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PLANT USED IN OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION “TUBERCULOSIS” IN WESTERN STATE OF NIGERIA


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ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis T.B, one of the opportunistic infections caused a result of Human Immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) the virus that causes Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which invades the body as result of immune depression on the body system. Myco-bacterium tuberculosis is the causative bacterium that causes tuberculosis T.B in humans. Opportunity infection is defined as an infection by a microorganism that normally does not cause disease but becomes pathogenic when the body’s immune system is impaired and unable to fight off infection. The description of ten medicinal plants that had been used for centuries by local healers for the management and treatment of tuberculosis were mentioned with emphasis on their, Botanical names, local name, family names, common names, parts used, active constituents medicinal uses were mentioned.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

1.1             Some Believes Of Hiv And Its Origin

1.2             Human Immuno Definiency Virus (Hiv)

1.3            Diseases Associated With Hiv

1.4             Ethnobotanical And Ethnopharmacological Studies Of Medicinal Plant Around Africa

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Introduction

3.1 .0   Capsicum     Frutescens

3.1.1  Description

3.1.2       Active Constituents

3.1.3       Parts Used

3.1.4                   Medinal Uses

3.1.5                   Bryophyllum Pinnatum

3.1.6                   Description

3.1.7                   Parts Used

3.1.8   Medicinal Uses

3.2.0       Abrus Precatorius Linne (Jequirity)

3.2.1       Description

3.2.2       Active Constituents

3.2.3       Parts Used

3.2.4       Medicinal Uses

3.2.5       Garcinia Cola

3.2.6       Description

3.2.7       Active Constituents

3.2.8       Medicinal Significance

3.2.9   Active Constituents

3.3.0       Parts Used

3.3.1       Medicinal Uses

3.3.2       Allium Sativum

3.3.3       Description

3.3.4       Active Constituents

3.3.5       Parts Used

3.3.6       Medicinal Uses

3.3.7  Cymbopogon Citratus

 

3.3.8       Description

3.3.9  Active Components

3.4.0       Parts Used

3.4.1       Medicinal Uses

3.4.2  Piper Nigrum

3.4.3       Description

3.4.4       Active Constituents

3.4.5        Parts Used

3.4.6  Medicinal Uses

3.4.7   Citrus Paradisi

 

 

3.48    Description

3.49    Active Constituents

3.50  Parts Used

3.51   Medicinal Uses

3.52  Cocos Nucifera

3.53   Description

3.54         Active Constituent

3.55               Parts Used

3.56         Medicinal Uses

 

4.0       CONCLUSION

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AID                            -           Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

HIV                            -           Human Immunodeficiency Virus

TB                               -           Tuberculosis

M. Tuberculosis      -           Mycobacterium tuberculosis

A Precatorius          -           Abrum Precatorius

WHO                         -           World Health Organization

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome simply called AIDS – is a disease that is rapidly spreading around the whole world. It continues to attract the attention of the government of all the nations and hard working researchers in the field of science and medicine to find a permanent cure.

AIDS is the disease presented when a type of virus (an organism that is not visible to the naked eyes) called Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) gets into the body and destroy the immune system of its host victim (Olapade, 2003).

1.5             SOME BELIEVES OF HIV AND ITS ORIGIN

(1)              Some people claim that it was developed in the laboratory of one of the Western Countries from where it’s accidentally escaped.

(2)              Others claim that its origin was from the developing African Countries.

(3)              It is said that some monkeys like the gorilla which is close to man in terms of evolution carry the virus in their blood stream without the virus creating any health hazards to the animal. (Olapade, 2003).

 

1.6             HUMAN IMMUNO DEFINIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

This lentivirus within the family (Retroviridae). The disease appears to have begun in central Africa as early as the 1950. HIV may have developed in the human population in the 1930s or even earlier.

Epidemiologically AIDS occurs worldwide. The groups most at risk in acquiring AIDS are (in descending order of risk) homosexual / bisexual men, intravenous (IV) drug users, heterosexuals who have intercourse with drug users, prostitutes (sex trade workers) and bisexual, transfusion patient, or hemophiliacs who must receive clotting factor preparations made from donated blood and children born of infected mothers. (Precott e.tal, 2005).

1.7             DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH HIV

All the under listed diseases are otherwise called opportunities diseases because they were caused as a result of defection to the immune system in which the body immune system find it difficult to fight infections as result of HIV (virus) invasion.

1.                  Frequent Fever

2.                  Colds even in hot weather, such that victims wear multiple dresses.

3.                  Coughs that can later become tuberculosis.

4.                  Loss of appetite

5.                  Frequent Diarrhea

6.                  Loss of body weight

7.                  Skin rashes, some of which appear as blisters (Herpes).

8.                  Fragile hairs on the head

9.                  Anaemia or inadequate blood

10.             Loss of strength or general body weakness

11.             White coated tongue that later turns dark with sores in the mouth – candidiasis.

12.             Enlarged lymph nodes and others.

The research is on going to find a permanent cure to HIV menace. But as at the time of this work no known cure has ever been discovered. But in the area of treatments medicinal plants such as, Afromomum meleguata, vitellaria paradoxa, Allium cepa, Alstoria boonei, Cocos, nucifera, Cola acuminata, Cymbopogon citrates, Baphia nitida, Bryophyllum pinnatum and many more have been recorded some successes on the treatment of the disease.

Because of the limitation of this paper work, ten out of numerous medicinal plants that have inhibiting properties on opportunistic infection such tuberculosis - the disease that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Shall be peripherally detailed.

 

1.8             ETHNOBOTANICAL AND ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF MEDICINAL PLANT AROUND AFRICA

Several investigators have carried out several ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies of medicinal plants. Their findings revealed that many of these plants have antimicrobial, antihelminthics and antiviral activities among other properties. Most of the findings were information gathered from herbalist, herbal practitioners or herb sellers. There are claims of cure for the following viral born disease namely yellow fever, measles, hepatitis, mumps, skin rashes, common cold and ever poliomyelitis, tuberculosis among several other viral diseases. The claims showed that these plants species cut across several families, utilizing various plants parts from the leaves, backs roots and stems of either fresh or dried stuff. Some example are: Cymbopogon citratus, Allium sativum, Solinium, nolidiform Hibiscus sabdariffa, Momordica charantia, Vernomia amygdalina, Citrus paradise, Garcinia cola, etc (Odugbemi, 2008).

Opportunistic infections defined as an infections by a micro organisms that normally does not cause disease but becomes pathogenic when the body’s immure system is impaired and unable to fight off infection.


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