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- THE EFFECTS OF GOVERNMENT FUNDING SCHEMES ON DEVELOPMENT OF SMEs IN NIGERIA (A STUDY OF SMIEIS)
- EFFECTS OF GOVERNMENT FUNDING SCHEMES ON DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SMIEIS)
- LOCAL GOVERNMENT FINANCE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT (A STUDY OF SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT)
- THE SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF SMALL BUSINESS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN LAGOS STATE)
- HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF AGEGE LOCAL GOVERNMENT)
- EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT EXPORT PROMOTION POLICIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPORT BUSINESS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL)
- A SURVEY OF PROBLEM AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN SOME SELECTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN ALIMOSHO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.
- EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON STUDENTS EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAINLAND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- PROBLEMS AND PROSPECT OF TEACHING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A STUDY OF TWO SELECTED SECONDARY SHOOLS IN IFAKO-IJAIYE LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNDER EDUCATIONAL DISTRICT IV OF LAGOS STATE)
STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNITY SPORT DEVELOPMENT IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF LAGOS STATE
This study focused on the strategies for community sports development in Yaba,Somolu, and Surulere local government areas. The sample used for the study was two hundred (200) participants from community teams in Yaba, Somolu and Surulere local government areas in Lagos state. The simple random technique was used for the selection of the participants used for the study. A survey research method was adopted with a Likert Rating scale questionnaire type designed in the four point mode was used as instrument for the study. The content and construct validity was also established. The data collected were analyzed through the use of frequency count and percentages for demographic variables. Also, the hypotheses were tested using the inferential statistics of chi- square (X2) Statistics at 0.05 level 0f significance. The four postulated hypotheses were rejected. The findings of the study revealed that facilities, funds, organized competition and administration would have effect on community sports development in Yaba, Somolu and Surulere. Based on this findings, it was recommended among other things that government should subsidize sports equipment of all type and made affordable to users at the community level.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vii
Background to the study 1
Statement of the problem 5
Purpose of the study 5
Contribution to knowledge 6
Research questions 7
Significance of the study 8
Limitation of the study 9
Definition of key terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of sports 11
Values of sports 16
Peer group influence on sports participation 18
Parental influence and sports participation 18
Students' religion influence and sports participation 20
Certain cultural beliefs and sports participation 21
Self esteem and sports participation 24
Meaning of administration in sports context 25
Concept of community sports in Nigeria 32
Principles and guidelines for administrative organisation 43
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLGY
Research method 56
Population for the Study 56
Sample and sampling technique 57
Research Instrument 57
Validity and reliability of research instrument 57
Procedure for data collection 58
Procedure for data analysis 58
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Data presentation 59
Analysis of data and testing of hypotheses 62
Discussion of Findings 66
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Sports are human activities that are universally found in every known culture and phenomenon unique to modern society. Men and women have always run, jumped, climbed, lifted, thrown and wrestled, but they have not always performed these physical activities competitively as we have this modern times. Although all literate societies, before now, seem to have contests of one sort or another in which men and sometimes women, compete in displays and tests physical skill and prowess, but they were performed for their own sake and not for some ulterior and as we have these days benefits( Encyclopaedia Britannica).
Sport therefore is conceived as any human activities that involve specific administrative organization and a historical background of rules and regulations which define the objective and limit the pattern of human behaviour. It involves competition and a definite outcome primarily determined by physical skills.
Ajala (1990), described sports as such activities that grants amusement, whether competitive or recreational. Such activities include hunting, fishing, footballing, mountaineering and a host of others.
Sport has attained a vital position in the hearts of many people and that is why sport needs scientific management and adequate formulation of policies that improve sports facility development, participation and competitive performance. Sports as an institution help to maintain a healthy life in the people. It contributes to physical development of participants. Sports promote the social abilities and qualities in people. Sports at any level of participation, promotes good character training and sharpens ones mental alertness.
Based on these contributory factors of sports to participants, it is imperative that sports should be embraced at all levels. Sports should be organized and administered at the national, state, local government and institutional levels; this in essence will ensure development of facilities, provision of equipment and improve sports development in the country.
There existed various divergent views as regards community sports. According to Anugweye (2005), he opined that there is nothing like community sports in the villages. He said that community sport implies sports in primary schools. He reiterated development of sports could only be remedied if sports is and can only be incorporated into the school curriculum where a four year old can take part. In many countries of the world, sports is an integral part of education and university sports is the highest level; Americans dominated the sprints in athletics due to the down to earth concentration of collegiate track and field program. Our community sport is left unsupervised and this in essence affects our progressive development in sports due to negligence of community sports.
It has been observed that community sports suffered from proper training, shortage of equipment and non-existence of facilities. There is no government machinery that provides leadership assistance or advice for community development as National Federations in various elite programs for professional sports in the country. The sponsors would rather support elite programs, celebrate heroes and heroines, and the media find community programs and activities totally un-news worthy. How can people acquire essential human values if they are not allowed, involved and are not participating in the activity. The neglect has caused the nation some setback in getting replacement for old and tired athletes who paraded themselves for many years in sports competition arena.
The developed world considers sports an important factor in education. Education today acknowledged the importance of sports and physical education as a tool for social, civic education and development. It is highly recognized that sports is an important medium for national and ethnic integration.
Since the demand for sports participation is becoming higher every day, the need to face the problems of space, facilities, technical personnel, motivated and committed leadership is highly needed for community sports to grow tremendously and bridge the gap that exists in the country’s sports development.
For some years now, Nigeria as a country has not been doing well in international competitions such as world cup, Olympics, common wealth games, world universities games and other international meets. Although it is noticeable that game such as Table tennis, football are consistently played in the nooks and corners of the country. The need for sports ministry to move in administer sports from the community level which involves the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions where budding talents can be found and trained to stardom is highly essential. The regular inter-house sports competition are no longer directional towards record breaking rather it is used for money making venture at the community level which undermines its objective of developing and scouting for young athletes
Therefore the focus of this research is to investigate the extent to which community sports affects sports development in Lagos.
Lagos is the most populous city in Nigeria, the second fastest growing city in Africa, with a population of 4 million making Lagos the largest city in Africa.
Even with all the population, Lagos state still does not represent us well at both the national and state levels in competition like University Game, Premier League Nigeria, National Sports Festival and other meets. There is need for the Lagos State Sport Council to improve on community level sports by supporting the existing structures such as clubs and schools, in order to get more young people participating in sport and attract and retain more volunteers, especially coaches.
Other areas of focus such be facility provision, development, pay-for-play and casual participation options will become priorities at a later stage.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of sports in Lagos is multifaceted, one of these is inability to get replacement for aging athletes in all sports. Community sports development has not been given adequate attention in terms of organized technical personnel in various sports to develop basic fundamental techniques of the game. Facility construction and procurement of equipment and supplies in various sports that are suitable to various community environments and non-existing. If political activities emanate from the communities, sports as a social institution needs adequate attention it deserves from the communities. Therefore the focus of this study is to determine the administration of community sports as it affects sports development in Lagos.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which administration of community sports affects sports development in selected local government areas in Lagos state.
Other purposes are listed as follows;
(i) To ascertain the effects of facilities, equipment and supplies on community development
(ii) To ascertain the influence of adequate technical expertise in community sports via sports development
(iii) To ascertain the effects of financial support on community sports development
(iv) To ascertain the effects of organized competition on the community sports development.
CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
The finding in this research study will enhance community sports programmes and place a focus of detecting young talents from it.
The research findings reiterated the issue of formations of sports academies at the community where young sports boys and girls can be detected early enough for nurturing. It observed the issue of technical personnel in the scheme of sports growth and development emphasis should be placed on this issue.
Decision making process involve community officials in order to move sports forward at the community level. The research identified community sports as the bedrock of our sports development. The findings sort out factors that are to enhance community sports development and create an avenue for career in sport at early age.
The study provided answers to the following research questions;
i) Will non-availability of Facilities, equipment and supplies in community sports affect sports development in Yaba Shomolu and Surulere Local Government Areas?
ii) Will non-availability of technical personal in community development in Yaba Shomolu and Surulere Local Government Areas?
iii) Will non-availability of financial support in community sports development in some selected local government areas of Lagos state in Yaba Shomolu and Surulere Local Government Areas?
iv) Will organized competition in community sports affects sports development in Yaba Shomolu and Surulere Local Government Areas?
v) Will administration of community sports affect sports development in Yaba Shomolu and Surulere Local Government Areas?
The following stated hypothesis were tested in this study;
i) Facilities, equipment and supplies will not affect community sport development in selected local government areas in Lagos State.
ii) Sport personnel will not affect community sport development in selected local government areas in Lagos State.
iii) Financial support will not affect community sport development in selected local government areas in Lagos State.
iv) Organized competitions will not affect community sport development in selected local government areas in Lagos State.
v) There will be no significant effect of administration of community sports on sports development in some selected local government areas of Lagos state
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
i) The finding of this study is of great benefit to the field of administration and management.
ii) The result of this study is of significant importance to the ministry of youth and sports in the development of sports at the community level.
iii) It further enhances the resuscitation of sports in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.
iv) The result of this study further enlist major problems that affect coordination of sports at the community level.
v) The national and state associations stands a better chance to enhance sports development at the local government level in order to discover new talents in various fields of sports.
DELIMITATION OF STUDY
i) This study was delimited to community athletes and football associations.
ii) Three local governments. Yaba, Somolu and Surulere local government areas of Lagos state.
iii) This study was further delimited to school administrator, coaches, team managers, sports officers in primary and secondary schools both in junior and senior categories.
Furthermore, the variables investigated includes;
i) Sports facilities, equipment and supplies
ii) Availability of technical personnel
iii) Financial support at the communities
iv) Organized competitions
LIMITATION OF STUDY
During the course of this study, the uncooperative attitude of respondents occurred but through persuasion and appeal they responded well.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
i) Strategies; this is a process of planning and organizing sports competition at community levels. It involves harnessing human, material and physical resources towards attaining development at the community level.
ii) Building Talents; the new and fresh talents that are discovered from competitions which can be developed into stars for future.
iii) Financial Supports; the involvement of monetary financing of sports at the community level. This involves corporate sponsorship of programs in schools and local government areas.
iv) Community Sports; this is the participation of sports at the primary and secondary school and in conjunction with sports for all in the local government and state government level in various sports.
v) Leisure and Recreation Activities; this is the activities individuals involve in during leisure period e.g. swimming, playing football, picnic etc.
vi) Organised Competition; tournaments arranged for community club side within the local government levels.
vii) School Curriculum; this is the course of instruction for a school in which sports is a curricular activity.
viii) Sports Development; this is the growth in quality of performance by athletes and administration of sports programmes in the country. It involves the development of sports facilities, organizing of sports competitions locally.