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SOCIO-POLITICAL CULTURE OF IBUSA 1840 - 2000
Ibusa is a federation that consist of different migrants from different origin at different time other migrants accept and believed to have come from the same place which left the town in a divided single entity though they accepted to come together and form a single town because of friendship and alliance but still there is division and argument of who. arrived the place first and the instability in the political system of the town, change from Monarchical to mixed system of political organization and the introduction of new title by the one of the migrant believe that they are being marginalized at a time and another change to Gerontocracy and back to mix system of Monarchical and gerontocracy but the-gerontocracy is ceremonial.
The research adopts primary and secondary sources, the primary sources include oral interview of notable personalities in Ibusa where the research on social political culture is carried out. (8) Eight traditional chief where interviewed, (4) Four other individual from the town including eye witness account by me. (3) Three online articles where used. (2) Two National archive materials. (2) Two State special State gazette on court judgment, (1) One Record sheet of National Population council, All so date of schools establishment and name as recorded on their sign post. (1) One Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English.
The study noted the problem of who was the first among the migrants to settle first and the problem of change of system of political organization conflict and relationship between Ogboli and Ibusa people, the introduction of Eze title which was an imported culture to Ibusa people and the voluntary amalgamation of the two different groups.
In conclusion, the Ibusa people should live together as once since the voluntary accept to come together as one, and Edini should be regarded as a co-founder like Anyalaobum and specified role should be given to the Ogboli people and in sharing of items or gift they should be allowed to get his portion as a cofounder not as the last in hierarchy or they should share items according to the age of the Diokpa Ogbe after Umueze have been reorganized to avoid dispute of who came first since all recognize Umueze as the head though the second Child of Umejei the founder and Onuma the first child should also be reorganized.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Background to Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Objective of Study
1.4 Significance of Study
1.5 Scope and Limitation
1.6 Research Question
1.7 Definition of Terms
1.9 Chapter Synopsis.
CHAPTER TWO: Introduction
2.1 The Major Group that made of Ibusa
2.2 The Political Organization of Ibusa
2.3 Ten Villages in Ibusa Federation TheOmu
2.4 Ibusa Naming Ceremony
2.5 Burial Ceremony
2.6 Ibusa Marriage
2.8 Festivals in Ibusa End Notes
CHAPTER THREE: Introduction
3.1 The introduction of Eze title (Red Cap Chief) in Ibusa Political System
3.2 Ibusa Age Grade 1846-2000
3.3 Benin Relationship
3.4 Ibusa Wars
Ibusa contact with British
Introduction of Imonokwa
3.5 Dispute between Ogboli and Ibusa
3.6 Diokpa Okolie Apiti
3.7 Nosike Ikpo headed committed on Ibusa monarch
Obi Prof Chike Onwuachi and Obi Louis Chelunor Nwaoboshi Obinze/Obuzor Conclusion
CHAPTER FOUR: Introduction
4.1 Alliance between Edini children and Umujei children
4.2 The people that made Otuwolo
4.3 Conflict between Ogboli and Ibusapeople
Socio-Political culture of Ibusa 1840 - 2000 Ibusa is a federation consisting of ten villages and have also been divided into three political units, though referred to as War Unit by Ibusa tradition and people namely; Otuodogwu, Otuwulo, Otuiyase, which is under the control of Ikwele Ibusa the head of Ogbuu fraternity. This division is made for easy governance of lbusa. This research is an overview of the political institutions and structures of Ibusa.
The name "Ibusa" is an Anglicization of Igbuzo and/or Ibuzo "Igbo bi nauzor" or "Igbo Uzor" meaning the Igbos that live by the wayside or "Were you the first to settle here" (Ibuzo), Interestingly, all the names that community bears today were foisted on them by the other people. "lgbuzo" was a name used to describe them by the Igbos of the SouthEast. This agument is not true because the combination of Ibusais a word coined out of Igbo Bu Uzor Bia. I was taken from Igbo B from Bu and uzor from Uzo to make it Igbuzor which was anglicanized by the European.
1.1 Background to Study
The Ibusa people speak Enuani dialect of Anioma Igbo language. Ibusa isa federation of different migrants that settled at Ibusa during the age of discovering 14th century first waves of migration from the East of Niger to the West bank of River Niger. The two major groups are the Edini which led the Ogboli group and the second Umejei which led the Igbo bu uzo group. The friendly relationship between this two different groups led to the amalgamation of the two as a single entity called Ibusa. There are other groups that made up Ibusa, though these groups through oral tradition are said to have been linked to Ndika Ugboma the king of Isu in 13th century, these groups include; Omuoha who is Umejei elder sister and her husband Anya Uaobum who accompanied Umujei during the time he embarked on thejourney that he settled at Ibusa. Other groups include; Prince of Ubulu- unor who married Nwaomi the daughter of Ezebudike the second child of Umujei and settled at the present day Umualofe where the current crowned monarch of Ibusa originated from.
Normal Ibusa man behaviour is that of the Republican in nature who looks at everybody as equal before God and accord respect to their elders and does not kneel or bow down to anybody created by God including the king and the elders. An Ibusa man believes that whatever his mates do that he himself can do. "A saying in Ibusa says: Onye Ogborkwor Ogwe okpua ogwe ma otelue unor onua okwumeh". Meaning when your mates jump a barrier, you should also jump a barrier even if you get home and applied balm.
Ibusa is located 15 kilometers west of the River Niger from the Eastern Nigeria, in the current day Oshimili North Local Government of Delta State. It is boardered in the West by Ogwashiukwu, in the North-West by Azagba; in the North by Okpanam; in the North Bast by Asaba; in the East by Okwe, in the South-East by Oko; in the South by Aballa, and in the South-West by Olodu. This makes the town one of the towns that has boundary with eight different towns in Delta State.
It has a population of about 128,000 male and female in the last concluded census by the National population Commission (2006).
The political organization of ibusa is grouped into various unite, The Eze Ofu-Ani, Meaning the King of One Land or Kingdom, the Diokpa of Ibusa who is regarded as the divine head base on his age. The town is divided into three war or military units called out Odogwu, Otu Uwolo, Otu lyase which have its center at the Ikwele of Ibusa who confers Agana initiation on all Ogbu fraternity. Also there is Diokpa Ogbe like we have in the center which is the oldest man of each quarter or villages in the town, so it goes down to the family linage.
It should be noted however that the Diokpa of Ibusa is assisted by Ndikei Elders and all the traditional title holders, the Ikwele, Odogwu, Uwolo, Iyese and all the red cap chiefs and the various Diokpa Ogbe and also the knowledgeable elders in the administration of Ibusa. At the village level (Ogbe) Diokpa Ogbe conduct the administration of the village and he is assisted by Ndichie which comprise the Eze Title Men and the Nkpalor of that village. In variouse Idimu is been administered by the Diokpa Idimu who is assisted by umunna including all knowledgeable male adult of the umunna.
The above stated administration is like that of the Nigerian court that if you are not certified with the judgment given in a particular level of this administration you can go to the next level of administration until you get to the highest point of the traditional administration which is today the Obuzor in council.
There is also the Omu of Ibusa who has her members as Otu Omu, this is the women aspect of the political system, and they are the Market police and perfume traditional sacrifice in the market and play prominent rule in the female second burial.
The Ohene is a divine appointment from the deities which serves as a protector to the town.
The culture of Ibusa people which include naming ceremony, burial, chieftaincy coronation. Festivals, The preoccupation of lbusa people are farming, petty trading, and hunting.
Then name Ibusa was coined out of the word "Igbo bu uzo". The Igbos that were first to cross the River Niger from Igbo' s original inhabitant to settle to Igbuzo, meaning Igbos that live across the road or by road side which was changed by colonial government during 1900 colonization to Ibusa.
1.2 Statement of problem
The problem is among these two major migrants that made up of the town, who were the first to arrive the place which kept the town as a divided entity in one town. The Ibusa people have seen Ogboli as a second class member of the community because Ogboli are the minority for the time of this research is only two Ogboli indigenes have become Diokpa of Ibusa and only one have become the Uwolo of Ibusa and non have become the Omu or Ohene.
1.3 Objective of Study
Firstly, to ascertain the origin of the two major migrants that made up the town. Secondly, to know the first among the two that arrived the place.
Thirdly, to examine the factor that led to the amalgamation of these two migrants into one entity and retained the name Ibusa.
Fourthly, to examine the social and culture of the town and political systems and make recommendations for a generally accepted system of political organization in 21st century.
1.4 Significance of Study
This study is significant to the people of Ibusa and beyond because the town has grown big in delta state and as regarded through oral history the first Igbo's that settle west side of the River Niger the location being amount the four town that made up Delta State capital territory it is important for historian to key on this important information in further writings of Anioma people. History as we were taught is an accurate record of past events usually in' a chronological order through the application of historical research methodology history is different from record of friction. This study is significant because it have provided the following:
1. Useful information on the various groups that made up Ibusa.
2. The study examines and identifies the past problems among the various groups,
3. The social and culture of the people of Ibusa is examined.
4. The study identifies the change from Igbo Buzor Bia to Ibusa by Colonial administration.
5. The study examined and identifies the factors to let to the almagation of the two different group.
1.5 Scope and Limitations
The research covers a period from the time the people migrated from their original home land. There has not been any archaeological research on the area to ascertain the time these migrants arrived to this place this study has based his finding through Oral tradition and history to say that this people settled at this place between 1300 and 1400.9 during the age of discovery. The Anioshe in Ibusa is a secrade place that no cutlass or whatsoever is allowed to touch the place because it is the point of lbusa establishment even when Umejei left to the present place where we have Ani Ibusa where sacrifice and homage is still accorded to thelbusa ancestor Anioshe is still secrade and very important to lbusa Tradition.
1.6 Research Questions
The following questions which are relevant to the study were constructively asked and answers were provided by important personalities in the town, and internet sources provided vital information and books.
First, where is the original home of the Ibusa people?
Second, who were the first among this migrant that settled in this place?
Third, what is the social, political and culture of this group before the arrival of the European?
Fourthly Factor that led to the amalgamation of this group into one entity Ibusa?
Finally, were there people they met and what happened to the people they met?
1. 7 Definition of Terms
Social: It is connected with society and the way it is organized, social issue, problems, reforms, a call for social and economic change.
Political: It connects with power, status, etc, within an organization.
Culture: Way of life. The customs and beliefs, art, way of life and social organization of a particular country or group.
The method used in this research is the historical research methodology which involves the application of primary and secondary sources. Primary sources are oral tradition, Oral history, Interview of some important personalities, and Poems and adages, Archival material,
Secondary sources included text books and journals.
1.9 Chapter Synopsis
Chapter one deals with the introduction of the topic, Background of study, Statement of problems, The objective of this Research, Significant of the Study, Scope and Limitation, Research Questions, Definition of terms and Methodology.
Chapter two, this chapter reviews the literature on the origin of the people of Ibusa, social, political and culture of Ibusa people.
Chapter three, this chapter deals with with the over view of the Political transformation of Ibusa through, historical methodology, the method used in this research.
Chapter four, this chapter deals with General analysis and presentation. Chapter five, Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation and Bibliography.
2. Kandi E. This is Ibusa, Regency Press Ltd, 4 Benjamin Street, Onitsha. Anarnbra State. 2907, p.2
3. The Delta State Map, showing Local Government Areas. Read by, Sunday Echelibe, Engineering Student University of NIgeria Nsuka.
4. The Record Sheet of National Population Commission, Oshimili North Local Government Area 2006 Census, p. 16
5. Kandi E. This is Ibusa, Op cit. p. 24
6. Onowu Mengwa Mowete, 1912 Civil Servant (Rtd). The Senior Diokpa of Ibusa. No: 6 Ezeukwu Achalla Road UmudiagboUmueze Ibusa Delta State. 3rd January 2012, 7 a.m.
7. Chief Kandi Etufunwa 1942, Shell Oil Nigeria Plc (Rtd). Ani Ibusa Priest. Kandi Villa, Ezeukwu Achalla Road Isiogbeodogwu Ezeukwu, Ibusa Delta State 31st December, 2011, 12.00 p.m.
8. Onowu Mengwa Mowete, Op cit.
9. National Archive Ibadan, Benin Pronvince Prof 4/3/8. Intellegent Report, on Ogwashiukwu Division p. 22.
10. Article, by Emeka Esogwue: enwikepedia.org/wiki/igbuzo.
11. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, Oxford University Press, (1948) Eighth Edition. Managing Editor: Joanna Turnbull. Principal Editor, Diana Le.a. Senior Editor, Dilys Parkinson. Editors, Patrick Phillips, Ben Francis, Suzanne Webb, Victoria Bull. Penetics Editor, Michael Ashby. p. 1413.
13. Ibid. p. 357