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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF AUCHI POLYTECHNIC, AUCHI, EDO STATE)
Appraisals are what organization makes them, to some, they are boring, routines and time wasted annual victuals for favoritism and nepotism to gearing the people towards making them perform better. These studies focus attention on performance appraisal, as an effective tool in promoting productivity among workers. The study makes use of questionnaire to determine the general perceptions of appraisers. Appraisers and the appraised system adopted in Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. The findings revealed that staff will be given instant feedback after the completion of the performance appraisal exercise in order to know their areas of strengths, weakness etc it is recommended that Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi should embrace both formal and informal appraisal system and these should be transparently conducted.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Research Questions 6
1.4 Research Hypotheses 7
1.5 Purpose of the Study 8
1.6 Scope of the Study 8
1.7 Significance of the Study 9
1.8 Limitation of the Study 9
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms 10
Chapter Two: Literature Review 12
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 Current Literature Review 13
2.3 Methods of Appraisal 17
2.4 Reasons for Appraisal 18
2.5 Performance Appraisal Problems and Effects
on Employees 21
2.6 Performance Appraisal Process 23
2.7 Productivity and the Performance Appraisal System 24
2.8 Whose Responsibility is it to appraise Job
Performance Workforce 26
2.9 Summary of the Study 28
Chapter Three: Research Method 29
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Research Design 29
3.3 Population of the Study 30
3.4 Sample of the Study 30
3.5 Sampling Technique 30
3.6 Instrumentation Materials 30
3.7 Methods of Collection/Analysis 31
Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis
and Interpretation 32
4.1 Introduction 32
4.2 Analysis of Data 32
4.3 Interpretation of Data 45
4.4 Testing of Hypothesis 47
4.5 Discussion 56
Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Conclusion
and Recommendation 58
5.1 Summary of Findings 58
5.2 Conclusion 60
5.3 Recommendations 60
1.1 Background to the Study
This history of the performance appraisal is quite brief it’s root in the early 20th century can be traced to Taylors pioneering time and motion students. As a distinct and formal management procedures used in the evaluation of work performance, appraisal really dates from the time of the Second World War not more than 60 years ago. The human inclination to judge can create serious motivational ethical and legal problems ion the work place without a structured appraisal system, there is little chance of ensuring that the judgement made will be lawful, fair, defensible and accurate.
Performance appraisal system begins as simple methods of income justify, action that is appraisal was used to decide whether or not the salary or wage of an individual employee was justified. The process was found to be less than ideal, a cut in pay would found follow on the other hand their performance was better than the supervisor expected a pay rise was in order.
Little consideration if any was given to the development possibilities of appraisal. It was felt than a cut in pay a rise should provide the only required impetus for and employees to either improve or continue to perform well.
Performance appraisal is a programmed or system of evaluating employees past and present behavior or act based or a systematic and standardized or of future use of employee and employer. Also performance appraisal is a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and superior which usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or semi annual) in which the work performance of the subordinates in examined and discussed, with a view to indenting weakness and strength as well as opportunities for improvement and development. The future use of performance appraisal by the employee and employer can be in terms of promotion, wage adjustment, can be in terms of employees lay off, training need and good attainment of either employees or the organization.
Appraisal of some government is constantly being carried out in our daily lives. Students are frequently appraised at school be teachers to determine the extent to which they have comprehended the lessons taught them and also employees are evaluated to know the extent of their productivities in the organization, appraisal can be either formal or informal or the process can take both forms.
Performance appraisal is the achieving their single device available to an organization for setting and achieving their goals. Typically, goal setting is a process that involves many practices at all level within the organization can be measured in terms of performance achieved in this organization.
At the individual level performance might translate into behaviour and action as rates by superior and peers. Performance appraisal therefore is a process by which an organization obtains feed back about effectiveness of its employees, and it must be standardized and systematic for the future need of the employee and employee as a result of the above benefits many firms have introduced appraisal schemes based on standard and systematic form.
According to Frank (2007) management uses appraisal system to determine the adequacy of an individual moving upward or where other adjustment has to be made.
David and Wesley (2005) stated that appraisal is ought to be carried out by all the day activities in the organization and it must be a systematic and through appraisal process. Besides the manager should ensure that their subordinates are given a free and fair value for their wages or salaries and they should be developed to their full potentials to achieve these as such there must be good working relationship and proper guidance from the supervisor to subordinates.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem this research is trying to solve is of great impact to every organization that carries out performance appraisal. In a not shell performance appraisal help to determine the level of productive of an employee and provide evidence for productivity related to pay. Appraisal also determines the current level of performance the specific incentive to appraise the performance will encourage management of an organization to have a complete knowledge of the details of current performance level. It tries to identify areas for improvement once management of an organization improves its observation on employees at work. It is able to determine employee strength and weakness and to access the intimate knowledge of the workers thereby enabling management to gather sufficient factual information about individual workers for either promotion training or discipline.
Although performance appraisal is a very difficult task because of its nature, in relation to ethical and emotionally charged issues when evaluating performance, many managers and supervisors users appraisal haphazardly such as favoritism godfatherism and nepotism etc.
1.3 Research Questions
The following questions are to be generate for study as guide during the research.
1. How often does management carry out performance appraisal in Auchi Polytechnic?
2. Is there any bias in the performance appraisal process of workers?
3. Does workers see appraisal as an instrument or subjugation?
4. Is there any significant difference in the perception of the appraisal and appraiser as to impact of the feedback on the system?
5. Does the appraisal motive employees to put in their best?
1.4 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses question or formulations are generated for the purpose of this study as a guideline during the research.
1. Ho: Management does not often carry out performance appraisal in Auchi Polytechnic.
HI: Management in Auchi Polytechnic carry out performance appraisal.
2. Ho: There is no any bias in carrying out performance appraisal of an employee.
HI: There is bias in carrying out performance appraisal of an employee.
3. Ho: Workers do not see appraisal as an instrument of subjugation.
Hi: Workers see appraisal as an instrument of subjugation.
4. Ho: There is no significant difference in the perception of the appraisal and appraise as to the impact of the feedback on the system.
HI: There is significant difference in the perception of the appraiser and appraise as to the impact of the feedback on the system.
5. Ho: Appraisal does not motivate employees to put in their best in work.
Hi: Appraisal motivates employees to put in their best in work.
1.5 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to critically examine the performance appraisal system of employees in Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. This study will further identify the strengths and weakness of the appraisal system will be analyzed and useful suggestions will be made especially on how to improve on the present appraisal process so as to achieve the goals of the institution.
1.6 Scope of the Study
In carry out this study the researcher will restrict himself to the employees of Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi and all information be gathered with in the frame of both junior and senior staff of the institution within a period whether performance appraisal is actually a tool for enhancing organizational productivity.
1.7 Significance of the Study
First and foremost, this research is being conducted as an academic exercise in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of a Higher National Diploma Certificate in addition to the above, the research would serve the purpose of educating the reader on the various aspect of appraisal techniques.
The study will also serve as a guide to perspective organizations who want to carry out performance appraisal of their employees.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Due to the larger size of the population difficulties experienced by the researcher, the researcher will only limit his research work to the polytechnic, and effort will be made to reach the top management when necessary.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
In order to provide a more clarity and minimize ambiguity in this study the following terms have been operational definitions.
i. Performance Appraisal: A process of evaluating staff effectiveness against pre-determined job related to performance standard or objective usually set by job description.
ii. Appraisal: Is a judgement of the value performance of nature of a subordinate by a supervisor.
iii. Appraise: A person whose performance is being appraised.
iv. Appraiser: A person who appraise the performance of another.
v. Manager: Any employee who controls other employees towards the achievement of the corporate goals.
vi. Subordinate: Is a person who has a position with less authority and power than somebody else in an organization.
vii. Superior: Is a person who is higher in rank and importance or position in an office or an organization.
viii. Feedback: Report about employees its contribution to the success of the organization.