STRATEGIC APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA (A Case Study of Evarmila Nigeria Enterprise, Lagos.)


Content

ABSTRACT

A research was set out to evaluate strategic approach as a management tool for the small and medium enterprises with a view to help them achieve a more predictable and stable growth, over the long term. Emphasis had been directed on the threat aspects, which most Small-scale Business enterprises had taken for granted. SMEs are also urged to take a hard look at some of the strategic tools: Finance, production, marketing and personnel which had not gained much popularity or acceptance.

Empirical evidence in the forms of survey research was adopted. In getting first hand information, samples of 50 respondents were drawn from a questionnaire consisting of twenty-two questions which were randomly selected, printed and administered to the entire employee as focus point. This however forms the main data collection instrument employed in the study. Data were sourced from different books on management by notable authors, theories relevant to the study were carefully examined, and views of different authors/ professionals were considered to reconcile the documentary research, in arriving at the final conclusions. Care was also taken to maintain objectivity, which could be easily affected with the Research's problems on the field. The conclusion is that strategic management is largely relevant to Small-scale Business enterprises. And so long as due attention is paid to threats and crisis handling, the vulnerability of Small-scale Business enterprises should be reduced. That leaves only the last problem to deal with - time constraint among Small-scale Business enterprises which is said to be limiting their application of strategic management. To partly solve the problem, the training and re-training of personnel, along some priority and relevance guidelines, suiting to the operating reality of the Small-scale Business enterprises must be taking into cognizance. However, considering the universal laws of cause and effect, Small-scale Business enterprises must recognize the inevitability to apply as many techniques as possible, in order to get the maximum results. To use time and workload as a convenient excuse can often be a good justification for not strategizing; overcoming the temptation to do so leads to a more rewarding and satisfying venture for the entrepreneurs. The choice is up to each SME.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1   Historical Background of the Study

1.2   Statement of Problem

1.3   Objectives of Study 

1.4   Research Questions

1.5   Research Hypothesis      

1.6   Research Methodology    

1.7   Significance of the Study

1.8   Scope and Limitation of the Study

1.9   Definition of Terms

        References      

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.1   Introduction    

2.1   The Concept of Strategy

2.2   Strategies in Functional Areas

2.2.0        Finance Strategies

2.2.1        Production Strategies

2.2.2        Marketing Strategies

2.2.3        Personnel Strategies       

2.3   Strategic Management An-Overview        

2.4   Small and Medium Enterprise and Overview

2.5   Role of Small Scale Business Enterprise in

        Nigerian Economy

2.6      Characteristic of Small Scale Business

Enterprises in Nigeria

2.7   Challenges of the Small Scale Business Enterprises      

        References

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology

3.1   Research Design

3.2   Area of Study  

3.3   Population of the Study  

3.4   Determination of Sample Size 

3.5   Instrument of Data Collection

3.6   Validity of Research Instrument

3.7   Reliability of Research Instrument

3.8   Method of Data Analysis 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation and Data Analysis

4.1   Data Presentation

4.2   Analysis and Discussion

4.2   Hypothesis Presentation

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1   Summary of Findings

5.2   Conclusion     

5.3   Recommendations  

        Bibliography

        Appendix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Small-Scale Business Enterprises play a very important role in a nation’s economy. This is true for both developed and developing countries as Small-Scale Business Enterprises also constitute a high proportion of a nation’s business activities and generate more employment opportunities than the large corporations in recent years.

 

Nigeria, like every other nation’s has instituted assistance programs to aid its own Small Scale Business Enterprises, the entrepreneurs’ efforts count most in determining the performance of this industry. After all, assistance programs are no more than tools available for the Small-Scale Business Enterprises. It is the careful selection and correct application of such tools that determine entrepreneurial success. Strategic Approach to management of this vital sector in any economy becomes imperative.

 

It is felt that strategic management, a key pillar for corporate survival, may be adapted and applied to ensure better Small-Scale Business Enterprises performance, on a more consistent basis. Strategic management materials, on the other hand, appear to be written primarily for larger corporations. They suggest elaborate involvement, high cost and complex architecture as prerequisites. The reaction of Small-Scale Business Enterprise is naturally one of being intimidated; and therefore they prefer to operate in the usual manner and mindset. Where there is no change, different results cannot be expected. Anthony Robbins, the most famous Neurolinguistic Programming specialist, once remarked: To keep on doing the same thing and expect a different result is a form of insanity.

 

For reasons stated above, a research on strategic approach to management of Small-Scale Business Enterprises is therefore proposed.

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Entrepreneurs are people who organize other factors of production, develop and introduce new product, raise the necessary funds and risk failure and loss of investment against the chance of earning a profit. However, to be able to achieve this, the need for planning becomes imperative. This, many business fails to do. Its importance can be deduced from the popular saying; He, who fails to plan, plans to fail. Consequently, the motivating factor of this study is to examine to strategically position a small business enterprise to effectively achieve its set objectives, solve its problems and contribute to the development of National Economy.

 

In fact, the study is expected to, among other things, try to answer the following questions: -

i.                What are the Strategic Management concepts and techniques Small Scale Business Enterprises need to make it achieve its aims and objectives?

ii.              What is the place of education/ acquiring strategic management ideas and skills to Small Scale Business Enterprises and Evarmila Nigeria Enterprises in particular?

iii.            What are measures to be put in place to check major crisis and business failure as a result of Small Scale Business Enterprises  in Nigeria is failure to strategically located?

       

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

Our study strategic approach to the management of Small Business Enterprise a study of  Evarmila Nigeria Enterprises, Lagos in more specific terms, the study intends to achieve the following objectives:-

i       To appraise the value of strategic management concepts and techniques as applied to Small-Scale Business Enterprises

ii      To provide some guidelines with which Small-Scale Business Enterprises can apply the strategic management ideas and skills, in a time-saving manner,

iii    Suggest methods that may prevent major crisis and business failures.

 

Based on the findings from (i-iii) above come up with feasible proposals and recommendations for the overall improvement on how to strategically position small business within economy like ours

 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following questions are pertinent to the this work;

i.      To what extent are strategic management concepts and techniques important to Small Scale Business Enterprises and Evarmila Nigeria Enterprises?

ii.     Has Evarmila Nigeria Enterprises been able to put in place  effectively plan on how to acquire education and strategic management ideas and skills?

iii.    To what extent is Planning as a managerial function relevant to the existence of Evarmila Nigeria Enterprises?

 

1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the purpose of this study, it is necessary that working hypothesis be established.  To this end, the following hypotheses are proposed:

 

HYPOTHESIS ONE

Ho:   Strategic approaches / concepts are not important to the management of Small Scale Business Enterprises

H1:  Strategic approaches / concepts are important to the management of Small Scale Business Enterprises.

 

HYPOTHESIS TWO

Ho:  Acquiring strategic management ideas/skills are not

important to management of Small Scale Business Enterprises

H1:   Acquiring strategic management ideas/skills are important to management of Small Scale Business Enterprises

 

HYPOTHESIS THREE

Ho:   Planning as a managerial function is not relevant to the existence of Small Scale Business Enterprises

H1;   Planning as a managerial function is important to the existence of Small Scale Business Enterprises    

 

1.6   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this study, descriptive method will be used to analyze data and also in testing hypothesis, chi-square (X2) will be employed. Findings from this research study will be discussed in the light of the research problem hypothesis, purpose research questions, literatures of the research and other relevant issues. Conclusions will be drawn and recommendations and suggestions also will be made.

 

1.7   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Without doubt, strategic management play an integral role in the management of business; a managerial tool that cannot be overlooked. Hence, the motivating factor of this work is to elucidate information on the need to be more proactive in manager’s planning toward the sustenance of business enterprise. Managers will find this work useful, as it will help in their day -to -day running of their businesses. Business owner, entrepreneurs’ and Business Planners who may want to know and understand the place of planning in managing business.

 

Also, dissertation writers and students will find this work useful as it spelt out in clear term the imperative of planning, problems if not take into note and effect on managing any business outfit.

 

1.8     SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Although the project is on Strategic Approach to Management of Small Scale Business is designed to capture data and achieve research objectives using Evarmila Nigeria Enterprises only. It is however hoped that the result could be applied to other Small Scale Business Enterprises.

 

Certain Limitations were encountered in the course of this study. Key among these includes:

v Unavailability of Data: One of the greatest challenges the researcher encountered in this study relates to access to and collection of hard data due to extreme data gaps and paucity.

v Another limitation of this study relates to time, funds and logistics constraints, which limited the intensity of the spread or area of coverage of the study.

v Resistance of Respondents: The researcher was also limited by the reluctance of some respondents to complete the questionnaires promptly and those who even failed to complete them at all. This thus limited the number of respondents involved in the study despite the researcher’s efforts and approaches to them explaining the potential benefits of the study to them.

 

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Micro Enterprise: A firm, whose total cost including working capital but excluding cost of land is not more than ten million naira (N10,000,000) and/or with a labour size of not more than thirty (30) full-time workers and/or a turnover of less than two million naira (N2,000,000) only.

 

NERFUND: National Economic and Reconstruction Fund

 

NASME: Nigerian Association of Small and Medium Enterprises, which is an umbrella association of all SMEs

 

MAN: Manufacturers Association of Nigeria is the official association of manufacturing companies in Nigeria

 

NIDB: Nigerian Industrial Development Bank

 

NACCIMA: Nigerian Association of Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Mines and Agriculture is an association of various Chambers of Commerce in Nigeria

 

DFIs: Development Finance Institutions are companies involved in

project and development finance such as the Bank of Industry (BOI)

 

SMEs: Small and Medium Enterprises are those firms, which satisfy the definitions given above

 

SMEDAN: Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria

 

 BOI: Bank of Industry, which provides medium to long-term loans to enterprises

 

CBN: Central Bank of Nigeria, the apex bank in Nigeria, which supervises other banks

 

Total Quality Management (TQM): This is a concept in management which says that every individual and division in an organization should emphasize the satisfaction of customers and clients.

 

Budget: A type of plan that specifies anticipated result in numerical terms and serves as control device for feedback evaluation and follow-up.

 

Forecasting: A method of predicting future business conditions for the purpose of establishing goals and budget.

 

Policy: A general guide to thinking and action or decision of people to do something through certain ways or procedures.

 

Rules: An inflexible guide to action such as ‘No smoking’

 

Objectives: Are some things management is attempting to achieve.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Akamiokhor, G.A. (1983) "Financing small-scale enterprises", Central Bank of Nigeria Bulletin, 8(2).

Box, R. de la (1983) "Policies for financing of small-scale industries: Kenyan experience", in N. Molenaar, M.S. El-Namaki and M.P. Van Dijk (eds) Small-Scale Industries Promotion in Developing Countries, The Netherlands.

Daniel, P., R.H. Green and M. Lipton (1985) "A strategy for the rural poor", Journal of Development Planning, 15, New York: United Nations.

Ekpenyong, D.B. (1982) "Problems of small businesses and why they fail", Journal of General Studies, Bayero University, Jos, 3(1).

International Labour Organization (1973) "Sharing in development: a programme of employment, equity and growth in the Philippines", Geneva: ILO.

Kilby, P. (1969) Industrialization in an Open Economy: Nigeria 1945-66, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. (1975) "Manufacturing in colonial Africa", in Colonialism in Africa 1969-78, Vol. 4, London: Cambridge University Press.

Federal Ministry of Commerce And Industry Report (1999:234)

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