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- THE CENTRALITY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AND NATIONAL INTEGRATION: AN OVERVIEW OF IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.
- A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CULT OF AYELALA IN ILAJE ESE- ODO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE.
- WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION (A CASE OF SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT)
- EFFECTS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON PROFITABILITY AND CORPORATE IMAGE OF A PRIVATE ORGANIZATION “A SURVEY OF SOME MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA”
PREDISPOSING FACTORS TOWARDS THE ORGANIZATION OF YOUTHS SPORTS PROGRAMME IN SELECTED PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the predisposing factors towards the organisation of Youths Sports Programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State. A total of Two hundred (200) samples of the population from selected Private Secondary Schools in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State using stratified random sampling techniques. Data was collected with the use of structured self-developed questionnaire.
Data collected were analysed using the frequency counts and simple percentage for demographic data while the inferential statistics of Chi-square (X²) were used to test the four (4) hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings from reveal that, funds, adequate facilities and equipments, corporate sponsorship and competent coaches were predisposing factor towards the organization of youths sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State. Based on this, conclusions and recommendations were made.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 3
Purpose of the Study 4
Research Questions 4
Research Hypotheses 5
Significance of the Study 5
Delimitation of the Study 6
Limitations of the Study 6
Operational Definitions of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
History of Sports 10
Historical Background Sports Development in Nigeria 11
Concept of Sport 14
Functions of sports 16
The Origin and Emergence of Organized Competitive Sport 17
Factors towards the Organisation of Youths Sports Programme 20-28
· Lack of Funds 20
· Lack of Adequate Facilities and Equipments 22
· Lack of Corporate Sponsorship 25
· Lack of Competent Coaches 28
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 31
Population of the Study 31
Sample and Sampling Procedure 31
Research Instrument 31
Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument 32
Procedure for Data Collection 32
Procedure of Data Analysis 32
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Presentation of Results 33
Data Analysis 33
Discussion of Findings 36
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Appendix I: Sample questionnaire 49
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Sport participation is as old as man itself. In the Stone Age era, man had to strive hard for food, hunt animals, farm and look for shelter. During his adventure for daily bread, he might likely be chased by animals (wild), thereby forcing him to run for his dear life. Hence, the early man participation in sporting activities was an instrument for survival. United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force for Development and Peace defined Sports “as the activity that contributes to physical fitness, mental well-being and social interactions such as play, recreation, organised or competitive Sport and indigenous sports and games”. Adedeji (2007) described sports as a sub-division of games which have common characteristics like physical performance, standard set of rules to be followed by all concerned form of opposition.
The emergence of youth sport organizations during the past half century has resulted in a new aspect of socialization of children and the nature of their leisure (Coakley 2006). Organized youth sport in particular is highly valued by many children as a popular extracurricular activity, with both ‘fun and participatory’ and/or ‘competitive and winning’ aspects.
Many parents also value organized youth s]port and purposively seek out programs for their child’s involvement, parents perceive that organized sport programs may help enhance their child’s physical and social growth and development (Iwasaki, 2005; Coakley, 2006). Organized youth sport is also believed to facilitate important cultural lessons in the areas of character building, teamwork, responsibility, cooperation and competition; all attributes that are valued within a capitalist society (Kinney and Hofferth, 2003).
The importance of sports to a country cannot be ignored especially among the youth which serves as prime movers in diverse national issues. Sports develop the youths physically, socially, mentally and emotionally. Butcher (2008) opined that sporting activities provides situations that are physically wholesome, mentally stimulating and society sound. When youths sports are organized, participation in such sports is seen as a means of correction illness, a medium for cultural change and a source of revenue generation for the nation (Odejide, 2006).
Organized youth sport has been a topic of considerable research in recent years, particularly in demonstrating the benefits of participation. Research has examined the psychological, moral and physical importance of the sport experiences as it relates to the child’s growth, development, and performance. Of significant note are the physical benefits of sport in combating childhood obesity and countering negative risk behaviors such as alcohol and drug use (Iwasaki, 2005).
As Coakley and Donnelly (2009) point out: “organized sports is often a family affair. From a routine activities perspective, participation in sports programs reduces boredom and the amount of time youth spend in idle, unsupervised social contexts. In other words, compared with their uninvolved peers, sports participants simply have less unsupervised leisure time in which to engage in risky activities – including violence (Bailey, 2005).
Ogundare (2007) stated that since sports provide experience that helps achieve purposeful living, it should thus, form an integral part of National Education Programme. The idea is that if organized youths sports programs operate in high-risk communities where vandalism, property crime, drug dealing and gang activity persist, the physical presence of participants (including adult supervisors and athletes) will discourage youth from offending in that area (Nichols and Crow, 2004). Sports might have on the psychological development of young people. Some theorists, for example, claim that since delinquent youth often seek excitement and stimulation, sports can offer an alternative to anti-social behavior.
Family exerts a powerful influence is shaping activity interest and individual dreams of youths (children) to participate in sports. Yusuf (2203) and Urom (2002) found out that parents of the Olympic athletes tend to engage in similar activities.
Organized youths sports equip individuals with sports skills which he or she use during leisure time, engage in as a profession or a health enhancing measure; many youths are made through sports participation. Berger and Littlefield (2005) pointed out that participation in sports may encourage the development of favourable personality traits that may enhance popularity. It is therefore the concern of the researcher is to investigate the predisposing factors towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
Private secondary schools in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state do organize inter-school sports competition and inter-house sports Among the Universities. Sport is organized by the Nigerian Universities’ Games Association, among the Colleges of Education, sport is co-ordinated by the Nigerian Colleges of Education Games Association (NICEGA), and the Nigerian Polytechnic Games Association (NIPOGA) organizes sports competitions among students from different polytechnics. All these are organized in order to encourage youth’s performance and also to promote oneness.
In addition to the growing popularity, youths sports is also significant because parents are now increasingly involved in and concerned about the participation of their children in organized youths sports.
In spite of the above, the organization of youths sports programme has still been unproductive due to some factors. This study is therefore designed to determine the predisposing factors towards the organization of youths sports programmed.
PURPOSE OF STUDY:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the predisposing factors towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state.
Below are the research questions that will be explored in this study’
1. Will lack of fund be a predisposing factor towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state?
2. Will lack of adequate facilities and equipments be a predisposing factor towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state?
3. Will lack of corporate sponsorship be a predisposing factor towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state?
4. Will lack of competent coaches in sports club be a predisposing factor towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state?
1. Lack of fund will not be significantly a predisposing factor towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state.
2. Lack of adequate facilities and equipments will not be will not be significantly a predisposing factor towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state.
3. Lack of corporate sponsorship will not be will not be significantly a predisposing factor towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state.
4. Lack of competent coaches in youth’s sports club will not be significantly a predisposing factor towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:
It is widely believed that participation of youths in sports offers them opportunities to compete favourably in a cordial atmosphere of healthy, mutual and competitive understanding. From recent trends of events, sports have proved that it has something to offer the society. It has been accepted as a means of fostering the development of physical, mental, emotional and social efficiency as well as recreational skills.
This study will provide the benefits of youth sports in private schools in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state and also reveal the predisposing factors towards the organization of youths sports in private schools in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state.
This study is expected to point out to the factors that stand as obstacles to making the organization of youth sports programme possible and successful. It will also recommend some ways to mitigate or deal with those obstacles, thereby leading to a positive result that will be beneficial to the youths, the government and the society at large.
This study to the society cannot be over emphasized. When youths engage in organized sports, it helps a great deal in relieving the society of social misconducts. Organized youths sports is also believed to facilitate important cultural lessons in areas of character-building, team work, responsibility, co-operation and competition; all attributes that are valued within a capitalist society (Hofferth, 2003).
To the Government at the local, state and national levels, youths sports are of great benefits. The youth’s participation in sports and sporting events has taken the nation’s name to greater heights. Nigeria has been recognized through sports and sporting events.
DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
This study will be delimited to the following;
1. All private secondary schools in Surulere Local Government Area in Lagos state.
2. Three (3) Private Secondary Schools within Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state were selected using purposive sampling techniques, fifty (50) students from each school making a total of two hundred (200) respondents from the sampled local government using Stratified Random Sampling Techniques.
3. The use of well structured questionnaire form as an instrument for data collection.
4. A total of two hundred (200) copies of questionnaires were administered to the respondents by the researcher and his assistants. The entire administered questionnaires were retrieved the same day to avoid loss.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
The following limitations are perceived in the course of this study;
1. Negative attitudes of some students towards research work, the researcher would encourage the respondents to be optimistic about filling the questionnaire.
2. Reluctancy of some students to fill some parts of the questionnaires or supply of false information. Researcher guarantees respondents that all information collected will be used for research purpose.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Youth: the time of life between childhood and adulthood (maturity).
Sport: This involves all form of competitive activity through casual or organized participation aim to use, maintain or improve ability and provide entertainment to participants.
Organization: To organize means to put together into an orderly, functional and structured whole.
Programme: A written or printed list of events, performers, etc in an event.
Factor: A latin word meaning “who or which acts”.
Predispose: to influence.
Facilities: These are permanent and usually more durable sports structure such as gymnasium, swimming pool, tenis court, etc.
Equipments: These are moveable sports materials such as racket, ball hockey sticks, etc.