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PERCEIVED EFFECTS OF POLLUTED SURFACE WATER ON THE HEALTH OF THE RESIDENTS IN ADO-ODO/OTA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OGUN STATE
The study focused on the effect of polluted surface water on the health of the resident in Ado-Odo/Ota local government Area. Water quality is an essential ingredient of healthy and productive life, but due to rapid industrialization and population explosion, surface waters which have been pure in the year’s backs are no more pure. Improper waste management is seen as a clog to the wheel of progress in terms of water quality. This study was carried out to determine the effects of polluted surface water on the on the health of the residents in Ado-odo/ota Local Government Ogun state. To achieve this, the under listed objectives were formulated. To investigate various types of surface water contaminants and their suitability, To identify the sources of industrial waste, To investigate the classification of water quality. To recommend the methods of water pollution and industrial waste control measures. To achieve these objectives, the instrument used for this study was based on questionnaire. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. A sample size of six hundred (600) residents of Ado odo/ota comprising one hundred and fifty (150) from each of the fours towns of Ado-odo/ota .The study found that aquatics animals, abdominal problems, respiratory abnormalities arises from the polluted surface water. Based on the findings, suggestions were advance for the improvement for the health of the residents. Establishment of surface water quality criteria and control standard.Agricultural, industrial or urban development should be undertaken on the basis of plan. To protect water from being polluted, facilities for monitoring and all authorities involves with the management of waste must effect the punishment on the industries, people that fails to comply with the law of waste management under the supervision of federal environmental protection Agency at every stage.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 3
1.3 Purpose of the study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Research Hypotheses 4
1.6 Significance of the study 5
1.7 Limitations of the study 5
1.8 Delimitation of the study 6
1.9 Operational definition of terms 6
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Concept of pollution 8
2.2 Types of pollution 9
2.3 Concept of water pollution 13
2.4 Sources and pathway of water pollution 17
2.5 Classification of water quality 19
2.6 Surface water contaminants 20
2.7 Control of surface water pollution 21
2.8 Water and industry 41
2.9 Water pollution due to industrial activities 46
2.10 Industrial utilization by countries 49
2.11 Industrial pollution disaster around the world 50
2.12 Trends in industrial and residential development in Nigeria: implications for 51
health and safety
2.13 History of environmental policy and pollution control measures in 54
2.14 Trends in pollution control loads by domestic and industrial effluents in 70
2.15 Release of total organic carbon (TOC) directly or indirectly to river 73
2.16 Health implication of industrial waste on water 74
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Method 78
3.2 Population 79
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 79
3.4 Research Instrument 79
3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument 80
3.7 Procedure for data collection 81
3.8 Procedure for data analysis 81
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 82
4.2 Analysis of Demographic Data 82
4.3 Results and Analysis 84
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 92
5.2 Conclusion 93
5.3 Recommendation 93
1.1 Background to the Study
Water is a primary necessity of life, and in its absence man will survive for a few hour or days. Water is probably the body’s most essential requirement, we can survive without air for only few minutes and without water perhaps few days. It contributes in a variety of ways to the enjoyment, safety and progress of human existence. The body is composed of about 60 percent water which is essential for digestive process, blood circulation, and excretion. (Evans, 1999)
Godman (2000) opined that, water is made up of two volume of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen, the earth is a water planet and it’s the abundant of this unique liquid that has made life possible on earth. Water has numerous physical, chemical and biological uses, and it could be used most efficiently when is in its purest form. Three quarter of the planet earth is sea, but about one third of the populations have no access to wholesome water.
Water pollution due to discharge of untreated industrial effluents into water bodies is a major problem in the global context. Mathuthu, Mwanga, and Simoro (2007). The problem of water pollution is being experienced by both developing and developed countries. Human activities give rise to water pollution by introducing various categories of substances or waste into a water body. The more common types of polluting substances include pathogenic organisms, oxygen demanding organic substances, plant nutrients that stimulate all the blooms, inorganic and organic toxic substances (Cornish & Mensah, 2009).
Agriculture, cities, and industry in this country are enormous consumers of water. For example producing a gallon of gasoline requires five gallons of water, brewing a barrel of beer consumes a thousand gallons, a ton of newspaper takes about 50,000 gallons, a ton of steel requires 25,000 gallons, a family of four uses about 600 gallons of water daily. Edlin, Golany, and Brown( 2008)
Water is continuously recycled in the environment by evaporation and rain. However more and more water becomes polluted from pesticides, chemicals, oil spills, and sewage therefore less and less water is suitable for human consumption and agricultural use. Edlin, Golany, and Brown 2008. The changes in the nutrient concentrations of water may lead to harmful effects to humans and aquatic life. Most heavy metals in streams of water are commonly associated with industrial discharges (Mdamo, 2001) and almost heavy metals common in industrial effluents have cumulative toxins to aquatic life. The physical-chemical parameters of an aquatic body not only reflect the type and diversity of aquatic animals but also the water quality and pollution (Birley & Lock, 1999).
The effect of water on health and sickness in this decade has become more emphasized because of the awareness of the role of water as a carrier of organisms and non-living materials which may be harmful to man. (Federal Environmental Protection Agency, 2002) The purity of water is threatened by human activities, in order to avert this trend, it would be better to embark on proper management of this vital resource through the incorporation of environment concerns to minimize pollution, land degradation and associated health hazards through water supply.
Water quality monitoring involves the measurements and detection of substances in the water to evaluate and ascertain the threat posed by such substance to the health of the people in particular and the environment in general. Every sphere of human life is affected by environment pollution. The general quality of our surrounding is influenced by environmental pollution and this, pose a risk to our health and general well-being.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Over the years now, the researcher has observed with keen interest that surface water which have been as pure in the years back are no more pure, due to rapid industrialization and pollution of surface water. Careless disposal of untreated industrial waste on surface water might affect the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of river ecosystem, and other effects may include cholera, abdominal and intestinal problems, destruction of aquatic animals, respiratory abnormalities, as well as typhoid fever. Rivers like river yewa, river imojiba, river ijamido, river iju, river ogbe and owode stream, are seriously polluted by industrial waste disposal which comes from different factories .Untreated waste water from industries like Bright product limited, Nestle Food Nig.Limited, Prime distillers, Universal gases limited, Vintage limited, De-United food limited, Sona breweries limited and Acreage Food Company, emits chemicals into the nearby rivers, this discharge on water is the leading cause of water borne diseases in the Area and low oxygen contents on river. The level of awareness among the people is relatively low, they underestimate or ignore the health hazard caused by the polluted water, believing a flowing river is always suitable for consumption. However, there is a need for the people of Ado-odo/Ota local government to be enlightened on the danger of using polluted water for domestic purpose. Hence this study is out to investigate the perception of Ado-odo/ota resident about effects of industrial waste on surface water.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purposes of the study are:
1. Investigate the effect of industrial waste on surface water as perceived by the people of Ado-odo/ ota.
2. Determine the harm which the industrial waste may cause on the people’s health.
3. Evaluate the impact of industrial effluents on the rivers in the area.
1.4 Research Questions
The study provides answers to the following questions:
1. Will the effect of polluted surface water significantly affect aquatic animals in Ado-Odo/Ota Rivers?
2. Will the effect of polluted surface water significantly influence the incidence of abdominal problems among the people of Ado-Odo/Ota local government?
3. Will effect of polluted surface water have significant influence on the incidence of respiratory abnormalities in the locality?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested in the study:
1. The effect of polluted surface water will not significantly affects aquatic animals in Ado-Odo/Ota Rivers?
2. The effects of polluted surface water will not significantly influence the incidence of abdominal problems among the people of Ado-Odo/Ota local government?
3. The effects of polluted surface water will not have significant influence on the incidence of respiratory abnormalities in the locality?
1.6 Significance of the study
The study will be of immense benefit to the health workers, local government administrators, industries and residents of Ado-Odo/Ota local government in a bid to fashion out ways of preventing health hazards caused as a result of surface water pollution.
The study will serve as source of information to the management of industries on the negative effect of their waste products on aquatic lives.
Provide policy makers in communistic health information on the lives between industrial waste management and the health of the resident.
1.7 Limitations of the study
The following limitations were encountered in the research study:
1. The result of this study cannot be generalized to all residents of Ado-Odo/Ota local Government.
2. Some of the respondent are illiterate, the researcher make use of research assistant who read, interpret for such individual.
1.8 Delimitation of the study
1. The scope of this study were restricted to health issues in area, problems resulting from the industrial waste products from industries
2. The study were delimited to variables such as industrial waste, surface water pollution and the health of the residents of Ado-Odo/ota local government Area
3. Descriptive survey research method
4. The use of self developed questionnaire only as the research instrument
5. Sampling techniques(purposive 600 participants)
6. The use of three research assistants
7. Frequency counts and percentages for demographic data, while inferential statistics of chi-square for hypotheses testing at 0.05 alpha level.
1.9 Operational definition of terms
Aquatic Animals: Are the animals living in the stream and rivers of Ado-odo/ota
Fauna: Are all the animals living in the river ogbe, owode stream, for a particular period
Health: is being in an optimal level of wellness of the resident in Ado-odo/ota
Industry: Are the product manufacturing companies in the locality
Industrial waste: refers to the solid, liquid and gaseous emissions, residual and unwanted wastes from an industrial operation.
Organism: is a living thing, living in or out of water which are extremely small.
Perceived: is the level of awareness in the people of the community
Pollution: Are the chemicals, waste or oil spills that find their ways into river to make it unsafe for community utility.
Surface water: Are the rivers, stream in Ado-odo ota local government.
Water pollution: is the process of making the rivers in Ado-odo ota local government area unclean or harmful for consumption.