1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Research Questions

1.5     Research Hypothesis

1.6     Significance of the Study

1.7     Scope of the Study

1.8     Operational Definition of Terms




2.1     An Overview of Principal and Supervision of Instruction

2.2     Assessing the Role of the Principal

2.3     Duties of the Principal

2.4     The Current Quality Assurance in Educational System  

2.5     School Principalship, Functions and Quality Assurance

2.6     Rationale for School Supervision

2.7     Skills Required For Supervision      

2.8     The nature of lesson plan

2.9     Lesson presentation

2.10   Reference materials     

2.11   The relationship between teachers and students

2.12   Classroom management

2.13   Personality of the teacher

2.14   Barriers along the Way

2.15   Supervision with Vision

2.16   Obligation of the Principal   

2.17   Principle for Principals

2.18   Problems in the Secondary School System in Nigeria

2.19   Teachers

2.20   Community and Society

2.21   Accountability and Academic Performance

2.22   The Nature and Conceptual Framework on School Supervision


                                                      CHAPTER THREE


3.1    Introduction

3.2    Research Design

3.3     Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.5       Research Instrument

3.6       Validity of Instruments

3.7       Reliability of Instruments

3.8       Procedure for Data Collection

3.9      Procedure for Data Analysis




4.1     Introduction

4.2     Statistical presentation

4.3     Discussion of Findings


                                            CHAPTER FIVE



5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

5.4     Implications for Administration












Background to the Study

The issue of quality in any education system cannot be compromised. The quality of educational administrators (principals), teachers and learners (students) in any nation determines the quality of its citizenry.

The changes in the educational sector in Nigeria, especially in education district five (v) demands that the school principals play a bigger and more important role in educational supervision.

(Grauwe and Carron, 2004) states that principal supervisory roles in schools particularly on its teaching and non teaching staff services is an important concern because it plays an important role in the quality of education that the school provides to its students.

Ajayi (1985) describes school principal’s opinion of school inspectors as that of a feeling of superiority on the part of inspectors whose interest is only in the well-being of students with no consideration for teachers.

Principal’s supervisory role is a critical issue in educational leadership. It involves lots of leadership aspects, identifying, supervision, teacher’s skills, students’ performance, the effectiveness of the types and technical skills.

The National Policy OF Education (2004) under the Ministry of Education revealed how the principal prime role of educational leadership, must be effective. Principals should be efficient and spend most of their time in organizing learning activities in schools. Maintaining an effective school supervision, acting as consultants, adviser and coordinator for teaching and learning activities in schools is one of their important job. They should spend more time in teachers and students’ professional activities, not only working in their rooms issuing memos and directive or circulars. In relation to that,

Yunus (2012) found that educational supervision is a dynamic process in education aiming at improving the quality of teaching and learning.

Nwankwo (2004) opined that supervision can be divided into categories. These are instructed and personnel supervision, instructional supervision has been defined as a set of activities, which are carried out with the purpose of making the teaching and learning purpose better for the learners.

Personnel supervision on the other hand, deals with the set of activities, which are carried out by the supervisor with the basic aim of sensitizing mobilizing and monitoring staff in the school towards performing their duties ultimately in terms of achievement of the stated aims and objectives of the educational system.

Principals are responsible for the administration of admission, health, lunchroom, textbooks, supplies, records and many other auxiliaries in the educational system. Therefore, the role of a school administrator or a principal is to supervise, planning, developed competitive strategies for the school. The principal is this faced with the responsibility of supervising teachers generally to improve their instructional effectiveness, make recommendations and also manage both human and material resources towards achieving the principal as the head of the school as the architect of the quality of activities in the school and the quality of academic achievement of students depends on the quality of instructional performance.


Statement of the Problem

The ultimate goal of Junior or Senior Secondary Education is to develop the individuals’ mental capacity and character for higher education and useful living within the society (FRN: NPE, 4th edition, 2004). In spite of the societal demand for quality assurance, that is, the process of ensuring effective resource output, control refining the process and raising the standards of output in order to meet the set goal and satisfy public accountability likewise, the need for thorough supervision instead, there is a growing concern about the realization of secondary education objectives due to doubt that many principals give little attention to supervision of instructional activities in secondary schools.


Consequently, there have been steady decline in teachers’ instructional task performance and students’ academic performance which depicts non-realization of quality assurance in secondary schools (Ajayi 2002). It is against this nature, that the study sets out to examine principals supervisory task and academic performance of JSS 3 students in District V. Lagos State. The identified gaps and challenges include the followings.

·        Lack of commitment to supervision by many principals       

·        Lack of proper monitoring and evaluation of students’ learning outcomes.

·        Inadequate training facilities to develop teachers for professional growth and increased productivity.

·        Lack of adoption of code of conduct for learners (students).


Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the principals supervisory duties at large and the effect to academic performance to JSS 3 students in Lagos State District V.

Specifically the study sets out to:

·        Examine the extent at which principals duties in the school system.

·        Find out whether principals’ supervision towards teachers will significantly influence teachers’ productivity.

·        Determine if principals’ administrative roles will enhance the teaching and learning in secondary schools.

·        Ascertain whether principal’s supervisory will influence teachers commitment to work in secondary schools.


Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered during the course of this study.

·        Will principal’s competency to work influence the learning habit in schools?

·        Will principal’s supervision towards teachers significantly influence teachers productivity?

·         Will principal’s administrative roles enhance the teaching and learning in secondary schools?

·        Will principal’s supervisory influence teachers commitment to work in secondary schools?


Research Hypothesis

Ho1:  There is no significant perception of principals towards the learning habit of the students.

Ho2:  There is no significant relationship between teachers’ job satisfaction and teachers’ productivity

Ho3:  There is no significant relationship between principals administrative roles and teaching and learning in secondary schools.

Ho4:  There is no cordial relationship between principal’s supervisory and teachers commitment to work in secondary schools.


Significance of the Study

This study will be of more benefit to various school administrators, ministries of education and other affiliated government agencies.

It will help various school principals to understand the benefit of effective school supervision as a quality control measure at various levels of education especially, at Junior Secondary Schools in Education District V.

It will enable school administrators to know the best school supervision techniques to adopt in order to maintain standard academic performance of the students and school effectiveness.

This will also enhance school administrators to understand their position on their job towards effective routine supervision of teachers, non-teaching staff, registration, documentations, information and students’ academic performance.

The ministry of Education will also benefit from this study through proper planning and implementation of supervision policies to various school management.

This will also make the ministries to help in school supervision as a quality control measures through proper inspection and good interrelationship in the administrative duties and positive increase on academic performance of the students.

It will also benefit the government agencies through provision of schools facilities, conducive academic environment and improve standard of education.

The need to strengthen the principal efficient instructional supervision at secondary schools especially at JSS 3 is indispensable because it will aid to improve the students’ performance in Junior West African Certificate Examination.


Scope of the Study

As a result of several constraints, time limitations, this study emphasizes on the principal’s supervisory duties and academic performance of JSS 3 students in Education District V Lagos State.                  


Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined as they will be used during the course of this study

·        The Concept School: This is an environment where children go to be taught and educated. A typical example is a secondary school. In this study, school is the first factor to considered because it is a place where the principal will exercise his regular duties both on the teacher and the learners.

·        The Concept Principal: Principal refers to the head of a school or other educational institution. Fullen (1992:41) sees the principal as actively engaged as initiator or facilitator of continuous improvement in his school.

In this study, the principal refers to somebody who, as head of the school, plans, initiates, supervises and organizes the teaching and learning activities in the school. To accomplish that he works co-operatively with the educators.  

·        The Concept Supervision: This is a leadership role that entails coordinating and managing of the school activities concerned with teaching and learning Daresh (1982:2) sees supervision as a process of overseeing the ability of people to meet the goals of the organization in which they work.

Wills & Bondi’s (1991:8) definition of supervision focuses on administration, curriculum, instruction, human relations, management and leadership. According to this study, supervision aims at the development of the teacher’s knowledge, skills and work environment, to facilitate pupil’s learning to achieve the goals of the organization.

·        The Concept Academic performance: They refer to the quality of education taught in the school system. In the aspect of learning habit of the students, they need to be very serious with their academics in order to obtain good grade at the end of the term.

·        The Concept Learning: Learning means acquiring knowledge, skills and information. Schmeeck (1983) defines learning as acquiring and retention of knowledge or as an interpretative process aimed in understanding of the lessons being taught. In this study, learning means acquiring knowledge on information, processing it and where possible applying it.

·        The Concept Teaching: Teaching means importing knowledge and skills to the learners. According to the Oxford Dictionary teaching means what is taught.

Ubben & Hughes’ (1987:110) definition concurs with the above when they regard teaching as imparting content  or information which learners need to improve their skills. In this study teaching means giving out knowledge to learners with a view to help them develop new skills.



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