SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL AS A DETERMINANT OF INSECURITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF EJIGBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN LAGOS STATE


Content

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the Indiscriminate solid wastes disposal as a determining factor of environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area of Lagos State. Six research hypotheses were tested. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Convenient sampling technique was used to pick five hundred residents as participants for the study. The related literature were reviewed; Concept of Environment, Environment and Security, Factors associated with Insecurity in a Community, Roles of Government in Environmental Insecurity, Concept of Waste and Types, Waste and Waste Management in Lagos Metropolis, Past and Current Efforts at Addressing the Problem of Waste Disposal and Management in Lagos, The Issues of Waste Collection and Disposal, and Appraisal of Literature Reviewed. The research instrument used was a modified Rennis Likert Rating Scale Questionnaire type. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages while the hypotheses were tested using the inferential statistics of t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Three (3) hypotheses were rejected while three (3) were accepted. Findings revealed that adequate funding of domestic waste management has influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo area of Lagos State. Provision of trained waste managers have no influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo area of Lagos State, effective monitoring and control have influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo area of Lagos State, adequate modern technology in implementing efficient waste management methods have no influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo area in Lagos State, awareness campaign have influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo area in Lagos State and grassroots participation programmes have no influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo area in Lagos State. This study concluded that adequate funding for domestic waste management agencies, effective monitoring and control, awareness campaign influence solid waste disposal as a determinant of insecurity among Ejigbo residents. Also, provision of trained/professional waste managers, adequate modern technology in implementing efficient waste management methods and grassroots participation programmes have no influence on solid wastes disposal as a determining factor of environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area of Lagos State. A few recommendations were made such as provision fund for the running of waste collection and management within the states, provision of qualified heath personnel in the management of waste collection and reduction, create a comprehensive waste action plan, divert organic waste from landfill by creating composting opportunities and educate the public on recyclable material processing and eco-conscious purchasing practices.

 

 

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification ………………………………………………………… ii

Dedication …………………………………………………………… iii

Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………         iv

Abstract ………………………………………………………………         vi

Table of content ………………………………………………………         vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction ……………………………………………………………       1

Statement of the problem ……………………………………………...       3       

Purpose of the study …………………………………………………...      3

Significance of the study ………………………………………………       4

Research question ……………………………………………………..        4

Research hypotheses …………………………………………………..       5

Limitations ……………………………………………………………         5

Delimitation …………………………………………………………...        6

Definition of terms …………………………………………………….       6

 

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature ……………………………………………       7

Concept of Environment ………………………………………………       8

Environment and Security ……………………………………………        12

Factors associated with Insecurity in a Community ……………     ……. 16

Roles of Government in Environmental Insecurity ………………….        19

Concept of Waste and Types ……………………………………….....      24

Waste and Waste Management in Lagos Metropolis ………………….     25

Past and Current Efforts at Addressing the Problem of                                                

Waste Disposal and Management in Lagos …………………………..       27

The Issues of Waste Collection and Disposal ……………………….         35

The Roles of Informed Private Sector in Integrated Solid Waste

Management in the Achievement of the Millennium Development

Goals in Lagos Nigeria………………………………………………..         37

Appraisal of Literature Reviewed ……………………………………        54

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research Design  ……………………………………………………...        56

Population ……………………………………………………………..       56

Sample and Sampling Technique ……………………………………         57

Research Instrument …………………………………………………..        57

Validity of Research Instrument ………………………………………       57

Reliability of Research Instrument ……………………………………       57

Method of Data Collection ……………………………………………        58

Method of Data Analysis ……………………………………………..        58

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation of Demographic Data ……………………………………      59

Analysis of Data and Testing of Hypotheses …………………………      60

Discussion of Findings ……………………………………………….         65

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary ……………………………………………………………..         69

Conclusion ……………………………………………………………         70

Recommendation ……………………………………………………. 70

Reference ……………………………………………………………..          72

Appendix ……………………………………………………………..         77

 


 

chapter one

introduction

Background to the Study

Even though urbanization serves as a driving force for economic growth and development (Tannerfeldt and Perljung, 2006).  The resulting effects of rapid urbanization on human health, livelihood and the environment, shelter and sanitation especially on the disposal of waste that the cities generates are staggering with challenges such as slum development and environmental degradation as well as compromised health as a result of exposure to the solid wastes dumped very close to human residents.

The end of the 1980s saw a radical reappraisal of our concerns over resource availability and use, the environmental consequences of resource exploitation and the relationship between the environment, poverty and economic change. This re-appraisal has given rise to a new approach to environment issues - an approach which seeks to reconcile human needs and the capacity of the environment to cope with the consequences of economic system. This approach is called sustainable development. Sustainable development is an implied development without destruction, it is the judicious use of non-renewable resources for the present and future generations, which are non-renewable resources, must be used at a judicious rate, neither too fast nor too slow and to ensure that the natural wealth that they represent is converted into long-term wealth as they are used (Adara, 2007).

In Nigeria, Agunwamba (2008) succinctly put it as sustainable development without jeopardizing future development, meaning that in our efforts to explore and exploit the natural resources to serve us, there is an obvious paradox evident in the need to ensure economic development, while protecting the environment. It is important to note that there must be a balance between levels of development and the stock of natural resources, that is, development must be at a level that can be sustained without prejudice to the natural environment or to future generations.

Adara, (2007) asserted that if there is to be sustainable development in waste management in Nigeria, the availability of land (for landfill), human resources, plant and equipment and other tools including capital must be readily available. We need to protect future for the next generation by cleaning up our environment of all types of waste, taking into consideration both physical and population development of the state. As such waste management must mean the collection, keeping, treatment and disposal of wastes in such a way as to render it harmless to human and animal life, the ecology and the environment generally.

The federal environmental protection act (1988) does not define “waste”, however Waste as the term implies is any solid, liquid or gaseous substances or materials which being a scrap or being super flows, refuse or reject, is disposed off or required to be disposed as unwanted. One of the few statues in Nigeria, which attempts to define waste is the Lagos State Environmental Edicts 1985, there in Section 32, waste is define as follows: Waste includes:

i.                   Waste of all description.

ii.                 Any substance, which constitutes scrap materials or an effluent or other unwanted surplus substances arising from the application of any process.

The generation and disposal of waste is an intrinsic part of any developing or industrial society. Waste, both from domestic and commercial sources has grown significantly in Nigeria over the past decade. Every time a householder shops at the store, and open market he contributes to the mountain of waste. It is possible to quote figures which show that the production of waste amounts to millions of tons. The percent of Nigeria’s population living in cities and urban areas has more than doubled in the last 15 years (Jimoh, 2005). The cities and urban areas experience continuous growth which contributes to enormous in generation of solid and liquid waste. The management of waste is a matter of national and international concern. The volume of waste does not actually constitute the problem but the ability or inability of governments, individuals and waste disposal firms to keep up with the task of managing waste and the environment. There is no doubt that a dirty environment affects the standard of living, aesthetic sensibilities, health of the people and thus the quality of their lives (Mowoe, 2000).

 

Statement of the Problem

Uncontrolled and poorly managed solid wastes diminishes the quality of life in Lagos metropolis. It must be acknowledged that although wastes from homes, businesses and institutions make up a small part of the total load of solid wastes generated by Lagos state, they are certainly the most offensive and most dangerous to health when they accumulate near residential points. Several waste management agencies have set up programmes and strategies aimed at creating a positive attitude towards indiscriminate disposal of refuse. Some of these efforts are provision of trained/professional waste managers, effective monitoring and control, awareness campaign etc, inspite of all these, the researcher observed that the state of solid refuse disposal has worsened. It was based on this premise that this study investigated solid wastes disposal as a determining factor of environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of solid wastes disposal as a determining factor of environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

 

Significance of the study

This study was determined to assess the influence of solid wastes disposal as a determining factor on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The study may create awareness on how to protect ourselves from health hazards as a result of polluted environment. It may also enlighten people on the need to articulate cogent solid waste management strategies in order to improve their living environment. It would assist the government to focus attention in formulating policies that might make waste disposal management services beneficial to the entire populace.

 

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised.

1.     Will adequate funding for domestic waste management agencies have any influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State?

2.     Will provision of trained/professional waste managers have any influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State?

3.     Will effective monitoring and control have any influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State?

4.     Will adequate modern technology in implementing efficient waste management methods have any influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State?

5.     Will awareness campaign have any influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State?

6.   Will grassroots participation programme have any influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State?

 

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were tested.

1.     Adequate funding for domestic waste management agencies will have no influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State.

2.     Provision of trained/professional waste managers will have no influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State.

3.     Effective monitoring and control will have no influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State.

4.     Adequate modern technology in implementing efficient waste management methods will have no influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State.

5.     Awareness campaign will have no influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State.

6.     Grassroots participation programme will have no influence on environmental insecurity among residents of Ejigbo Local Government Area in Lagos State.

 

 

Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to the following:

1.   Descriptive Survey research design

2.   Ejigbo Local Government Area of Lagos state

3.   Five hundred (500) adults (comprising men and women aged above 21) will be selected using the convenient sampling method

4.     Use of questionnaire, simple frequency counts of percentage will be used in the presentation of demographic data while inferential statistics of t-test will be used in testing the stated hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance

 

Limitation of the Study

The researcher encountered challenges in the area of questionnaire distribution as many respondents refuse to fill the questionnaire statement thinking it’s a waste of time and energy but the researcher was able to manage all the challenges by explaining to the respondents the importance of the research work.

 

Operational Definition of Key Terms

Indiscriminate: Action without careful judgment

Waste: Materials that are no longer needed and are thrown away

Environment: Refers to the land, air, water and all that surrounds living organism and affects it.

Waste management: prevention by prior planning scientifically for problems appearing and solution.

Facilities: physical materials that are involved in the waste disposal management services.


 

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