LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND EFFICIENCY OF TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


Content

ABSTRACT

This study examined learning environment and efficiency of teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. The objectives were to investigate the extent to which learning environment affect the efficiency of teachers. Data were sourced through questionnaire administered to the sample size. 10 secondary schools were selected from 58 secondary schools in the Local Government Area. Two hundred and fifty (250) respondents were selected from 58 secondary schools in the Local Government Area using random sampling technique. Simple percentages and Chi-Square method with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) were used as data analysis techniques. Findings revealed that computerized learning environment, adequacy of instructional material, student-teachers ratio, learning policies and teacher’s welfare have positive and significant impact on the efficiency of teachers in the secondary schools, this findings confirm the expectation of the results. Based on this, the study recommends that stakeholders in the academic environment should make policies that will enhance the learning environment for greater teacher’s efficiency in secondary schools. the Federal, State, Local governments and private school owners should ensure that the school environment be made Computerize and Information and Communication Technology driven environment to enhance the performance of teachers, student and increase teachers efficiency; provision of instructional materials should be integrated in the annual education policies of the government to avoid lack of instructional material that will affect negatively teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools; learning policies should be integrated with the teachers teaching objectives and teachers should be consulted to make input that will enhance of efficiency, performance of teachers and students; there is need to examine the teachers-students ratio and employee more competent teachers to reduce teachers-student ratio for better performance and increase efficiency of the teachers and teachers welfare should be considered paramount and existing policies should be overhauled to remove demotivating factors to enhance teachers’ performance in the secondary schools.

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGES

Title page                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                          iv

Abstract                                                                                                       v

Table of Contents                                                                                         vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                                                              1

Statement of the Problem                                                                    4

Purpose of the Study                                                                                    5

Research Questions                                                                                     6

Research Hypotheses                                                                                  6

Significance of the Study                                                                              7

Scope of the Study                                                                             7

Limitation of the Study                                                                                  8

Definition of Terms                                                                             8                                                       

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction                                                                                                  10

Transformative Learning Theory                                                                   10

Motivational Theories: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory                            12

Motivational Strategies                                                                                 19

Teachers Motivation and its Challenges                                                        25

Measures of Teacher efficiency                                                                    27

Learning Environment in Secondary Schools                                       29

Textbooks and teachers efficiency                                                                31

Characteristics of Poor Learning Environment                                               39

Possible Ways of Creating an Enabling Environment to Achieve                    44

Effective and Efficient     

Summary of Literature Review                                                                      47

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design                                                                                        48

Population                                                                                                  48

Sample and sampling Technique                                                                 48

Instrumentation                                                                                            49

Validity and Reliability of Instrument                                                             50

Data Collection Procedure                                                                           50

Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                        50

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

Introduction                                                                                                  51

Data Presentation Based on Research Questions                                          51

Test of Hypotheses                                                                                      57

Summary of Findings                                                                                   60

Discussion of Findings                                                                                 61

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of the Study                                                                                  64

Conclusion                                                                                                   65

Recommendations                                                                              66

Suggestion for further Study                                                                         67

References                                                                                                  68

Appendix                                                                                                     74

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Learning environment is an integral component of the learning process. An environment where teaching and learning takes place is an important educational factor that needs to be considered by the stakeholder (Aregbeyen, 2011). The environment needs adequate attention in the area of infrastructural facilities and made conducive for learning purposes in order to achieve the set goals.  Teachers’ efficiency important if the objectives of education is to be achieved, it is a measure that determine the performance of students. It can be measured in increase performance of the teachers. Teachers’ efficiency is linear function of the operating environment, such as computerized environment, adequacy of instructional material, teacher-students ratio in the class, learning policies and teachers’ welfare. Computerized environment is required modern environment as it simplifies the teaching processes. It involves the use of modern information and communication facilities that substitute the traditional chalk-board methods.

Adequacy of instructional material such as books is required in increasing teachers’ efficiency. Teacher-students ratio refers to the number of students per teacher in the class. Teachers’ welfare serves as a motivational factor to teachers. It includes adequate payment of teachers’ salary and other fringe benefits.

Government at all levels has the functions of providing adequate learning environment that will motivate teaching and learning. The learning environment has been identified as potent factors to qualitative education and the realization of education policies. Adequate learning environment facilitates the teaching process, enhance teaching efficiency and simplify transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners (Yara & Otiero 2010). Conceptually learning environment comprises internal and external factors that affect the learning and the teaching process in an educational setting. It refers to internal facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome, this include books, audio-visual or computer learning environment, size of classroom, teachers student ratio, sitting position and arrangement and other instructional materials (Franrant, 1991 and Farombi, 1998) and the external environment such as teachers welfare, education policies, and other motivational strategies for teachers.

Teachers efficiency can be affected by three levels of stimulant within the teaching environment, these are motivation considers to be teachers factor, the external and the internal environment. Teachers stand-out as key to realizing the high standard that are increasing emphasized in schools and school system across countries (Rice, 2003). There is a general agreement about the importance of teacher’s efficiency and the teaching process among scholars, practioners and policy makers. Teachers’ efficiency matters a lot because teachers’ knowledge and skills are the most vital in school factors influencing childrens learning (Heigh and Mead, 2005). The importance of providing adequate learning environment cannot be over emphasized. Availability and adequacy of learning resources promotes the effectiveness of school as these are basic things that can trigger good academic performance in the students (Orie, 1992). Oni (1992) opined that learning environment constitute a strategic factor in teaching process. This is because the environment determines to a very large extent the smooth functioning of the education system and influence efficiency and high productivity (Idialu, 2014).

Theoretically, various models have been formulated to examine factor that motivate efficiency, for instance, the Mashow Herachy of  needs theory, the Expectancy Theory, the Equity Theory, Goal Setting Theory, Reinforcement Theory and the Hygienic Theory. While these theories are appealing and interesting, it does not provide significant results once their empirical prediction are applied in real life event especially in the developing countries like Nigeria. For instance empirical evidence has shown that monetary reward does not motivate for greater efficiency. Evidence has also shown that learning environment in the developing countries like Nigeria is characterised with demotivating factors that can affect negatively the teachers efficiency, for instance most secondary schools lack adequate instructional materials and the state of the art learning environment. This implies that adequate learning environment may not lead to teachers’ efficiency.

Statement of the Problem

An examination of the learning environment in the developing counties like Nigeria revealed that the environment is demotivating to teachers’ efficiency than motivating. For instance significant proportion of the public secondary schools has poor infrastructural facilities. There is inadequate supply of teaching aids such as books and other instructional materials while the existing onces are obsecelence. Teachers – Students’ ratio is very high. The application of modern facilities such as computer is lacking and the teaching profession is relegated to the lowest as teachers are poorly paid compared with other professions. Less than 10% of the annual budget is allocated to the education sector at all level of government. The consequences of inefficiencies of teachers are the poor performance of students in external examinations such as West African Examination Council (WAEC), National Examinations Council (NECO) and others. The continuous existence of the above problems cast doubt on the achievement of government education policies and education master plans in Rivers State.

Despite the numerous literatures on the factors the motivate teachers performance, the relationship between the various components of the learning environment and teachers efficiency is lacking. Similar studies such as Farombi, (1998), Owoeye & Yata, (2011) examined teachers’ motivations and students’ performance. This study does not capture other environmental factors that can influence teachers’ performance. Therefore, this study will contribute to knowledge in the following ways: first, it will reveal how motivation affect teachers efficiency, second, it will reveal how internal environmental factors such as books, instructional materials and other infrastructural facilities impact on teachers efficiency, third the external environments such as education polices affect teachers efficiency and fourth it will contribute to the existing body of knowledge.

 

Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to examine learning environment and teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor while the specific objectives are:

1.       To examine the relationship between computerized learning environment and teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State.

2.       To determine the extent to which adequacy of instructional materials affect teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State.

3.       To examine the effect of Teacher-students’ ratio on Teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State.

5.       To examine the impact of teachers’ welfare on the efficiency of teachers in secondary s1fchools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State.

Research Questions

From the above objectives, the following research questions are formulated:

1.       What is the relationship between computerized learning environment and teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State?

2.       To what extent does adequacy of instructional materials affect teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State?

3.       To what extent does Teacher-students’ ratio affect Teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State?

5.       What is the impact of teachers’ welfare on the efficiency of teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State?

Research Hypotheses

From the above research questions, the following null hypotheses are formulated:

H01:    Computerized learning environment has no significant affect on teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State.

H02:    Adequacy of instructional materials has no significant affect on teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State.

H03:    Teacher-students’ ratio has no significant affect on teachers’ efficiency in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State.

H05:    Teachers’ welfare has no significant affect on efficiency of teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State.

 

Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to the following:

Policy Makers: To the policy makers, this study will be significant in making and implementing policies within the educational programmes in Nigeria.

Education Facilitators:  This study will enhance the performance of education facilitators in Nigeria as the study will serve as a reference point in policy making concerning the basic teachers role and teaching process.

General Public:    The study will serve as a measure to access the effectiveness and efficiency of Nigerian education system and the policy framework by the general public and arrive at a definite conclusion on the on-going debate concerning the educational policies in Nigeria and the achievements.

Academicians:     It will serve as a reference point for further studies and contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the factors that can affect teaches efficiency in the teaching process.

Scope of the Study

The general scope of covers the learning environments and teachers’ efficiency, the geographical scope is Obi/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, while the unit of analysis comprises all the secondary schoools in the Local Government Area.

Limitation of the Study

In the process of the study, the researcher faces the following limitations:

1.    Time:  The time within which the research is to be completed is short compared with the long term which study such as this require.

2.    Competing other Academic Activities:        The research goes with other academic activities which sometimes conflict together.

3.    Finance:       Research such as this requires fund to finance the process, the fund within the disposal of the researcher is short.

4.    Availability of Data:  The data required in this study is lacking as accessing such information from the relevant respondents.

 

Definition of Terms

Budget: This is an important concept in microeconomics, which uses a budget line to illustrate the trade-offs between two or more goods. In other terms, a budget is an organizational plan stated in monetary terms.

Learning:    It is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves. Learning is not compulsory; it is contextual. It does not happen all at once, but builds upon and is shaped by previous knowledge. To that end, learning may be viewed as a process, rather than a collection of factual and procedural knowledge. Learning produces changes in the organism and the changes produced are relatively permanent.

Policy: It is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by the Board of or senior governance body within an organization whereas procedures or protocols would be developed and adopted by senior executive officers.

Teachers’ efficiency: Teacher Efficiency is the extent to which the teacher believes he or she has the capacity to affect student performance.

Teacher: Teacher is one who teaches (especially with young ones), builds up, instructs, trains and guides them for healthy growth and stable adult life. The teacher is also someone who instructs others or provides activities, materials and guidance that facilitate learning in either formal or informal situations.

Teachers’ Motivation:    Motivation is a complex socially learned pattern of behaviour involving situations, needs, desires, mechanisms and results. It embraces all factors in an employee’s development to accomplish personal as well as organizational goals.


 

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