PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF AUCHI POLYTECHNIC, AUCHI, EDO STATE)


Content

ABSTRACT

Appraisals are what organization makes them, to some, they are boring, routines and time wasted annual victuals for favoritism and nepotism to gearing the people towards making them perform better. These studies focus attention on performance appraisal, as an effective tool in promoting productivity among workers. The study makes use of questionnaire to determine the general perceptions of appraisers. Appraisers and the appraised system adopted in Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. The findings revealed that staff will be given instant feedback after the completion of the performance appraisal exercise in order to know their areas of strengths, weakness etc it is recommended that Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi should embrace both formal and informal appraisal system and these should be transparently conducted. 

 

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

        Title Page                                                                 i

        Certification                                                             ii

        Dedication                                                               iii

        Acknowledgment                                                     iv

        Abstract                                                                   v

        Table of Contents                                                     vi

Chapter One: Introduction                                      1

1.1      Background to the Study                                         1

1.2      Statement of the Problem                                                5

1.3      Research Questions                                                 6

1.4      Research Hypotheses                                               7

1.5      Purpose of the Study                                                       8

1.6      Scope of the Study                                                   8

1.7      Significance of the Study                                         9

1.8      Limitation of the Study                                            9

1.9      Operational Definition of Terms                                       10

Chapter Two: Literature Review                              12

2.1      Introduction                                                             12

2.2      Current Literature Review                                                13

2.3      Methods of Appraisal                                               17

2.4      Reasons for Appraisal                                              18

2.5      Performance Appraisal Problems and Effects          

on Employees                                                          21

2.6      Performance Appraisal Process                                        23

2.7      Productivity and the Performance Appraisal System        24

2.8      Whose Responsibility is it to appraise Job

Performance Workforce                                            26

2.9      Summary of the Study                                             28

Chapter Three: Research Method                           29

3.1      Introduction                                                             29

3.2      Research Design                                                      29

3.3      Population of the Study                                           30

3.4      Sample of the Study                                                30

3.5      Sampling Technique                                                        30

3.6      Instrumentation Materials                                       30

3.7      Methods of Collection/Analysis                                       31

Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis            

and Interpretation                                                    32

4.1      Introduction                                                             32

4.2      Analysis of Data                                                       32

4.3      Interpretation of Data                                              45

4.4      Testing of Hypothesis                                               47

4.5      Discussion                                                               56

Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Conclusion

and Recommendation                                              58

5.1      Summary of Findings                                              58

5.2      Conclusion                                                              60

5.3      Recommendations                                                   60

Bibliography                                                            63

Appendix                                                                 64

Questionnaire                                                          65


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background to the Study

This history of the performance appraisal is quite brief it’s root in the early 20th century can be traced to Taylors pioneering time and motion students. As a distinct and formal management procedures used in the evaluation of work performance, appraisal really dates from the time of the Second World War not more than 60 years ago. The human inclination to judge can create serious motivational ethical and legal problems ion the work place without a structured appraisal system, there is little chance of ensuring that the judgement made will be lawful, fair, defensible and accurate.

Performance appraisal system begins as simple methods of income justify, action that is appraisal was used to decide whether or not the salary or wage of an individual employee was justified. The process was found to be less than ideal, a cut in pay would found follow on the other hand their performance was better than the supervisor expected a pay rise was in order.

Little consideration if any was given to the development possibilities of appraisal. It was felt than a cut in pay a rise should provide the only required impetus for and employees to either improve or continue to perform well.

Performance appraisal is a programmed or system of evaluating employees past and present behavior or act based or a systematic and standardized or of future use of employee and employer. Also performance appraisal is a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and superior which usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or semi annual) in which the work performance of the subordinates in examined and discussed, with a view to indenting weakness and strength as well as opportunities for improvement and development. The future use of performance appraisal by the employee and employer can be in terms of promotion, wage adjustment, can be in terms of employees lay off, training need and good attainment of either employees or the organization.

Appraisal of some government is constantly being carried out in our daily lives. Students are frequently appraised at school be teachers to determine the extent to which they have comprehended the lessons taught them and also employees are evaluated to know the extent of their productivities in the organization, appraisal can be either formal or informal or the process can take both forms.

Performance appraisal is the achieving their single device available to an organization for setting and achieving their goals. Typically, goal setting is a process that involves many practices at all level within the organization can be measured in terms of performance achieved in this organization.

At the individual level performance might translate into behaviour and action as rates by superior and peers. Performance appraisal therefore is a process by which an organization obtains feed back about effectiveness of its employees, and it must be standardized and systematic for the future need of the employee and employee as a result of the above benefits many firms have introduced appraisal schemes based on standard and systematic form. 

According to Frank (2007) management uses appraisal system to determine the adequacy of an individual moving upward or where other adjustment has to be made.

David and Wesley (2005) stated that appraisal is ought to be carried out by all the day activities in the organization and it must be a systematic and through appraisal process. Besides the manager should ensure that their subordinates are given a free and fair value for their wages or salaries and they should be developed to their full potentials to achieve these as such there must be good working relationship and proper guidance from the supervisor to subordinates.

 

1.2      Statement of the Problem

The problem this research is trying to solve is of great impact to every organization that carries out performance appraisal. In a not shell performance appraisal help to determine the level of productive of an employee and provide evidence for productivity related to pay. Appraisal also determines the current level of performance the specific incentive to appraise the performance will encourage management of an organization to have a complete knowledge of the details of current performance level. It tries to identify areas for improvement once management of an organization improves its observation on employees at work. It is able to determine employee strength and weakness and to access the intimate knowledge of the workers thereby enabling management to gather sufficient factual information about individual workers for either promotion training or discipline.

Although performance appraisal is a very difficult task because of its nature, in relation to ethical and emotionally charged issues when evaluating performance, many managers and supervisors users appraisal haphazardly such as favoritism godfatherism and nepotism etc.   

1.3      Research Questions

The following questions are to be generate for study as guide during the research.

1.          How often does management carry out performance appraisal in Auchi Polytechnic?

2.          Is there any bias in the performance appraisal process of workers?

3.          Does workers see appraisal as an instrument or subjugation?

4.          Is there any significant difference in the perception of the appraisal and appraiser as to impact of the feedback on the system?

5.          Does the appraisal motive employees to put in their best?

 

 

1.4      Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses question or formulations are generated for the purpose of this study as a guideline during the research.

1.     Ho:  Management does not often carry out performance appraisal in Auchi Polytechnic. 

        HI:    Management in Auchi Polytechnic carry out performance appraisal.

2.     Ho:  There is no any bias in carrying out performance appraisal of an employee.

        HI:    There is bias in carrying out performance appraisal of an employee.

3.     Ho:  Workers do not see appraisal as an instrument of subjugation.

        Hi:    Workers see appraisal as an instrument of subjugation.

4.     Ho:  There is no significant difference in the perception of the appraisal and appraise as to the impact of the feedback on the system.

        HI:    There is significant difference in the perception of the appraiser and appraise as to the impact of the feedback on the system.

5.     Ho:  Appraisal does not motivate employees to put in their best in work.

        Hi:    Appraisal motivates employees to put in their best in work.                           

1.5      Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to critically examine the performance appraisal system of employees in Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. This study will further identify the strengths and weakness of the appraisal system will be analyzed and useful suggestions will be made especially on how to improve on the present appraisal process so as to achieve the goals of the institution.

1.6      Scope of the Study

In carry out this study the researcher will restrict himself to the employees of Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi and all information be gathered with in the frame of both junior and senior staff of the institution within a period whether performance appraisal is actually a tool for enhancing organizational productivity.  

1.7      Significance of the Study

First and foremost, this research is being conducted as an academic exercise in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of a Higher National Diploma Certificate in addition to the above, the research would serve the purpose of educating the reader on the various aspect of appraisal techniques.

The study will also serve as a guide to perspective organizations who want to carry out performance appraisal of their employees.    

1.8      Limitations of the Study

Due to the larger size of the population difficulties experienced by the researcher, the researcher will only limit his research work to the polytechnic, and effort will be made to reach the top management when necessary. 

 

1.9      Operational Definition of Terms

In order to provide a more clarity and minimize ambiguity in this study the following terms have been operational definitions.

i.            Performance Appraisal: A process of evaluating staff effectiveness against pre-determined job related to performance standard or objective usually set by job description. 

ii.          Appraisal: Is a judgement of the value performance of nature of a subordinate by a supervisor.

iii.       Appraise: A person whose performance is being appraised.

iv.        Appraiser: A person who appraise the performance of another.

v.           Manager: Any employee who controls other employees towards the achievement of the corporate goals.

vi.        Subordinate: Is a person who has a position with less authority and power than somebody else in an organization.

vii.      Superior: Is a person who is higher in rank and importance or position in an office or an organization.

viii.    Feedback: Report about employees its contribution to the success of the organization.

  

 

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