This research work titled Motivational techniques and performance in the public sector with particular reference of PHCN and NAFDAC”.

The purpose is to find out whether security needs of employees and motivational tools that enhance performance in public organization.

Data were collected through questionnaires from 46 staffs of PHCN and NAFDAC on the basis of Senior and Junior Staff.

The findings revealed good working environment, regular training and development, absence of good communication gap amongst other promotes performance, efficiency and effectiveness in the public sector.         





Title Page                                                                               i

Certification                                                                           ii

Dedication                                                                             iii

Acknowledgement                                                                 iv-v

Abstract                                                                                 vi

Table of Contents                                                                  vii-ix



1.1             Background of the Study                                     1-4

1.2            Statement of the Problem                                    4-5

1.3            Objectives of the Study                                        5-6

1.4            Research Questions                                             6

1.5            Research Hypotheses                                  6-7

1.6            Definition of Terms/Operational Terms               7-9

1.7            Scope of the Study                                               9

1.8            Limitation of the Study                                        9

1.9            Significance of the Study                                      10

1.10          Outline of Chapters                                              10



2.1            Introduction                                                         11

2.2            Concept of Motivation and Performance              11

2.2.1         Motivation and Satisfaction                               11-13

2.2.2         Motivators in Organization                                  14

2.3            Theories Supporting Motivational Techniques    4-15

2.3.1         Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory   15-18

2.3.2         Alderfer’s Erg Theory of Needs                            19-20

2.3.3         Mcclelland’s Needs Theory                                 20-22

2.3.4         Mcgregor’s Theory X and Y                                 22-25

2.3.5         Frederick Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory            25-27

2.3.6         Patton’s Identification of Managerial                  27-28

2.4            Motivation and Employee Performance              29-30

2.4.1         Special Motivational Techniques                        30-32

2.4.2         Job Enrichment                                                  32-35

2.5            Relationship between Job Satisfaction and

Job Performance                                                  32-35

2.6           Practical Suggestions to Achieving Job Satisfaction 36

References                                                           38-39



3.1            Research Design                                                   40

3.2            Population of the Study                                       40

3.3            Sample Procedures and Size                                41

3.4            Method of Data Collection                                  41-42

3.5            Instrumentation (Questionnaire)                         42

3.6            Reliability and Validity of the

Instrument (Questionnaire)                                 43

3.7            Data Analysis                                                       43



4.1            Introduction                                                         44

4.2            Respondents’ Characteristics & Classifications   44-47

4.3            Presentation and Analyses of Data,

According to Research Questions                        47-57

4.4            Presentation and Analysis of Data,

According to Research Hypothesis                       57-63

4.5            Decision of Findings                                             63



5.1    Summary of Findings                                                 64-66

5.2    Conclusion                                                                    66

5.3    Recommendations                                                      67-68

Bibliography                                                                69-71

Appendix                                                                     72-77









 The concern for and problems of, how to motivate workers for more effective performance in the public service has not only become on-going for the service itself but has continued to engage the attention of successive governments at highest level. Though several measures have been taken since the last two decades, unfortunately not much has been achieved. Part of the reasons for this seems to be the fact that these measures have been ad hoc in nature and may not have been based on a systematic study of the problem.


In any organization, motivation affects job performance. Variations in the levels of performance reveal differences in abilities or skills of workers. Perhaps differences in the level of individual performance in an organization, doing the same job indicate differences in the levels of motivation. This implies that people differ to the extent that they are prepared to direct their energies towards the achievements of organizational goals or objectives. The fact remains that individuals differ from one another in the way they perceive what is going on around them. Each person in influenced and restricted by the way he or she perceives his or her surroundings.


Motivation is understood not only as reward and punishment; it includes ideas, expectations and experience. When it comes to motivation people mostly act on perception not on reality. Others say that motivation is concerned with why people do or refrain from doing things. Motivation is a need or driving force within a person. Some people say the process of motivation involves choosing between alternatives, forms of action in order to achieve some desired aim or goal. Gluck (1980), define motivation as a voluntary impulse moving a person to action for one type of motives rather than another choosing among variable and conflicting motives.


However, with regard to needs, individuals also differ from one person to another. Sometimes individuals may seem similar in various respects, yet the intensity of the desire or want will vary from one individual to another. Persons in organizations or business units have different kinds and levels of needs and the levels to which such needs are recognized and achieve will ultimately determine the productive capacity of a worker (Sutermtister, 2000). With reference to Vroom (1990), the performance of a worker on the job is perceived as being influenced by two distinct variables. Firstly, the ability or skill of the individual to perform the job; Secondly, there is motivation to use his/her ability or skill in the actual performance on the job. Therefore, performance indicates the product of the two variables (ability and motivation). This opinion is also buttressed by Galbraith and Cummings (1999), in their investigations on the relationship among performance, ability and motivations.


McGregor (1999), equally demonstrates that the performance of a person at work in a business unit or organization is influence by certain attributes of the individual among which are his knowledge, motivation, skills and certain aspects of the environment including the nature of his job, reward system and leadership that is in place. Blumberg and Pringle (1998), also demonstrate that people will usually increase their performance when supervisors provide clearly defined task-oriented goals or objectives that are moderately difficult to achieve.


But Hackman and Odman (2000), believe that one way to improve performance is to provide workers with job enrichment with more autonomy, challenges and responsibilities. In this backdrop, the writer wishes to demonstrates the degree to which sex, years of work experience and age influenced employees’ and workers’ job performance behavior. For quite some time, writers have investigated workers’ job performance n their various job situations. However, a good number of these studies have not been quite conclusive. Many studies on job performance according to McGregor (1999), Vroom (1990), Hackman and Odman (2000), Blumberg and Pringle (1998) and Sutermaster (2000), clearly demonstrate that certain variables such as skill, knowledge, motivation, attitudes, autonomy, recognition, challenges, responsibility, supervision environmental factors have impact on worker’s job performance. The major trust of the study is to examine a comparative analysis of motivational techniques and performance in public organization. A study of Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) and National Agency for Food, Drugs and Administrative Control (NAFDAC).




Organizations have been hindered with different problems that prevent them from achieving their stated goals and objectives. Thus the problems for this study are stated as, what are the motivational tools that affect public organization performance? What are the challenges that organizations face to achieve performance in public organization and how do employees get rated and evaluated for enhanced performance in organizations? The problems identified would be answered through the research questions and objective of the study.





The objectives of this study are to examine factors responsible for motivation and performance in public organization. They include;

1.      To find out whether security needs of employees is motivational tools that enhance performance in public organization.

2.      To find out whether social needs of employees would enhance performance in public organization.

3.      To examine whether esteem needs of employees would also enhance performance in public organization.

4       To find out whether autonomy of work needs would enhances performance.

5.      To find out whether self-actualization needs enhance performance in public sector organization.

6.      To find out whether pay (salary and wages) need is a motivational factor that enhance performance.



The following research questions are formulated for this study.

i.       To what extent do security needs of employees enhance performance in public organizations?

ii.      To what extent do social needs of employees enhance performance in public organization?

iii.     Does esteem needs of employees enhance performance in public organization?

iv.     Would autonomy of work need enhance performance in public organization?

v.      The extent to which self-actualization needs enhance performance in public organizations?

vi.     Is pay (salary, wages and benefits) needs a motivational tools that enhance performance?



The following are the hypotheses formulated for this study.

Ho:   Giving more fringe benefits such as free health facilities to the workers will not result in the increased performance of the workers.

Hi:    Giving more fringe benefits such as free health facilities to the workers will result in the increased performance of the workers.

Ho:   Involving workers in the decision making process by consulting their union leaders on major issues will not motivate them for greater performance

Hi:    Involving workers in the decision making process by consulting their union leaders on major issues will motivate them for greater performance.

Ho:   Increment of the salaries of PHCN Plc and NAFDAC workers to be at par with the other oil companies like Chevron and Shell will not make the workers perform better.

Hi:    Increment of the salaries of PHCN Plc and NAFDAC workers to be at par with the other oil companies like Chevron and Shell will make the workers perform better.



Motivation: This is defined as a voluntary impulse moving a person to adopt a certain course of action for one type of motives rather than another choosing among variable and conflicting motives.

Motivators: These are the actual factors that induce individuals to act in a particular way, usually to perform better. Management to encourage workers to perform more effectively and efficiently specially uses them.

Promotion: This is a deliberate shifting or upliftment of an employee to a higher position, usually with added benefits, status and authority.

Performance: Otherwise referred to as productivity, this is the actual outcome of employees’ efforts i.e. what comes out of their contributions to organization.

Achievement: State of being successful or state of attainment of success by employees in an organization.

Dissatisfies: Otherwise known as hygiene factors, they are related to job context, although they do not motivate employees, their absence could cause dissatisfaction e.g. salary and job security.

Expectation/Expectancy: This is what employees hope to get from their jobs, i.e. their perception of the conditions that should exist on the job.

Fulfillment: This is a state of achievement or realization of individual desires or expectations in an organization/institution

Management: This refers to the governing body in an organization. They oversee the affairs of the organization and are usually referred to by such names as executives, directors, managers, administrations and controllers and so on.

Organization: This is refers to as a form or a company which is established with aims and objective to achieve stated goals.

Employees (workers): This is a workers or a person employed in an organization with certain terms and condition.



The scope of the coverage is on comparative analysis of motivational tools on performance in Power Holding Company of Nigeria and National Agency for Food, Drugs and Administrative Control (NAFDAC).



The limitation for the study rest on many factors or constraints that is inherent to research study generally. The limitations for this study are paucity of information in Nigeria, public institutions with lukewarm attitude of management in organization and its employees, also time constraint in carrying out research work and financial implications in surveying all the organization branches.



The significance of the research is essential because it will find solutions to the following. The motivation and performance in PHCN and NAFDAC; Also it will reveal the variables responsible for different performance in public organizations. The relevant of this study will also identify the motivational tools use to improve workers performance in public sector, and to contribute to knowledge on motivational activities, and performance evaluation in public sector.



Chapter one of this research project is the background of the study and introduction.

Chapter Two is the review of literature on concepts and theories on motivational and performance especially in public service organization. Chapter three is the research methodology, chapter four is the data presentation and analysis of research end chapter five is the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

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