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POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMME AS A STRATEGY FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Objective Of The Study
1.4 Significance Of The Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Statement Of Hypothesis
1.7 Scope Of The Study
1.8 Organization Of The Study
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Conceptual Clarification
2.2 Review of Literature
2.2 Strategies for Poverty Alleviation Programmes
2.3 Outstanding Problems and Challenges of Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria/Lagos State
2.5 Policy Measure
2.6 Theoretical Framework
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sampling Techniques
3.7 Data Collection Techniques
3.8 Method Of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Presentation of Data
4.2 Test of Hypotheses
4.3 Summary of Findings
4.4 Discussion of Findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of the Study
1.9 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The emphasis on development is geared more towards actualizing the goal of a viable economy and the ends of development equitable redistribution of incomes and effective utilization of resources for purposes of securing a good quality of life for the citizens. The need for improvement in living standards and the quality of life is thus considered against the phenomenal increase in poverty levels in the less advanced countries where resources and basic amenities are lacking or have not been properly utilized. The inadequacies are revealed by the problems of lack of food, shelter, adequate health facilities, access to education, low employment opportunities and other social services which are symptomatic of the prevalence of poverty in the society. The social disarticulations arising therefore are evidence by the phenomenon of rural-urban drift with its attendant problems and effects on the economy. Apart from the problem of unemployment, crimes, social ills. Poverty is exhibited by deprivations on basic food items, poor eating habits, low social values and its sanitary living conditions. The effect of poverty is that it takes away the tools to build the blocks for the future life ‘chances’. Kanbur (1987), assets that, it steals away the opportunity to have a life unmarked by sickness, a decent education, a secure home and a long retirement.
The focus on poverty alleviation programmes applied in this context relates to efforts made to reduce poverty and to stimulate economic growth. Nigeria has over the years initiated several poverty alleviation programmes at various levels of government but the contention is that neither the programmes nor the strategies adopted so far to pursue them have been fruitful but rather poverty remains pervasive.
A major interest of most researchers/writers on development is to find out why the third world countries Asian, Latin American and African Countries are still facing the problem of eradicating poverty despite numerous poverty Alleviation Strategies that have been adopted to combat poverty. In Nigeria and indeed Lagos State a number of programmes and institutional organs have been established among which are NEPAD, NEEDS, SEEDS and specialized credit institutions with a view to tackle the problem of poverty within the economy. The difficulties encountered in the process of implementation of Poverty Alleviation Strategies that have been adopted so far has partially been responsible for low performance. There are regarded as being more of remedial than providing terminal solutions to the problem. The resultant effect is that the rural areas continue to contend with acute lack of basic amenities such as good drinking water, electricity, motorable roads, communication facilities enough educational and health institutions and other infrastructural facilities. Increased poverty in urban and rural areas encouraged the phenomenon of rural migration. The cities are now being inundated with new comers without accommodations, work or employment who end up living in squalid conditions. The circumstances of their living conditions further increase tendencies to poverty, ill health, congestion and social ills.
Policy Analysts usually associate this migratory tendency to factors of non availability of modern infrastructures such as electricity, housing, efficient communication network, pipe-borne water and other facilities which can attract young people from the rural to urban areas. For this study poverty alleviation as a strategy for economic development is seen as a process of improving the people with the necessity of life which leads to the improvement of economic activities, social, political condition and to raise standard of living and reduce poverty. The interest of this research work is to make a carefully study of some strategies adopted by successive government in Nigeria and to find out if these strategies has contributed to the reduction of poverty and increase economic development in Nigeria and particularly in Lagos State.
1.10 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Nigerian economy began to experience severe recession from the early 1980’s and as a result of which she degenerated from a middle level income and expanding industrial base to become one of the poorest nations in the world (CBN, 2001). This has caused various governments in the past to adopt various poverty alleviation strategies to tackle the problem of poverty, such strategies include among others, Better Life for Rural Dwellers Programmes (BLP) Family Support Programme (FSP) Family Economy Advancement Programme (FEAP) etc. Despite the core poverty alleviation programmes and other programmes with mandate for poverty pervasive, the rural areas are still confronted with problem of poverty, malnutrition, diseases, ignorance, illiteracy, low employment, lack of basic infrastructure, exodus movement of people from rural areas to urban cities. This appear to cast doubt as to whether these poverty alleviation strategies have been properly implemented or has make any significant impact on the poor and enhance economic development.
The failure of these strategies to achieve their goals for individuals and the society at large in Nigeria and indeed Lagos State has continued to plague the minds of policy makers. The evidence is in the poor conditions of roads, lack of electricity, water supply, living in slums, poor households face food security before harvest time and are limited to starch-based diets, state food and left over. The consequences of this conditions is that it has militated against the rapid development of the rural areas, as most of the able body men who could have stayed to develop the rural areas, now move to the urban cities in search of jobs, good education, good health facilities. This in turn has caused the urban areas, to be more densely populated and devoid of much need to meet the requirement of the new entrance. This undue influx of immigrants has contributed to the growing economic strain on the city as evidence by inflationary trends, unemployment and high cost of living, in some cases, this congestion has led to out break of epidermis, high mortality rate, poor sanitary conditions, increase crime rate and other social ills.
Studies conducted in different countries have tried to identify the poor, for instance, most studies conclude that about 90% of the poor people in Third World today are to be found in Brazil, Central America, China, Indo-China, Mongolla, South Asia and Sub-Sahara Africa. But poverty is not a phenomenon exclusive to Third World Countries. In a comparative study of some advanced industrialized countries, Atkinson (1975) concludes that in the United States, the poor include the aged (over 65 years) minority racial groups and those living in urban slums.
The growing incidence and the dynamics of poverty in Nigeria have stratified and polarized Nigerian society between the haves and the have not, between the north and south, between the educated and the uneducated, poor parents beget poor children creating a kind of dynasty of the poor. The resulting tensions and social conflicts have eroded the fabric that held society together.
It is against this background that this research study is being carried out in order to find out the extent to which these strategies have enhanced economic development and improved standard of living. Using some rural development indices such as poverty reduction, employment opportunities etc.
The interest of this research is to find out if these strategies have actually solved problems like poverty, lack of employment and economic development of the rural people.
1.11 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This research is being undertaken for several reasons. The general objective of the study is to determine the impact of poverty alleviation programmes as a strategy for economic development with particular reference to Lagos State more specifically, the objectives are;
(1) To highlight the essence of the poverty alleviation with economic growth strategy and the rationality of investing in people.
(2) To provide background information and assess the effectiveness of the various strategies adopted for poverty alleviation.
(3) To assess policy implications as well as challenges militating against poverty strategies.
1.12 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will be very useful to governments, individual, non-governmental organization (NGO’s).
The study has the potential of providing effective relief from the immediate deprivation suffered by poor households in respect of basic necessities such as nutrition, healthcare, schooling, housing and portable water.
The study is also intended to integrate the poor more fully into the development process so that they can continue to improve their situations. Also, an identifying premium will be placed on labour – intensive projects and those that enhance productivity performance and improve the earning capacity of the poor.
Lastly the study is primarily to encourage NGO’s to participate in all stages of the development process in their chosen field from designing policy and decision making to implementation and evaluation.
1.13 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions have been raised to address the problems of this research work:
i. Does poverty alleviation programmes have any influence on economic development in Lagos State?
ii. To what extent has credit facilities and skill acquisition trainings reduce poverty?
iii. How does the strategy for poverty alleviation programme affect availability of employment opportunity?
1.14 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The following hypotheses are formulated and would be tested in the study:
v Hypothesis One:
H0: There is no significant relationship between the degree of poverty alleviation programmes and economic development.
H1: There is a significant relationship between the degree of poverty alleviation programmes and economic development.
v Hypothesis Two:
H0: There is no significant relationship between the provision of credit facilities to micro-enterprises and skill acquisition trainings and poverty alleviation.
H1: There is a significant relationship between the provision of credit facilities to micro-enterprises and skill acquisition trainings and poverty alleviation.
v Hypothesis Three:
H0: There is no significant relationship between the degree of poverty alleviation programme and the availability of employment opportunities.
H1: There is a significant relationship between the degree of poverty alleviation programme and the availability of employment opportunities.
1.15 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is limited to three local government areas in Lagos State. These LGA’s include , Mushin, Ikorodu and Epe Local Government Areas. Those LGA were chosen because of the cost implication of carrying out a study on poverty alleviation programme that will cover the entire state. Therefore findings from the sample LGA’s will allow for a wider generalization due to their peculiarity of under-development in the State.
The study is limited to the role of poverty alleviation programmes as a strategy for economic development.
1.16 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The following is the brief outline of what the study will look like. Chapter one will be the general introduction of the study; its background, statement of problem, objective, significance and scope of the study. It also contains the research questions and research hypothesis as well as conceptual clarification. Chapter two will be the review or related literature and theoretical framework of the study while chapter three will focuses on research design and methodology, sampling techniques or procedure, research instrumentation and techniques of data analysis. Presentation of data, tests of hypotheses and discussion of findings will be covered in chapter four while chapter five will concludes the study with summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.