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PREVALENCE AND EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE, SMOKING AND ALCOHOLISM ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
The study examined the prevalence and effect of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism on students’ academic performance in Ajeromi-Ifelodun Educational District of Lagos State. It also explored some relevant and related literature which was carried out in sub-headings. The descriptive research survey design was applied in the assessment of the samples’ opinions with the use of the sampling technique and the questionnaire. A total of 160 (one hundred and sixty) respondents were sampled and used in this study to represent the entire population of the study. Five null hypotheses were generated and tested in this study using the independent t-test and the One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the analyses, the following results emerged: there is a significant effect of drug abuse on students’ academic performance in schools, there is a significant effect of smoking on students’ academic performance in schools, here is a significant effect of alcoholism on students’ academic achievement in schools, there is a significant difference in the academic performance of students who abuse drugs, smoke and drink and those who do not, and there is a gender difference in the academic performance of students due to drug abuse in schools. Based on the data analyses and conclusions thereof, the following recommendations were made: Drugs should be kept out of the reach of children and students; and guidance and counselling services should be carried out in our school on regular basis to educate students on the negative tendencies of drug abuse.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study 8
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms and Variables 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.0 Introduction 9
2.1 Definition of Drug Abuse 10
2.2 Types of Drug, Smoking and Alcohol 11
2.3 Causes of Drug Abuse, Smoking & Alcoholism 16
2.4 Effects of Drug and Alcoholic Abuse on Adolescents’ Behaviours/
Academic Performance 21
2.5 Signs and Symptoms of Drug Abuse 24
2.6 Prevention and Control of Drug and Alcoholic Abuse 26
2.7 Effects of Drug Abuse on Social Interaction or Adjustment 31
2.8 Influence of Drugs on Mental Health 34
2.9 Influence of Drug Abuse on Students’ Academic Performance 35
2.10 Influence of Drug Abuse/Alcoholic Abuse and Smoking
on the Community/Society 38
2.11 Summary of Literature Review 41
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology 43
3.1 Research Design 43
3.2 Location/Area of Study 44
3.3 Population 44
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 44
3.5 Research Instrument 45
3.6 Validity of Instrument 45
3.7 Reliability of Instrument 46
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection 46
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 46
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 47
4.1 Introduction 47
4.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data 47
4.3 Hypotheses Testing 49
4.4 Summary of Findings 54
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 55
5.0 Introduction 55
5.1 Discussion of Findings 55
5.2 Summary of the Study 63
5.3 Conclusions of the Study 64
5.4 Recommendations 65
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies 66
1.1 Background to the Study
Drug refers to substance which by virtue of the chemical nature they possess, is capable of influencing the structure and function of living tissue (Ogunlade and Oladehinde, 1995). Drugs include, those synthetically produced as well as those obtained from plants and the concentrate, extracts etc. Rotimi (2000) define substance abuse as any pattern of substance use that results in repeated adverse social consequences, related to drug taking such as failure to meet work, family or school obligations and interpersonal conflicts. Substance abuse can begin at any age. There are some parents who deliberately introduce their children to alcohol consumption at an early age.
The rate at which adolescents indulge in the act of drug abuse and alcoholism is remarkably high. Drug abuse and alcohol are important problems that affect school teenagers at earlier ages. Young people more often experiment with alcohol, tobacco and other drugs during the secondary school period. Rotimi (2008) posited that 73% of students under his study said that they have used alcohol before; 65% had used tranquilizers; cocaine 6%, opium 5%, methamphetamine 4%, heroin 3%. He further stated that 79% of the students indicated social reasons such as partying, 29% said that they indulge in the acts for academic reasons. Nevertheless, 16% of the students said that their academic performance had suffered as a result of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism.
Priscilla, Kenneth, Riyadh, Nilen (The America Public Health Journal, 2007) stated that prevalence rate of alcohol use, binge drinking, cigarette and marijuana smoking were significantly high among students with better academic performance, (P<0.1) compared with students with better academic performance, whereas in South Africa, prevalence rate was higher among students with better academic performance (P<.05).
Moreso, Shehu and Idris opined that current use of cigarette and cannabis occurred significantly more in the male population. No significant sex differences were noted for other drugs (Salicylates, analgesics, antibiotics and stimulants).
However, it is conspicuous that the use of drugs, smoking and alcoholism is present among secondary school students, regardless of gender difference. Therefore, this study intends to examine the prevalence and effect of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism among senior secondary school students within the area of intended study.
Drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism are considered to be a major public health particularly among students. Rotimi (2000) in his study on prevalence of drug abuse observed that 94% of the respondents had used drugs before. Alcohol was the commonest substance of abuse (75%). The negative impact of drug use was seen mostly on their academic performance, thus, the use of drugs, smoking and alcoholism was prevalently very high.
The worrisome trend in the abuse of drugs smoking and alcoholism and its numerous consequence has revealed that there is a high prevalence. Eneh and Stanley, (2004) conducted a study on the pattern of substance use among one thousand and forty nine (1049) students of four secondary school in Port-Harcourt, River State, Nigeria. He used self administered questionnaire that showed that eighty seven percent (87%) of the respondents were using at least one substance.
The negative consequences of drug abuse and alcoholism span well beyond the parameters of secondary school as the users themselves, the school and the community are affected. The acts are associated with increased absenteeism from class and poor academic performance. The majority of injuries, accidents, vandalism, sexual assaults, rape, fighting, armed robbery, thuggery and other crimes in and off the school premises are linked to alcohol and other drug use.
Moreso, some factors responsible for drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism are as a result of influence of friends at parties, school mates relations at night parties, family background and the media among others. Some students indulge in the acts of ignorance of the effects.
Thus, it is imperative to shed light on the prevalence and effect of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism in the local educational district of the intended study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem inherent in drug abuse, smoking, alcoholism and their effects on students’ academic performance cannot be overemphasized. This is because, abuse of drug, smoking of cigarette, Indian-hemp, cocaine or and heroine, and reckless in-take of alcohol, militate against students’ high academic achievement in schools.
Not only that, the prevalence of assorted criminal acts and or school disciplinary problems perpetrated by students these days cannot be separated from their bent minds which is as a result of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism. For this reasons, many students are involved in rape cases, stealing, fraudulent activities in examinations, violent demonstrations, sexual recklessness, disrespect to both school authorities and parents, bullying and other immoral acts that are against the norms and values of any decent society or ideal school system.
The above identified problems gave rise to the examination of prevalence and effect of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism on students’ academic performance in schools.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study intends to investigate the prevalence and effect of the drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism on students’ academic performance in Ajeromi Ifelodun Educational District. The following are the specific objectives of the study:
(1) to establish the effect of drug abuse on students’ academic performance in schools.
(2) to examine the effect of smoking on students academic performance in schools.
(3) to investigate the effect of alcoholism on students’ academic achievement in schools.
(4) to examine the difference in the academic performance of students who abuse drugs, smoke and drink and those who do not.
(5) to examine reasons adolescents engage in drug abuse, smoking, and alcoholism.
(6) to establish whether there is gender difference in the academic performance of students who abuse drugs in schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be asked in this study:
(1) Does drug abuse affect students’ academic performance in schools?
(2) Does smoking affect students’ academic performance in schools?
(3) Will alcoholism affect students’ academic achievement in schools?
(4) Is there any difference in the academic performance of students who abuse drugs and those who do not?
(5) Why do adolescent engage in drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism?
(6) Will there be any gender difference in the academic performance of students due to drug abuse in schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be formulated and tested in this study.
(1) There will be no significant effect of drug abuse on students’ academic performance in schools.
(2) There will be no significant effect of smoking on students’ academic performance in schools.
(3) There will be no significant effect of alcoholism on students’ academic achievement in schools.
(4) There will be no significant difference in the academic performance of students who abuse drugs , smoke and drink and those who do not.
(5) There will be no gender difference in the academic performance of students due to drug abuse in schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be useful by providing information to students who ignorantly smoke, drink and abuse drugs. It will shed light on the effects of the aforementioned on their health, academics and social functions. It will be useful to students who are not practicing any of the above.
Also, the findings will be useful to schools, homes and the society at large. It will give useful information to anyone who may be interested in researching on the topic or something related.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The findings of the study will be limited to five senior secondary schools under Ajeromi Ifelodun Educational District. The schools will be selected from the 36 schools under Ajeromi Ifelodun Educational District.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms and Variables
In other to avert misinterpretation of words, the following will be interpreted based on the context of the study.
i. Prevalence: This refers to the extent or proportion at which students commonly drugs, drink and smoke within a particular period of time.
ii. Effect: This means the consequences or result of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism on students who consume them. For example, unruly behaviour, absenteeism and so on.
iii. Performance: This is the achievement or grades acquired by the students in the achievement test that will be administered.
iv. Drug: These are the chemicals consumed by students e.g. barbiturate, amphetamines, heroine, narcotic, nicotine, valium etc.
v. Abuse: This is the wrong and harmful use of drug to enhance performance.
vi. Smoking: This is an act of inhaling the smoke of burning tobacco, bush encase in cigarette or papers.