The study investigated planning and utilization of school plant and students’ academic performance in selected secondary schools in Lagos State. Three research questions and five hypotheses were raised and analysed in the study. The study adopted the cross sectional survey research design which included public, private and federal schools in Education District IV in Lagos State. Four hundred and twenty three (423) subjects were randomly selected across the schools in the district and used as the sample of the study. Questionnaires were major instruments used to facilitate data collection from the respondents. The study was limited to junior secondary school (JSS III), senior secondary school (SS III) classes and teachers of English, Mathematics, Integrated Science, Social Studies, and Economics in 22 schools in the Education District IV of Lagos State due to financial constraints. Data collected were analyzed using the simple percentage and Chi-square method of statistics. However, the study revealed that a significant relationship exist between adequate provision of school plant and academic performance of students in secondary schools in Lagos State; adequate provision and functional school physical plants are good strategies for enhancing a high level of academic performance and rapid increases in the school enrolments without a corresponding increase in the provision of educational facilities contributes to poor performance of students in education. The study therefore recommends among others that material resources for all subject areas should be sufficiently supplied to all the secondary schools in Lagos State and Philanthropists, Parent-Teachers Association should be encouraged to contribute their own quota to the development of secondary schools in the state. 





Title Page                                                                                           i

Certification                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgment                                                                               iv

Abstract                                                                                             v

Table of Content                                                                                vi

List of Tables                                                                                     ix



Introduction                                                                                      1

Background to the Study                                                                  1

Statement of Problem                                                                        9

Purpose of Study                                                                               10

Significance of the Study                                                                  10

Objectives of the Study                                                                      11     

Research Question                                                                            11

Research Hypotheses                                                                        12

Limitation of the Study                                                                      12

Definition of Terms                                                                            13


Review of Related Literature                                                             

Empirical Review of Literature                                                           14

Concept of Examination Malpractice                                                 14     

Concept of Study Habits                                                                    16

The Formation of Study habits                                                                    18

The Concept of Attitude                                                                     19

Formation and Manifestation of Attitude                                           21

Theoretical review of Literature                                                         22

Theories of Attitude changes                                                              22     

Theories of Examination Malpractice                                                 24

Summary of Literature                                                                      49                                           


Methodology                                                                                      54

Research Design                                                                                54

Population of the Study                                                                     54

Samples                                                                                            55

Sampling technique                                                                          55

Instrument of the Data Analysis                                                        55

Method of Data Analysis                                                                   56

Procedure of Data Collection                                                              56

Validity of Instrument                                                                        58

Reliability of Instrument                                                                   58


Data Analysis and Interpretation of Results                                      60-74



Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

Summary                                                                                          75

Discussion                                                                                        76

Implication  s                                                                                     79

Conclusions                                                                                      80     

Recommendations                                                                             80

Suggestions for further research                                                       82

References                                                                                        84




Table I:        Description of Sample’s Sex

Table II:       Age Distribution of Respondents.

Table III:      Educational Qualification of the Parents..

Table IV:      Mother’s Qualification.

Table V:       Are you living with your Parents?

Table VI:      Religion of Respondents.

Table VII:     Secondary School Students’ Study Habits”

Table VIII:    Secondary School Students’ Attitudes Towards Examination Malpractice.

Table IX:     Relationship Between Students’ Study Habit and Attitudes Towards Examination.

Table X:      Difference in Male and Female Study Habits.

Table XI:     Difference in Male and Female Students’ Attitudes Towards Examination Malpractices.

Table XII:    Relationship Between Students’ Study Habits and Examination Malpractice.

Table XIII:   Difference between Male and Female Student’s Study Habits.

Table XIV:   Difference between Male and Female Students; Towards Examination Malpractice.












1.1 Background to the Study

School facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quantitative education. The importance to teaching and learning on the provision and utilization of adequate instructional facilities for education cannot be over-emphazied. The dictum that “teaching is inseparable from learning but learning is not separable from teaching” is that teachers do the teaching to make the students learn, but students can learn without the teachers. According to Akande (1985) cited in Afigbo (1996), learning can occur through one’s interaction with one’s environment. Environment here refers to facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome. It includes books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; size of classroom, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practicals are arranged (Farrant, 1991 and Farombi, 1998).

According to Oni (1992), facilities constitute a strategic factor in organizational functioning. This is so because they determine to a very large extent the smooth functioning of any social organization or system including education. He further stated that their availability, adequacy and relevance influence efficiency and high productivity. In his words, Farombi (1998) opines that the wealth of a nation or society could determine the quality of education in that land; emphasizing that a society that is wealthy will establish good schools with quality teachers, learning infrastructures, students learn with ease thus bringing about good academic achievement. Writing on the role of facilities in teaching, Balogun (1982) cited in Anameze (2001) submitted that no effective science education programme can exist without equipment for teaching. This is because facilities enable the learner to develop problem-solving skills and scientific attitudes. In their contribution, Ajayi and Ogunyemi (1990) reiterated that when facilities are provided to meet relative needs of a school system, students will not only have access to the reference materials mentioned by the teacher, but individual students will also learn at their own paces. The net effect of this is increased overall academic performance of the entire students.

In his study on resource concentration, utilization and management as correlates of students’ learning outcomes,  Farombi (1998) found that the classroom learning environment in some schools was poor. He cited examples of schools without chalkboard, absence of ceiling, some roofing sheets not in place, windows and doors removed among others, a situation which the researcher regarded as hazardous to healthy living of the learners. According to Nigerian Tribune on Thursday 25 November, 1999, in a caption; “Mass Failure will Continue until…” the chairman of the National Committee of WAEC, Dr. U.B. Ahmed opined that the classroom is the origin of failure… a close look at the public schools and what goes on there shows that nothing good can come out of most schools as they do not have facilities, adequate and appropriate human resources to prepare candidates for WASCE.

The above statement indicates that the problem of candidates’ mass failure in WAEC’s organized examination will continue until the situation of the nation’s public schools change for the better. Writing on how to improve  primary education in developing countries, World Bank publication (1990), citing Mwamwenda and Mwamwenda (1987) linked performance of students to the provision of adequate facilities while referring to a survey of 51 primary schools in Botswana that students performed significantly better on academic tests when they had adequate classrooms, desks and books. Earlier, Fagbamiye (1979) attesting to why students’ performance standard fall observed 559 cases from 13 secondary schools in Lagos State using age, type of school (day or boarding, mixed or single sex), teachers’ qualifications and teaching experience as well as intake quality using students’ entrance examination achievement. His findings revealed that schools which are equipped had good records of achievement and attracted more students. He concluded that good quality schools in terms

of facilities and younger students’ intake perform better in WASCE.

Commenting on why high academic attainment is not in vogue in Nigeria, Adesina (1991) identified poor and inadequate physical facilities, obsolete teaching techniques… overcrowded classrooms among others, as factors.

Throwing more light on school facilities and moral guiding provision, Fabunmi (1997) asserted that school facilities when provided will aid teaching learning programme and consequently improve academic achievement of students while the models guiding their provision to schools could take any form as rational bureaucratic and or political model. Whichever model is adopted, according to him, there is always a common feature of differing allocation of facilities to schools. In his words, Ojoawo (1990), however, noted that certain schools are favored in the allocation of facilities at the expense of others. Writing on poor performance of students in public examinations, London (1993) states that in many developing nations, certain physical facilities are none existent, and that those instances where amenities are available many are of sub standard quality. What is even more alarming is the correlation, which these observers claim to exist between quality of facilities and academic performance. Lamenting on the glowing inadequacies of school facilities in our education industry, Akinkugbe (1994) opines that everywhere you look, primary, secondary, special, technical, tertiary, there is abundant evidence of crippling inertia, criminal neglect and a pervasive decay in values and standard.

Other scholars (Wilcockson, 1994; Lawal 1995; Ajayi 1996; Suleiman 1996) have variously identified the significance of facilities in teaching and learning spheres. We can say that absence or poor (and or deteriorating) quality of educational facilities can influence academic performance. Gamoran (1992), however, holding a contrary view noted that facilities… teachers’ salaries, books in the library and the presence of science laboratory, had little impact on variation in student’s achievement once students background variables had been taken into account.

This statement connotes that before such student could perform well in higher educational level, he must have been groomed or cushioned by availability of resources in his elementary days upon which he now uses as spring board. According to Hallak (1990), facilities form one of the potent factors that contribute to academic achievement in the school system. They include the school buildings, classroom, accommodation, libraries, laboratories, furniture, recreational equipment, apparatus and other instructional materials. He went further to say that their availability, relevance and adequacy contribute to academic achievement. He however, quickly added that unattractive school buildings and overcrowded classrooms among others contribute to poor academic attainment. Describing where these facilities should be located, he ascribed that educational facilities should be located in appropriate places, while the needs of the users should be put into consideration. In another development, Aliyu (1993) as cited by Johnson (1998) found that there was no significant difference between students in secondary schools with and without adequate instructional facilities. However, he submitted that instructional facilities were indispensible to academic achievement of students in English Language, Mathematics, Biology and Geography while students could perform well in other subjects without adequacy of sophisticated instructional materials. He concluded that the effect of instructional facilities on students’ academic achievement is more felt in pure and social sciences.

Therefore, it is the responsibility of the educational system to facilitate learning by creating the ideal situation for the child to discover things for himself especially through adequate provision of school facilities. This indicates that the school facilities would surely have a great impact on the students. The school facilities may indicate a great deal of cooperation among the groups in the school setting while some might not even want to learn at all. This implies that the school facilities will affect the performance of both the teachers and the students either positively or negatively.

This study therefore aims at encouraging school administrators to apply modern techniques in the management of school facilities. It also suggests that school administrators and managers should be constantly trained and retrained on the modern tools of management.

Thus, the standard of education will improve greatly if the resources allocated to education and the available school facilities are optimally utilized.

1.2 Statement of the  Problem

Cursory observation reveals that majority of students in public secondary schools in Mushin Local Government area of Lagos State perform below desired outcomes in the Senior School Certificate Examination especially when results of previous years are compared. (Ossai, 2004). This observed poor performance motivated this research.

A student’s academic performance is measured by his or her scholastics achievement. This scholastic achievement is known through the use of instructional evaluation and other associated invisible but real influences that influence performance such as school facilities among others.

The causes of poor performance in our public secondary schools have been blamed on several factors. Critics have apportioned blames on teachers, society, parents, school inspectorate and the government about learners’ inability to perform outstandingly well, (Onyechere, 1996). However, issues that bother on inadequate and most times insufficient school facilities have the major blame in students’ academic performance as the sociologists are quick to observe that the environment makes the man. (Gousie, 1998).

School facilities optimization is therefore so important and contribute significantly to students achievement so much that it cannot be neglected in the development of the education sector. As rightly observed by Oni (2005), the availability and adequacy in quantity and quality of the physical/material facilities make possible a school’s smooth operation and enhance effective teaching-learning activity thereby resulting in achieving higher educational attainments by the students.

Therefore the problem of this research is that of poor academic performance of secondary school students in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State which could be attributed to poor provision and utilization of school facilities.

1.3 Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study is to:

·                  Examine the relationship between provision of school facilities and students’ academic performance.

·                  Assess the percentage of adequacy in quantity of physical facilities provided in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area.

·                  Examine the rate of utilization of available physical facilities in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area.

·                  Assess the percentage of available facilities in good condition in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area.


1.4 Research Questions

1.   What is the relationship between provision of school facilities and students’ academic performance?

2.   What is the percentage of adequacy in quantity of physical facilities provided in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area?

3.   What is the rate of utilization of available physical facilities in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area?

4.   What is the percentage of available facilities in good condition in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are to be tested in the Study:

1.   There is no significant relationship between provision of school facilities and students’ academic performance.

2.   The physical facilities provided in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area are not adequate.

3.   The rate of utilization of available physical facilities in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area is not adequate.

4.   The percentage of available facilities in good condition in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government is not adequate.  

1.6 Research Hypotheses

1.                  There will be no significant relationship between school facilities and academic performance of students in the school.

2.                  There will be no significant different between adequate provision of school facilities and academic performance of student.

3.                  There will no significant difference between utilization of school facilities and academic performance.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will go a long way in enhancing the standard of education and motivate educational managers, school facilities’ planners and administrators in the management of educational system to bring about regular maintenance, reconstruction, where necessary.

This study will therefore provides an appraisal of the utilization of the school facilities in some secondary schools in Lagos State and how this is related to Students’ academic performance in SSCE upon which standard evaluation is often made by external examining bodies.

1.8 Limitation

This study will be limited to five secondary school in Mushin Local government area of Lagos state.  Finance, time and other logistics may be major constraints.

1.9 Definition of term 

Laboratory:          This is a room or building equipped for scientific experimentation; laboratory is also a equipped room for scientific research, or teaching or for the manufacture of drugs or chemicals.

Library:                This is a room containing collection of books, periodicals and sometimes films and recorded music for people to read or borrow.  It is also a collection of sources, resources, and services and the structure in which it is housed.

Facilities:             These are equipment, infrastructures and machines as well as any physical structure.

Provision:            This means building new Facilities or building physical structure like classroom and playground.

Instruction Facilities: These are classrooms, laboratories, workshops and library.

Utilization:          It refers to the extent of the operation or use of available facilities provided for the studies.


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