MOTIVATION IN BUSINESS ORGANISATION (A Case Study of Sona Breweries Limited Sango Otta)


Content

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                     

Certification                                                                                  i

Dedication                                                                                    ii

Declaration                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgement                                                                        iv

Table of Contents                                                                         v

 

Chapter One                                                                 

1.0     Introduction                                                                       1

1.1     Aims and Objectives                                                          4

1.2     Purpose of the Study                                                         5

1.3     Limitation of Study                                                             6

1.4     Formation of Hypothesis                                                   6

1.5     History of Sona Breweries                                                 7

1.6     Organisational Structure of Sona Breweries                   10

1.7    Organisational Structure of Sona Breweries Limited,    

Sango Otta                                                                          12

 

Chapter Two

2.0     Theories of Motivation                                                       14

2.1     McGregor Douglas Theory X and Y                                  16

2.2     Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs of Theory              20

2.3     Hierarchy of Needs                                                            21

2.4    Diagrammatic Representation of the Hierarchy of

        Needs in an Ascending order (Abraham Maslow Theory)   22

 

Chapter Three

3.0       Approaches and Techniques of Measuring Motivation    23

3.1     Basic Needs                                                                        24

3.2     Wages and Salary                                                               24

3.3     Job Security                                                                       25

3.4     Higher Needs                                                                      26

3.5     Promotion                                                                           26

3.6     Setting objective and Appraisal                                         27

3.7     Increased Responsibility                                                   28

3.8     Authority and Accountability                                            29

3.9     Understanding the Subordinate Goals                             29

3.10  Money                                                                                 30

3.11  Research Methodology                                                       30

3.12  Restatement of the Research Questions/Hypothesis      31

3.13  Research Design                                                                32

3.14  Study Population                                                               32

3.15  Sample and Sampling Procedures                                    33

3.16  Sample Design                                                                   33

3.17  Type and Source of Data                                                   33

3.18  Research Instrument                                                         34

3.19  Statistical Method of Data Analysis                                  34

3.20  Validity                                                                                35

 

Chapter Four

Presentation and Analysis of Data                                              36

4.0     Introduction                                                                       36

4.1     Personal Observation                                                        36

4.2     Observation Tabulation of Data                                        37

4.3     Interpretation of Data                                                        41

4.4     Data Analysis                                                                     46

 

Chapter Five

5.0     Summary                                                                            47

5.1     Recommendation                                                               48

5.2     Conclusion                                                                         51

          Bibliography                                                                       53

          Appendix

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0   INTRODUCTION

The management of every organisation has specific function to perform for the smooth running of the organisation. These functions include forecasting, planning, organizing, controlling, communicating and leadership.  

 

Before taking a look at “motivation” I will briefly explain the other functions of management:

Forecasting: Involves estimating and considering alternative courses of action when the most appropriate set of forecast has been found, these form the bases for the plans to be carried out and are incorporated into budgets.

Planning: Is the process of setting goals and objectives for an organisation and determining how to achieve such goals and objectives. It is an anticipating decision in designing an environment for effective performance of individuals working together in groups.

Organizing: Is that function of management that involves establishing roles for people to fill in an organisation. It is establishing roles and responsibilities for people in an organisation. 

Coordinating: Is the essence of management for the achievement of harmony of individual’s efforts towards the accomplishment of group goals. Each of the managerial function is an exercise contributing to coordination in organisation; it is possible for one or more individuals to pursue certain objective which are at variance with the corporate objectives.

Controlling: Planning and control are basic to the attainment of organisational objectives within a given environment. While planning us a rational approach to pre-selected objectives as stated above, control is the measurement and correction of performance of activities in order to ensure that enterprise objectives and the plans devised to attain them are being accomplished.

Communication: Is the process of transmitting of instruction and information to all interested parties that is the employee, customer, suppliers, shareholders and the general public pears, anxieties mistrust and other enemies of efficient management can all arise from lack of knowledge or a misunderstanding of information that has been given.

Leadership: Is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in their efforts towards the accomplishment of goals and objectives of the organisation. A person is said to be a leader when he is able to inspire others to work willingly towards the achievement application of this personal capabilities and equalities.

Motivation: Is the drilling force within an individual that impress him or her to act in specified way without any form of coercion. It can also be describe as how behaviour gets started, is organised, sustained, directed and stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organisation while all this is going on.

 

This definition points at the things:

1.      Motivation is a process and this means that it is possible to identify at a point in time during which an individuals is motivated or not.

2.      There is a subjective reaction which is present in and underline the behaviour of a motivated individuals. Motivation is therefore the force that organizes, energizes, directs maintains and sustain behaviour towards a given goals in an environment.

 

1.1   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aims and objects of this project is to show the significance of motivation in any organisation setting. Without motivation in any organisation, that organisation will not be able to achieve his goals and objective, reasons are:

1.      To meet pre-determined objectives in any organisations co-operation that exist among workers and subordinate or this can only be achieve through motivation.

2.      Increase production, efficiency and effectively.

The aim and objective is to let management know the importance of motivation if business is to succeed.

 

1.2   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study will attempt to find out how motivation as one of management functions will enhance the effective growth in any organisation. Sona Breweries limited was established in the year 1980 but started production in the year 1982. The factory is located at Sango Otta, started with an installed capability of 600,000 hectares of beer per annum and kept full capacity production. The administrative Head Office is at Plot 85, Akanbi Onitiri close, off Eric Moore Road, Iganmu Industrial Estate, Lagos. It is a Joint Venture between the French Group B.S.N.N a leading Agro-Allied Industry in France and in laks group of companies, both with 4% equity share holding and Nigeria with 60% shareholding. This research work will enable us to look into how the management of Sona Breweries Limited been able to make use of motivation effectively that has improve the success of the organisation.

 

1.3   LIMITATION OF STUDY

It must be pointed out at this point that despite the great example the researcher has in this topic resulting from his belief in great importance of motivation as a tool for enhancing productivity in an organisation, the research study could still not be regarded as been perfect. This is as a result of problems faced during the course of the study. It is obvious that motivation plays a very vital role in the success of an organisation.

 

1.4   FORMATION OF HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis is an assumption, a tentative or conjectural statement about the value of parameter or an observed fact of a distribution or population under consideration. In testing the truth or otherwise of the hypothesis, it enables the researcher to make valid conclusions either to accept or reject the assumptions.

Null Hypothesis H0: Motivation has a significant effect on the growth or success of an organisation.

Alternative Hypothesis HA: Motivation has no significance effect on the growth or success of an organisation.

 

1.5   HISTORY OF SONA BREWERIES

“There is no man that can proclaim full originality without following the history of his birth. Therefore all men must definitely remember their day of birth”

 

Sona Breweries limited was established in the yea 1980 but started production in the year 1982. The factory is located at Sango Otta, started with an installed capability of 600,000 hectares of bear per annun and have kept full capacity production. The administrative head, office is at plot 88, Akanbi Onitiri Close, off Eric Moore Road, Iganmu Industrial Estate, Lagos. It is a joint venture between the French group B.S.N.N a leading Agro-Allied industry in France and Inlaks Group of Companies, both with 40% equity share holding and Nigeria with 60% shareholding. The investment has plant, building machines and working capacity in tune of N35 million the breweries labour force is about four hundred and fifty (450) Nigeria of which ninety seven (97) are in managerial and supervisory position. The company is into training and development programme especially for junior staffs to assume more responsible positions. The Brewery being relatively new before commencement of production sent batch of trainee to the technical partners for raining in brewery and bottling technology.

 

Due to lack of import license, the brewery have not been able to complete plans to double production capacity up to 1,200,000 hectares per annum.

 

Nevertheless, the brewery could be able to reach capacity of 850,000 hectares with the same equipment by landing new products. These new products are made of fifty percent (50%) local raw materials according to the Federal Government directives.

 

The first of these new products is MALTONIC. It is a non alcoholic drink and its acceptability in the market is very encouraging. Also Gold special and Gold export have been introduced into the market.

 

Since the inception of the company in February 1982, the company financial contribution to both the Federal and State Revenue cannot be overemphasized, it has been pumping in about N23,000,000 per annum into the Federal and State governments (offers, this amount is made up to taxes (including personal and with holding taxes) exercise duty etc. Its general contribution towards the national economy recovery fund is very significant. Over the yeas, the company has made tremendous progress in the area of research and development to ensure continued high quality of its Gold Bear. The high quality of Gold Beer today at test to the fact that the company has a good management, maintains good quality, tireless researchers and development programmes, as well as vigorous advertising and marketing policy which has helped its brand to achieve a national reckoning. In compliance with the Federal Government directive on local sources of raw materials, the company has acquired a total of 6,000 hectares of land at Abogbutu in Edo for the cultivation of rice and maize. This mechanized form which is under the supervision of experts, has over one hundred and seventy permanent staff and over 300 casual workers at the moment.

 

Besides these, the company has been actively involved in the sponsorship of sporting invent over the years raging from Gold, Watch Tennis and the National Challenge Cup soccer Competition.

All these and are things and more are things that Sona Breweries contributed to Nigerian’s economy and man power development as well as the general well being of Nigeria.

 

1.6   ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF SONA BREWERIES

Organisation structure is a visual device that shows the various departments and how they related to one another. The organisation structure helps the employees, the board of directors and shareholders to see at a glance the division of responsibility line of authority in an organization.

At Sona Breweries, there is the Board of Directors elected by the shareholders, they make policies which the managing directors is responsible for executing with the management and he reports back to the board. Under the Managing Director, there is the factory Manager, Financial controller, Marketing Manager, Chief Engineer and Corporate Affair Manager. All the managers represent man department of the company which are the Production, Marketing Administration, Engineering and Account Department.

 

The factory manager and his department (production) is directly responsible for the brewing, bottling and packaging o the company’s products.  

 

While the accounts and internal audit department which is headed by the financial controller is responsible for keeping proper account of all the financial transaction of the company. The engineering department headed by the Chief Engineer is in charge of maintenance. The department sees to the proper functioning of the plant, building and other mechanics used by the company for its operation.

Corporate Affairs Manager is in charge of the company, which basically comprise taking care of employing, discussing, promoting, training and development of staff, public relation, union etc. This department is also responsible for motivating the workers which forms the main focuses of this project section. Each section is headed by manager and they form the main components of the marketing efforts of the company. All the manager mentioned about have their assistants and clerks working under them.

 

1.7       ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF SONA BREWERIES LIMITED SANGO OTTA

MANAGING DIRECTOR

FACTORY

FINANCIAL

MARKETING

CHIE

CORPORATE

Manager

Controller

Manager

Engineer

Affair

(Production)

(Account)

(Marketing)

(Engineering)

P. Manager

Assistant

Assistant

Assistant

Assistant

Assistant

Manager

Manager

Manager

Manager

Manager

Clerks

Clerks

Clerks

Clerks

Clerks

 

There are two mina categories of structure

1.           Line structure verse line and state

2.           Organic verse mechanistic structures

 

The type of structure Sona Breweries is using is LINE AND STAFF STRUCTURES in this structure not all officers are immediately involved in producing or marketing the products of the business, decisions are made by the line officers with advice from staff officers for examples the production manager may seek advise from personal minister of labour seeking advise from his special assistant on whom to use. The staff executive are expert in their field and very often take on this task which their line superior are not able to do well.

 

The staff assistant assist the line executive who whom they are attached to but do not have the authority to act on behalf of their superiors.  

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