facing the inspectors of education as quality assurance agents and discusses ways of solving these problems with a view to improve the quality of education in Lagos State.
The study seeks to achieve the following objectives:
· Identify the job contents and responsibilities of Lagos State Inspectors of education as agents of quality control.
· Assess the contribution to the quality control of education in secondary schools
· Determine how effective the inspectors are in evaluating the school, administration according to the policy of education.
· Determine the extent to which the Lagos State inspectors perform their roles to achieve the goals of the inspectorate.
· What are the effects of school supervision on academic performance of students?
· Do inspectors employ relevant strategies in evaluating school system?
· What are the roles of the school principals in school supervision?
· What are the hindrances to quality assurance in schools?
· There is no significant relationship between the effects of school supervision and academic performance of students.
· There is no significant relationship between the relevant strategies employed by inspectors and school system.
· There is no significant relationship between the roles of the school principal and school supervision.
· There is no significant relationship between the inspectors’ hindrances to schools supervision and quality assurance in schools.
Significance of the Study
The result of the study will be of benefit to educational policy makers, teachers, supervisors, inspectors and administrators of schools who can use the findings of this study as a basis for in-service training programme for modifying and improving the quality of Nigerian secondary schools teaching delivery.
In addition, the study will be eye-opener to inspectors in all the states of the Federation, Lagos State being the sample of study at the state level. The study will make inspectors to realize the roles that are expected of them by virtue of the position they hold.
Lastly, researchers in the field of educational administration and measurement could use the finding of this research as a basis for research.
Definition of Terms
This is the state ministry of education machinery for inspection of schools and maintenance of standards. It was set up in 1973.
Quality control is all processes employed by the inspectorate division of the ministry to ensure a certain level of quality in service delivery. It includes whatever actions that the inspectorate deems necessary to provide for the control and verification of certain characteristics of a teaching service delivery.
National Policy on Education
According to the relevant provisions of the National policy, the purpose of the inspectorate is to supervise school systems to ensure that the standard factor in line with the provisions of the Policy on Educational instruction is not compromised.
This considers the functionality of systems and procedures used to shape the inputs on one hand and measuring the standard of the output or products on the other hand
This is management of educational programme. Educational programme refers to what the school is teaching and what the students are learning within and outside the school environment.
This is an activity of visiting, examining and accessing a place of learning so as to offer professional advice for the purpose of improvement.
In many countries of the world, there is an inward look at the performance of their educational system because of the critical role education plays in economic and social growth. Many times, it has been seen that limitations in terms of growth and global competitiveness are being propelled by the operations and output of the educational system and this has been traced to the quality of teaching and learning in schools. It has been observed that teaching and learning have declined due to ineffective and inefficient monitoring and evaluation of the system among other factors. Formally, the main objectives of inspections were based on two focal points, namely:
· To ensure that schools are accountable (usually to their proprietors and to a certain degree the general public); and
· To give support to teachers for greater improvement in their pedagogical skills.
In practice, the responsibility of monitoring and evaluation of schools was seen as that of people outside the school, and quite often limited to inspectors alone. However, it has been realized that monitoring and evaluation cannot be left to external agents alone no matter how frequent these evaluations are done. The opinion of other stakeholders–teachers, pupils and parents are relevant. Moreover, the top down approach to the formulation and application of inspection policies tended to create friction between evaluators and teachers. This makes schools receive the helplessness. In addition, the general clamour for an improvement in the quality and standard of education can no longer be ignored.
According to Act 16 of 2005, Quality Standards in Education have been the responsibility of the Minister of Education which he executes through the Federal and State Inspectorate Service. The Federal Inspectorate Services (FIS) carry out her functions through various forms of inspections of schools below tertiary level. It also provides national guidelines for inspection, accreditation of schools and supports states to develop their own inspectorate services.
The deficiencies and weaknesses which have been found to be a clog in the wheel of the inspectorate service elsewhere are presently quite evident in Nigeria as well. For example, it has been observed that there are no uniform standard expression guidelines for formal and non-formal institutions nationwide. All along, different states and Federal Inspectorate Services have been using different instruments for school inspection leading to incongruence in inspection and lack of uniformity in inspection reports.
In an attempt to improve the system of inspection, it borrowed from the United Kingdom. Nigeria became confronted with the challenges of various inspectorate innovations in countries like Thailand, China, South Africa and the United Kingdom itself. One of the main features of the innovations include greater devolution of monitoring activities to the school level as a means of achieving greater accountability, transparency and an increased sense of ownership.
These innovations in inspectorate activities go under terminologies such as Whole School Evaluation which involves School Self-Evaluation and External Evaluation. The system aims to insure quality in teaching and learning. The aim is to produce a good or an effective school, which knows what its standard should be, asks itself whether it attains them and who also motivates the pupils, staff, parents, the community and the proprietor to synergise them in reaching the goals.