Related Topics




Title                                                                                                   i

Certification                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                        iii

Acknowledgment                                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                                           vi


Chapter One

1.0       Introduction                                                                           1

1.1    Objective of the project                                                          6


Chapter Two

2.0       Literature Review                                                                   7

2.1    Sources of Milk                                                                      8

2.2       Composition of Milk                                                              12

2.3       Relevance of Milk to Infants                                                  18

2.4       Processing of Milk                                                                  20

2.5       Infant formula as a Substitute                                              23


Chapter Three

3.1       Reagents used/Chemical                                                      26

3.2       Collection of Samples                                                            28

3.3       Operation of some machine/Equipment                              28

3.4       Preparation of Reagents

3.5       Methods

3.5.1     Determination of Carbohydrate content

3.5.2    Determination of protein content

3.5.3    Determination of fat content

3.5.4    Determination of specific Gravity

3.5.5    Determination of ash content

3.5.6    Determination of Moisture content

3.5.7    Determination of Calcium ion content

3.5.8    Determination of Magnesium ion Concentration

3.5.9    Determination of Phosphorous ion Concentration

3.6.0   Determination of Potassium ion Concentration



4.0    Results, Discussion and Conclusion

4.8    Discussion

4.9    Conclusion





Table 1:      Goat Milk Production                                                       9   

Table 2:      Cow Milk Production                                                        11

Table 3:    Composition of Colostrum Compared with mature

Human Milk                                                                         13

Table: 4:1   Carbohydrate Content                                                     

Table: 4:2   Protein Content                                                                

Table: 4:3   Fat content

Table: 4:4   Specific gravity

Table: 4:5   Ash content

Table 4:6    Ash content

Table 4:7    Mineral Determinations

Table 4.8    Discussion








Milk in an aqueous, white or yellow white opaque solution of proteins, carbohydrate (lactose) in particular, minerals and certain vitamins that carries emulsified fat globules and collodially dispersed casein micelles consisting of protein together with phosphate, citrate and calcium. It is the nutrient fluid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals including monotremes. (Coultate, 1984). The female ability to produce milk is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. Milk provides the primary source of nutrition for infants before they are able to digest more diverse foods. The early lactation milk is known as colostrums and carries the mother’s antibodies to the infant.


Milk is an emulsion of butterfat globules within a water based fluid. Each fat globule is surrounded by a membrane consisting of phospholipids and proteins; these emulsifiers keep the individual globules from joining together into noticeable grains of butterfat and also protect the globules from the fat – digesting activity of enzymes found in the fluid portion of the milk. Milk is a perishable commodity and spoils very easily, its low acidity and high nutrient content make it the perfect breeding ground for bacterial inducing those which cause food poisoning, hence milk contain nearly all the essential food nutrients, but in varied proportion (Hadzlyev, 1989).


Since the earliest times, mankind has used the milk of goat, sheep and cow as food. Today the term ‘milk’ is referred to cow’s milk. The exact component of raw milk varies by species, but it contains significant amount of unsaturated fat, protein and calcium. Aquatic mammals such as seals and whales, produce milk that is very high in fats and other solid nutrients when compared with land mammals milk.


Cow’s milk represents around 90% total world milk production but buffalo, sheep and goats produce 6%, 1.7%, and 1.5% of total milk in volume terms and are also significant producers. This makes the dairy cow, the principal producer of milk and it was domesticated over 6000 years ago and nowadays there are an estimated 280 million domesticated diary cows in the world producing in excess of 400 million tonnes of milk annually (Ranken, kill and bake 1997).


With the improved research on animal husbandry, milk yield per cow doubled within this century resulting in the production of hybrid dairy cattle through improvement in feed quality as well as cross breeding between different species. (Hadzlyer, 1989).


Milk has a high nutritive value since it contains almost all the essential nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals. It is also rich in antibodies (immunoglobulins), especially the first milk (colostrum) of nursing mammals which has a very high concentration of the immunglobulins. It is an exceptionally good source of protein which is of high nutritional value in promoting growth in children (Ranken, Kill and Baker 1997). The major protein of milk is casein, a first class protein. Other protein of milk include the whey proteins such as Beta-lactoglobullins, alphalactalbumin, serum albumin, immunglobaullins (IgG1 Ig G2 IgA and Igm).     

Whey protein make-up around twenty percent of the protein in milk by weight.


Industrial science has brought us casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk and many other food additive and industrial products.


Human milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later. The use of infant powdered milk as breast milk substitute have made a major contribution to the infant diet in many different countries and across the world since time immemorial. It serves as a relieve for nursing mother since it tends to substitude breastmilk which some parents find so difficult to feed their infant. In the first year of life, infants undergo periods of rapid growth when good nutrition is crucial. Infact, nutrition in the early years of life is a major determinant of healthy growth and development throughout childhood and of good health in adulthood (Fisher, 1981).


Milk from which almost all the moisture has been removed is referred to as dry milk or powdered milk. The milk in this form is less expensive and easier to store than fresh milk but has a disadvantage in that it never tastes quite like the real thing. Powdered milk was first made in 1802 by Russian doctor Osip Krichevsky. It is found abundantly in many developing countries because of reduced transport and storage costs as it does not require refrigeration. It has a far larger shelf-life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated due to its low moisture content. (Gunther, 1973; Jones and West, 1985).


a.       To carry out nutrient and mineral composition in some selected infant powdered milk samples.

b.      To compare the results obtained between various samples being studied

c.       To speculate on the effect of processing on the nutritional and mineral composition of the infant powdered milk samples hence their overall effect in meeting the nutrient need of the infant.

Order Complete Project