PARENTAL INVOLVEMENTS, SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES IN PROMOTION OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION


Content

ABSTRACT

This study sought to examine parental involvement, successes and challenges in the promotion of family life education.

A descriptive survey design was chosen to carry out the study. An instrument designed by the investigator was used to collect data for the study. One hundred and fifty subjects responded to the questionnaires given to them.

Data analysis involved the use of frequency counts, percentages and t-test statistical techniques. The results showed that parents’ involvement in family life education is a contributor to the promotion of the success of family life education, parents occupational status is a contributor to parents involvement in family life education, majority of the respondents are of the view that students may be successful academically despite adverse family conditions, parents either single parents or parents of intact homes know the importance of family life education and thus press for their children to achieve against all odds, but it was discovered from the research that parents from intact homes showed a greater interest in the up-bringing of their children than their counterparts from non-intact homes.

It was recommended that education with a clear understanding of the lives of their school families ought to encourage the emergence of a definition of parenting involvement which would recognize a broad array of parental behaviors intended to support academic success, there is the need to introduce and broaden traditional population education to includes topics such as reproductive health, the status of women intergenerational relationship, and problem solving skills in order to improve family and social welfare, efforts should be made by education stakeholders to ensure that most schools provide some form of sexuality education for adolescent and efforts should be made by non-governmental organization (NGO’s) to facilitate access to wide range of parenting information, services and support throughout the country.

 


TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE                                                                                  PAGE

Certification                                                                             ii

Dedication                                                                               iii

Acknowledgment                                                                     iv

Abstract                                                                                   v

Table of content                                                                       vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the study                                                                1

1.2   Statement of the problem                                                                10

1.3   Objectives of the study                                                                    10

1.4   Research questions                                                                         11

1.5   Hypotheses                                                                                      12

1.6   Significance of the Study                                                                 12

1.7   Scope of the study                                                                           14

1.8   Limitations of the study                                                                   14

1.9  Definitions of terms                                                          15

 

CHAPTER TWO                                                                                                         REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0              Introduction                                                                           17

2.1             Perspectives or theoretical frame work                                17

2.1.1           The concept of parental involvement in education              18

2.1.2            A Broader Conception of Children’s Background               23

2.1.3           An Overviews of Family Life Education                                26

2.2              Empirical Review of Literature                                              30

2.2.1           Parental Influence and Family Life Education                     30

2.2.2           Child Bearing and Education                                               39

2.2.3           Family Size and Children’s Academic Performance            45

2.2.4           Family size, rural poverty and access to Basic Education  51

2.2.5           Challenges in Family Life Education                                    57

2.2.6           The internet and the worldwide web                                     59

  

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0   Introduction                                                                                     62

3.1   Research Design                                                                              62

3.2   Population                                                                                       62

3.3   Sample and Sampling                                                                     63

3.4       Instrumentation                                                                    64

 3.4.1 Validation of the Questionnaire                                                     64

3.5   Data Collection                                                                                65

3.6   Data Analysis                                                                                   65

 

CHAPTER FOUR       

DATA ANALYSIS AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING

4.0   Introduction                                                                                     66

4.1   Presentation of Data                                                                        66

4.2   Test of the Hypotheses                                                           71

4.3   Summary of findings                                                                       75

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0   Introduction                                                                                     78

5.1   Discussion of the Findings                                                             78

5.2   Recommendation                                                                             82

5.3   Conclusion                                                                                       84

5.4   Suggestions for further Research                                                   85

REFERENCES                                                                    87


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the study

Preparing individuals and families for the roles and responsibilities of family living is nothing new. Because knowledge about human development, interpersonal relationships, and family living is not innate, societies have needed to develop ways through which they may transmit the wisdom and experience of family living from one generation to succeeding ones. Some societies transmit his knowledge through formal means such as puberty initiation rites. For the most part however, individuals learn about family living in the family setting itself as they observe and participate in family activities and interactions in their own and other families

As societies change and become more complex, this pattern of informal learning about living in families becomes inadequate.

The development of new knowledge, advances in technology, and changing social and economic condition create situation where the teaching of previous generation are no longer appropriate or sufficient. In this circumstance, societies must find or create new ways to prepare individuals for their family roles and responsibilities. One of these new ways is Family Life Education

Clark (2003) opines that when parents and family get personally involved in education, their children do better in school and grow up to be more successful in life. According to Clark, parent’s involvement includes a lot of different types of activities. Some parents have time to get involved in many ways; others may only have time for one or two activities.

Aluede (2000) contends that the earlier in a child educational process, parent involvement in family life education begins, the more powerful the effects. The most effective forms of parent involvement are those which engage parent in working directly with their children on learning at home. Parent may get involved in family life education by ensuring better school attendance by their children, increased motivation, and better self-esteem.

Although most parent do not to know how to help their children with their education with their  guidance and support they may become increasingly involved in home learning activities and find themselves with opportunities to teach, to be models for and to guide their children. Parent participation in education was twice as predictive of academic success as family socio-economic status, Uwakwe (2000). When schools encourage children to the practice reading at home with parents the children make significant gains in reading achievement compared to those who only practice at school. The more intensely parent are involved, the more beneficial the achievement effects. Parent who read to their children, have books available, take trips, guide TV watching, and provide stimulating experiences contribute to student achievement. The more parents participate in family life education, in a sustained way, at every level-in advocacy, decision making and oversight roles and as home teachers- the better for children’s success.  

The society depends primarily upon the family institution for the production of children who constitute young members of the society. Also, the family is seen as the primary agent of socialization where the norms and values of a society are internalized by the new members of the society that is children, teaching and behavioral pattern and ways of life. In addition, the family performs the functions of provision of basic necessity of life like food, shelter, clothing, education etc.

Arqqawal (1981) asserted that: “It is the home not the school that determines the quality of the direction of any child’s life, and that teacher’s works is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill this major factor in the education of any child.” (page 19)

Writers like Adeyemo (1998) and Akinboye (2000) have observed that children from unstable homes have less adaptability to school situation, less initiative and possess a less measure of emotional self-control. The anxiety level of home and the pattern of parental communication with children may affect learning. For instance, a child that is frequently upset over parent quarrels are at risks for lower levels of education achievement (Krohn and Bogan, 2001).

Infants whose parents lack warmth and stability and fail to provide educational stimulation (e.g teaching and child new words) are at risk of learning and emotional problems (Werner and Smith, 1992: 24). Infants who suffer from neglect may also be at risk of health and developmental problems (Kenpe and Goldbloom, 1997:312).

In a study of young people from low-income black homes with varying family structures,

Clark (1993) finds that parents of high academic achievers set firm but not harsh rules, seek information about their children’s academic progress, enhance literacy skills through activities such as reading and word games, and model an optimistic assertive approach to life. In Clark’s study, the two-parent and single-parent families that had these attributes produced higher achieving students, while the two-parent and single-parent families that lacked these characteristics produced less successful students. Similarly, Goldenberg (1999) describes how assertive parent involvement may significantly influence student achievement, over the course of Goldenberg’s case study, the children who improved their reading skill received encouragement and /or home tutoring from their parents.

Preparing individuals and families for the roles and responsibilities of family living is nothing new, because relationships, and family living is not innate, societies have needed to develop ways through which they may transit the wisdom and the experience of family living from one operation to succeeding ones. Some societies transmit this knowledge through formal means such as puberty or initiation rites. For most part, however individuals learn about family living in the family setting itself as they observe and participate in family activities and interaction in their own and other families (Aluede, 2002). As societies change and become more complex this pattern of informal learning in families becomes inadequate. The development of new knowledge, advances in technology and changing social and economic conditions create situation where the teaching of previous generations are no longer appropriate or sufficient, in these circumstances, societies must find or create new ways to prepare individuals for their family roles and responsibilities. One of these new ways is family life education (Alueze and Ikechukwu, 2002).

The desire that Nigeria should be a free, just and democratic society, a land full of opportunities for all its citizens, able to generate a great and dynamic economy, and growing into a united and self reliant nation, cannot be over-emphasized; to achieve these goals, education in Nigeria is an instrument par excellence for effective national development Federal Ministry of Education (2004). With changes in the society, every child desires to become a millionaire within a day. It now seems to be difficult for majority of the children to really concentrate on their studies in this country. Good community committee (1995) observed that the seed of academic under-achievement among children have been imbibed from childhood. Many children fail to find self-respect or self-discipline and capacity to cope with problems in ways that are constructive or have any appreciation on the importance of skills needed for learning. In other words, it seems to be true that the causes of academic-achievement among the youths are multiple, complex and interrelated. Good community committee (1995) and Schewertz (1995) identified single-parenthood, poverty, youth violent (crime), drug problem, school instability and rebellion as causes of children under-achievement in schools. Sewel (2000) include among many other reasons for students drop out as no liking school, being suspended or being expelled. Other reasons include economic reasons socio-economic status of the family. Influence from friends who are also school drop-outs, personal reasons such as pregnancy for girls. In addition, school drop-outs had lower grades in school, more disciplinary problems, and lower rate of home work completion externalized sense control. Often times, when children fail their promotion examinations, they would rather prefer going to farm and obtain or acquire plots of land to plant cocoa and become cocoa farmers. During cocoa season in such parts of South-West Nigeria, children and parents’ common slang is ‘Oga teacher, how much is your salary? Two kilos (Kilogrammes) of cocoa will pay your salary.  This local syndrome might be responsible for students drop-out in many rural areas. The rate of drop out appears to be worst among boys with the emergence of commercial motor cycling known as Okada. Also, some boys become bus conductors or illegal timber contractor know as ‘Payabayaba’. According to Ayodele (2007), there was a case of a male student who was arrested for social ills (stealing) and during interrogation; he said that he dropped out from school because his school fees was not paid and his mother gave birth to nine children for different nine fathers.  Ayodele says further that in the study of some female students, it revealed that when they fail in school or their fees were not paid, they seem to experience fear, anxiety, inferiority complex and guilt among their mates and this seems to give them some psychological problem. This leads female children to get involve in pre-marital sex and hurriedly get married.

Owuamanam (2002) contends that some people go into marriage when there is no money to pay school fees or take care of their children’s needs. Another problem observed to be rampant among female children is the issue of regular meeting. As soon as some female children see their drop-out friends with expensive wears and their babies, the next thing they do is to copy their colleagues so that they too can dress like friends and look nice among their peer groups, this usually results to termination of their academic career.

It seems that if parents were not educationally oriented, their interest towards the education of their children might be negatively affected. Adaba (2001) noted that parents do not encourage the education of their female children because of erroneous belief that investing money on the education of female children may end up to be waste when they get married because they lose family’s name and the husband’s family would reap the fruits of their labour. Adaba also said that some parents were unable to pay school fees and provide necessary materials needed by their wards and that this contribute to children’s under-achievement in schools. Alonge (2003) opined that some parents are harsh and wicked to their children if they do not perform well or fail their examinations.

In another development, if children do not have a stable family life and have bad school experiences, they may end up as school drop-outs.

The true influence of children’s background on achievement can be estimated better if one takes into account those family characteristics- parental values and press for the child to achieve and the child’s own efforts and perceived efficacy-that appear to operate independently of convectional aspects of class (for the few countries in which these factors have been studied) and better indicators of the material and social aspects of class.

The national desire that Nigeria should be a free, just and democratic society, a land full of opportunities for all its citizens able to generate a great and dynamic economy and growing into a united and self reliant nation, is an important pointer to the role education has to play in the polity. To achieve these goals, education in Nigeria is an instrument per excellence for effective national development, Federal Ministry of Education (2004). With changes in the society, every child desires to become a millionaire within a day. It now seems to be difficult for majority of the children to really concentrate on their studies in this country. Good community Committee (1995) observed that the seed of academic under-achievement among children have been imbibed from childhood. Many children fail to find self respect or self-discipline and capacity to cope with problems

This background emphasizes the need to bring into focus the present study which sought to explain parental involvement, successes and challenges in the promotion of family life education.

1.2  Statement of the problem

This study is designed to examine parental involvement, successes and challenges in the promotion of family life education.

1.3  Objectives of the study

The main objective of the study is to examine the various activities engaged in  by parents that affect the children. Other specific objectives include:

·        To examine the activities of parents in the promotion of family life education

·        To determine the level of family success in the promotion of the family life education

·        To assess the challenges affecting the family life education.

·        To find out the extent to which the educational level of parents influence their involvement in Family Life Education.

·        To determine the extent to which the size of family affects the success of family life education.

·        To examine whether the occupational status of parents can affect their involvement in family life education

·        To find out whether or not the incidents of  separation and divorce in families have any negative or positive effect on the success of family life education.

1.4  Research questions

The following questions are posited to guide the study.

1.   To what extent would parents’ involvement in family education promote the success of family life education?

2.   To what extent would parents’ occupational status promote their involvement in family life education?

3.   To what extent would parents educational level affect their involvement in  family life education

4.   To what extent would the size of a family (small or large size) affect involvement in family life education?

5.   To what extent would the family status (intact or non-intact) of a home affect family life education?

6.   To what extent would the five independent variables (Parental involvement in education, parents’ occupational status, parents’ educational level, size of a family and family status) when taken together, promote  the success of Family life Education?

1.5  Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested at the 0.05 level of significance:-

i.        There is no significant difference in the opinion of parents of children adolescent from single parenting homes and those form intact homes with respect to promotion of family life education.

ii.        There is no significant difference in the opinion of male and female parents from intact homes with respect to promotion of family life education.

iii.        There is no significant difference in the opinion of Christian and Muslim parents respect to success of family life education.

iv.        There is no significant difference in the opinion of male and female adolescents with respect to the challenges of family life education.

1.6  Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study would provide basis for effective promotion of Family Life Education.

The study would assist to enlighten parents on the need to know and understand the effects of home background on the academic performance of children. Also, it would enlighten the adolescent as to the variables that would contribute to their academic performance in schools.

It will also bring about awareness for decision making bodies and even teachers to look into the problems facing teaching and learning in secondary schools in terms of the identified variables.

It would bring about for schools the need to provide a conducive environment for teachers and parents interaction through the Parents Teachers Association (PTA) meetings

It will bring about awareness for parents after Parents Teachers Association (PTA) meetings the need for the parents to provide necessary facilities needed by their wards for use in schools.

This study will create the opportunity and forum to discuss how home climate set-ups could enhance or hinder parental involvement in family life education.

Through this study, practicable solutions would be proffered to correct the unfavorable home climate in order to help the youth to live in a good and conducive home environment that will guarantee high quality education, performance and attainment.

This study would serve as reference work and launching pad for further researchers on the extent to which the identified variables (parental involvement success and challenges) promote family life education. The result of the study is expected to provide the empirical basis for advising governments, policy makers, administrators, teacher and other stakeholders in the education system on how to promote family life education.

The study will provide basis for developing a more effective pedagogic theory for promoting family  life education.

1.7  Scope of the study

This study examined ‘Parental involvement successes and challenges in tehe promotion of family life education. The research was carried out in selected public and private institutions in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

1.8  Limitations of the study

1       The small size of the sample to be used for the study is a major limitation of the study. A larger sample size would afford better insight into variables relating to the promotion of family life education.

2       The study is an ex-post facto design in which parental involvement, successes and challenges in the promotion of family life education were studied as they occur with no attempt made to manipulate specific variables for investigation.

1.9  Definitions of terms

The following terms were operationally defined to reflect the meaning as used in this study.

1.   Academic Performance: This is the extent to which a student is able to exhibit what he has leant. The tools used in measuring academic performance include examination, test etc. High child’s academic performance entails individual enriched education, skills and knowledge in relation to specific works, relevant to the individual and society.

2.   Parent: is defined as a father or mother who is involved in the up-bringing of a child or children and for the purpose of this study, parent is taken to be a father or mother of a student who he or she stays with and is directly involved in the education of that child.

3.   Home Background: Home is a place where one lives. As regards this study, home environment is where the parents and the children live which may directly or indirectly affect the student’s educational performance.

4.   Environment: Consists of all situations or events people or things in one’s surroundings

5.   Socio Economic Status/Background: This is the term used to summarize the varieties of factors which include parents’ level of education, occupation income of the parent and the social positions of parents in a community.

6.   Family Life Education: It encompasses informal and formal training and education parents give to their children at home.




 

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