This deals with Local government as an instrument of development. This is important because Local Government is closer to the people. And its financial capability will enhance development in Nigeria.


The data collection from both primary and secondary sources through the use of questionnaires and library materials.


The findings discover that, the development of Shomolu Local Government is hindered by workers attitude.


It is therefore recommended that motivation of workers will enable them to put in their best and there should be proper funding of the Local Government with this the local government will be able to deliver service to the people.





1.0     Background of Study

1.1     Introduction

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Objective of the Study

1.4     Hypotheses

1.5     Scope and Limitation of the Study

1.6     Significance of the study

1.7     Definition terms

1.8     Organization of Work



2.1     Literature Review

2.2     Concept of Local government

2.3     Functions of local government

2.4     Local Government Justification

2.5     Concept Development

2.6     Local Government as an Instrument Development

2.7     Causes of Underdevelopment at an Instrument Level

2.8     Way with which local government can improve in an

          Instrument development

2.9     Theoretical Framework



3.0     Research methodology

3.1     Introduction

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Instrument

3.4     Sample and Sampling Procedure

3.5     Population of the study

3.6     Sample size of the study

3.7     Method of Distribution

3.8     Sources of data collection

3.9     Method of Data Presentation



4.0     Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1     Part one section: Personal Data of Respondents

4.2     Part Two: Hypotheses Testing



5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation


          Appendix (Questionnaires)












The essence of government at any level is to ensure the upliftment of the human condition through the people's participation in the "determination of the decision which affect their lives at all levels and at all times". And this virtue is enhanced by the presence of democracy in any system, which enables the people to liberate their energies through the freedom and liberty they enjoy under such system. However, the ability of any society to achieve these goals depends in the final analysis on the extent to which both her leaders and followers are prepared to make structures and instructions put in place for good governance work. And this has been the major challenge facing an instrument development government in Nigeria.


To be sure, Local Government Administration IS the oldest system of government in Nigeria, and it predates colonialism. Indeed, prior to the coming of the Europeans, Local Administration existed in various communities across Nigeria Dr. Akhakpe Ighodalo a Nigeria attempt at defining the concepts, Local government, democracy, and development has always been a hard task because these concepts according to him, belong to the contested category, however, a sketch of some definitions of these concepts could be helpful.  According to him, Local government can be referred to as that level of government closest to the instrument that provides for the needs of the people at this level. And according Bello Imam, local government is "that unit of administration with defined territory and powers, as well as administrative authority with relative autonomy" and this unit of administration could be elective or appointive.


Infact another definition sees Local government as that sub­structure upon which the super-structure of state and federal government are erected. Local Government Lacks a Universally accepted definition, and what we have is plathoral of it, meanwhile United Nation of Public Administration which defines Local Government as a political sub-division of a national or state, which is constituted by Law and has substantial control of Local affair including the power to impose taxes or to erect labour for prescribe purpose.


Oyewole who in Nigeria describe Local Government thus government at the Local level exercise through representative council established to law also exercise specific power within definited areas. And in 1910, in the views of Dave and Oyewole is a system of government to perform Local functions. And the activities of Local Government and the government in general is increasing to meet the endless challenges of our time i.e., the delivering of social services to the people at the instrument level, and also transforming the rural areas. These definitions are in line with a unique model of federal where Local Government is conceived of, as a third-tier of government with constitutional responsibilities. And what this suggests to us is that under this system of government administration is assumed to be relatively autonomous of the other two tiers of government i.e. that's State and Federal.


Thus autonomy within a federal system that Nigeria operates. It is an autonomy which requires not just the legal and physical existence of an operations of government like a legislative assembly, governor, courts, so each government must exist not as an appendage of another government in, as autonomous entity in the sense of being able to exercise its own will in the conduct of its affairs free from directions of another government.


In past years it was Sir Goldie, who laid down the guidelines for indirect rule in 1886, and observed that Nigerians would rather be misgoverned by their own government or leaders than been governed by the British officials. And according to Goldie, it is obvious that traditional authorities in the colonies should be recognized and the metropolitan power should seek to rule through these traditional authorities in accordance with their social and political institutions".


Orewa and Adewunmi, 1983; and also Lugard reckoned that if the people were given some degree of local autonomy, they would be contented and remain peaceful and loyal to the colonial government by then, and following the amalgamation of Northern and southern protectorates in 1914.


Local government started having problems after independence in 1960, which was with the politicians especially in the South where Local Government Councils officials were victimized and their councils dissolved. And under Alhaji Ladoke Akintola (Edosa 1994: 64), The coming of the military in 1966 also brought new Sole administrators that were appointed the local government councils. And the military also adopted, local administration in place of local government. And to refer-back in the views of Dare and Oyewole in their own system is to perform local functions and also transforming the rural areas, examples; Education, Electricity, water supply, re­construction of lapidated building, road networking, Hospitals and civic, centers empowering the youths, small scale industries for creating jobs opportunities, and also uplifting social awareness'.


In these definitions are no means exhausting, however put in together, local government at the local level, government at the instrument, and according to Abraham lincon, is government by the people to the people at the local level. Local government is government that is closer to the people at their various localities, and it is also a subordinate administrative system, by which the affairs of a country or station are managed. And local government is embodied in a defined territory and at, it's own is a separate entity on its legal district. Local government is such an instrument.


Ø It is a tool for development at different locality.

Ø It is also a tool for mass mobilization and political participation at sub-division level.

Ø It is not complete autonomous but enjoy the level of autonomy.

Ø It can formulate policy and implement such within the ambit of law

Ø It has liberty to raise funds or generate its own revenue .

Ø It should have a governor body whose leadership and membership should be elected.

Ø And above all, it is an instrument for rural and national development.



It has been argued in recent times that there have been consistent inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the area of administration, in the area of administration in the Nigeria local government due to the following.


The Nigeria State and its local government has for a long time been groping in the dark, politically directionless, economically huge but hopelessly managed. Humanly endowed but devastatingly impoverished. We are not getting our politics right both in State, Federal and local level. They are serving as checks on the excesses-cum-ignorance of the politicians, rather, they constellate to form rackets that jointly banquet on public resources, and it is on this note that they study concluded that except something drastic is done to restructure the local government system.


Lack of professional personnel in the running of local government have encourage inefficiency and low result as regards in an instrument development. Inadequate motivational factors have greatly contributed to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of all roles performed by local government officials to enhance socio-economic development. Unavailability of modern equipment in our different local government have made it impossible to carry out some essential services that needs urgent implementation and responses. Local government are faced with inadequate financial support from the central government, public and private sector in the country.


Meanwhile, the size and structure of local government in Nigeria is recognized as a factor responsible for ineffective and inefficient service. The system of operation in the Nigeria local government system encourages red-tapism as a means of decision-making, crating unnecessary delay in policy formulation and crating avenue for diversion of public funds into personal pockets, and the poverty level in the country also provides a leeway for the executive to induce corruption in both local government, state government even to federal but still no way. So lack of proper political education background is also responsible for lack of development at the instrument level. Obviously, corruption in its entirety is also another hindrance to development.



The objectives of this study is to examine and determine the various ways in which local government affect the development at the local level, with Nigeria tortuous democratic transition to the fourth republic-on-May - 29, 1999 hopes are high once again about the possibility of the sustenance of democratic values in the country.


One of the fundamental goals of any level of government is to make "possible the full moral and human development of the individual, and it is when this is achieved that government can demand loyalty from the people, who in turn can invest it with right and legitimacy to carry on its policies, programmes and projects. Using Shomolu local governments as research case study; At the heart of this intrigue lies the issue of autonomy for local government as Oyediran and Gboyega note; what really makes a system local administration rather than local government is the degree of independence and autonomous powers that functional bodies operating it enjoy.


However this study will also examine the issue of inefficiency and lack of professionalism in the local government system and also suggest ways of improving these shortcomings to constitutional guarantee of the functions and responsibilities of the tiers of government has been ensured for local government and also to avoid a continuous prolong case of these issues in other to encourage more participation of individuals and groups towards development.



The hypotheses formulated for this research is as follow:

i.       There has not been development because of the attitude of workers towards local government activities.

ii.      Workers that are appropriately rewarded are likely to perform more effectively towards the instrument development.

iii.     Federal government policies for local councils tends to determine the level of development at the instrument level.

iv.     Standards were set for the creation of local government across the country such as how to elect officer, into local councils, it specified their functions and defined their sources of finance.

v.      All these were given constitutional backing in the fourth schedule, and this reform took place under the Mohammed/Obasanjo administration.



The scope of this study is centered on local governments particularly Shomolu Local government on the enabling fundamental contribution made towards, instruments development and their roles in nation building and also its effect on the common people.


While the limitation of the study is properly and systematically conducted, and it is native to believe that this study has no shortcomings. Thus the limitation of this study is as follows:


i.       Lack of Data: This is as a result of the unwillingness of personnels to freely and adequately inform about the topic.

ii.      Financial constraint is another unavoidable factor faced during the course of this research as funds is needed to visit the different local government which is distance far from each other and to libraries in the quest for more research materials.


Shomolu local government thereby making research limited to few information which is due to lack of proper organizational structure.



This significance of this study is to determine in all aspects the impact of local government and governance as instrument development with respect to Shomolu local government and will also be useful to other government agencies, ministries, state government and sub-government departments.


Furthermore, this study will be useful in assisting the local government in the development of the grassroot or instrument section which is their major priority and equal merge policy formulation to implementation and also directing the minds of local officials on good policy formulation that will enhance local government as an instrument development.


So in most cases, this research is very much useful to the researcher in areas of knowledge broadening and also to other researchers.



Red-tapism- this is a system of operation where procedures are used before arriving at a logical decision, however, scholars regards it as bureaucratic.


Statutory Allocation: This is the annual allocation of resources due to local government by the "federal government from the federal account, which is used for the development and management of local authorities.

Ordinance: Laws in a town or country which states that a particular things is not allowed or at times limited to certain extent.

Integration: Joining the life and customs of a group of people or society.

Grant: This is also known as financial assistance of the local government to carry out some basic projects and are made available by the state government and at times from private organization existing in the same locality.

By - Law: A law passed by the local government in order to ensure and maintain law and order, within the locality. And these also empowered to punish anyone who contradicts or breaches these laws.

Instrument: This refers to the ordinary citizen or put differently the common man in the society.

Development: Thought instrument development has different definitions, it is defined for the purposes of this research as a transformation of environment or people's lives from a situation considered unpleasant to a pleasant situation.



This project work will consist of five chapters.

Chapter One

1.1    Introduction: Background to the study

1.2    Statement of the problem

1.3    Objectives of the study

1.4    Research hypothesis

1.5    Scope and limitation of the study

1.6    Significance of study

1.7    Definitions of concept.

1.8    Organization of work

Chapter Two: This chapter contains the literature review and the theoretical framework.

Chapter Three: This chapter-contains research methodology.

Chapter Four: Introduction of Analysis of data.

Chapter Five: Summary, conclusion, and recommendations.


Order Complete Project