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STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF BIOLOGY CLASS-ROOM ENVIRONMENT ON THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS. A CASE STUDY OF SHOMOLU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.


Content

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.2       STATEMENT OFPROBLEM

1.3       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

1.4              RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5       SCOPE OF LIMITATION

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.7       OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS:

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

            INTRODUCTION

2.1       Conceptual framework of biology class room environment

2.2       Studies on Students’ perception of study habit and their involvement.

2.3       Studies on the psychological environment

2.4       Studies based on assess to instructional materials

2.5       Student perceptions regarding classroom environments for learning

2.6       Factors influencing students’ learning in biology class room environment

2.7       Studies on teachers’ support and their roles towards classroom environment

2.8       Studies on classroom disciplinary climate

Summary of the reviewed literature.

 

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

            INTRODUCTION

3.1       RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2       POPULATION OF THE STUDY

3.3       SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.4       RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

3.5       VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENTS

3.6       ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENTS

3.7       METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

            INTRODUCTION

 

4.1       PRESENTATION OF DATA

4.2       DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY,

CONCLUSION

 

 RECOMMENDATION

            INTRODUCTION

1.6              EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATION

5.7       SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES

REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The senior secondary which is also three years of training, involves development of the scientific skills learnt in the JSS (junior Secondary School) level, while the four years of university education relate to the adaptation of the skills learnt. It is these skills that the individual applies in his daily life to enable him fit into the society.

The new biology education with the new curriculum was started to be implemented from 1998-1999 education year. The goals and objectives of the new biology curriculum were identified in the way that would give rise to learning far from memorization and students would not only grasp the subject in the best pattern but also use the knowledge in daily life. New curriculum aimed at getting students to gain consciousness of health care, thus topics are made linked to human health. Teaching learning strategies of each topic were explained in detail and supported with different kinds of examples and questions. (Chalin&Manske, 2005). Education is the most important instrument of change in the society and that any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society. The perception of both the teachers and the students in biology classroom learning environment influence the achievement of students in biology education.

The fact that a lot of factors are responsible for students’ under achievement in biology is not new to researchers but amongst those factors could be students’ perception of biology classroom learning environment. Recent studies indicate that there is a substantial impact of the classroom learning environment on students’ achievement in biology learning.

Arguaye (2001), have strongly argued that students perception of the learning environment are very important on the achievement of students in biology and that the knowing the students' perception will help the teacher in shaping their students’ class perception and relatively their achievement in biology. Over the years, a number of research projects on classroom learning environment have been carried outby some researchers for examples; (Ben Ari, 2003; Carnegie1989; Jackson & Davis, 2000; Kaplan &Middleton, 2002; Manning, 2000; McCombs &Whisler, 2000; National Middle School Association, 1995; Payne, Conroy, & Racine, 1998; Stipek, 2002).

The interest in the study of learning environment has become more prominent since it has been evident that learning outcomes and students’ attitude towards learning were closely linked to the classroom environment refers to a setting of space where teachers and learners interact with each other and use variety of tools and information resources in their pursuit of learning activities (Wilson 2002).

The classroom has become an important place for educational research because most learning takes place there. The importance of the classroom learning environment has been increasingly recognized internationally over the past 30 years.

According to Wilson (2002), classroom learning environment is a place where learners and teachers interact with each other and use a variety of tools and information resources in their pursuit of learning activities. Research in education that focuses on classroom and school-level learning environments has produced promising findings leading to an enhancement of the teaching and learning process.Classroom learning environment consist of factors which are teachers’ support, instructional materials, task orientation, study habit, classroom disciplinary climate and locate of adequate laboratory facilities, teacher-studentinteraction, equality, method of teaching and qualification of the teachers.

Perception refers the way one think about something and ones’ idea of what it is like also it is an ability to understand the true nature of a subject especially as it affects our environment. However, students perception of biology classroom learning environment determines the students’ learning progress, hence, learning is a process which produces series of changes in behaviour or it is more or less a change in behaviour that result from activities, training or observation. It is a change in behaviour that confirms learning. According to Ajayi (2000) learning is a process which produces progressive series of changes in behaviour or it is more or less a change in behaviour that results from activity and these activities takes place in the classroom environments.

Fraser (1986) argues that perceptions of the students are very important when investigating the learning environment (Wubbels&Brekelmans, 2004). The role ofstudents’ perceptions of the classroom environment in influencing cognitive and affective outcomes has been addressed in many learningenvironment studies and strong relations between student outcomes and their perceptions about their learning environment have been shown by many researchers (Fraser & Fisher, 2000; Wubbels, &Brekelmans, 2002; den Brok, Brekelmans, &Wubbels, 2004). Fraser (2001) emphasized that relations between outcome measures and classroom environment perceptions have been replicated for a variety of cognitive and affective outcomes, with a variety of instruments, across different countries and grade levels. Learning environment research has studied these associations in different types of classroom environments (Fraser, 2002), for instance science laboratory classroom environments, constructivist classroom environments and cross-national studies of science classroom environments.

However, there has been a wide range of problems with the available classroom learning environment in senior secondary schools in Nigeria which prevent effective learning to take place. Some of the problems associated with class room arrangement which includes the tall students obstructing the short students at the back to see the chalk board inadequate chairs and tables which can cause discomfort to students. Another problem is poor classroom with little or no cross ventilation, poor interaction between the students and the teachers, lack of teaching materials, poor study habit etc.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OFPROBLEM

The classroom is the basic unit of organization of the educational system. By continuing to increase the knowledge of the interactions that occur within the classroom, the quality of science education can be improved with understanding of students’ development, their perception about learning environment.

Fraser (1989) mentioned that the classroom environment is such a potent determinant of students’ outcomes that it should not be ignored by those wishing to improve the effectiveness of schools. He emphasizes that students spend a great amount of time (more than 15,000 hours) in the classroom environment. Therefore the quality of the environment of these classrooms has a significant impact on students’ learning (Fraser, 1989).

Over the years, the problem of under achievement of science students in biology has been a general problem, for example many researchers in Nigeria have conducted series of researcheson classroom learning environment to actually find out what could be responsible for the problem of poor performances of students in science subjects such as biology, physics and chemistry. Factors such as locate of adequate laboratory facilities, teaching aids, ineffectiveness and lack of teaching proficiency of teachers and teaching methodshad been identified as causes of poor classroom environment thereby resulting to students’ under achievement in science subjects.

Despite all these efforts, the poor performances of students still exist. However, little emphasis has been made in the student’s perception of biology classroom learning environment therefore in order to improve students’ performance in biology there is need to place more emphasis on this topic so as todetermine some factors of the classroom learning environment. Hence, this calls for the need for the study of the students’ perception of biology classroom learning environment on their academic achievement in senior secondary schools.

 

1.3       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of this study is to investigate students’ perception of effect of biology classroom environment on their academic achievement.

The objectives of the study include;

2.      To determine the students’ perception ofteachers’ support in the classroom

3.      To determine the students’ perception based on thelevel of availability of instructional materials.

4.      To determine the students’ perception based on their study habit?

5.      To determine the students’ level of involvement in the classroom.

6.      To determine the students’ perception based on the classroom disciplinary climate of the class room.

 

 

1.5              RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

1.      What is the students’ perception on teachers’ support in a biology classroom?

2.      What is the students’ perception based on the level of availability of instructional materials?

3.      What is the students’ perception based on the study habit?

4.      What is the students’ level of involvement in the classroom?

5.      What is the students’ perception based on the classroom disciplinary climate of the class room?

 

1.5       SCOPE OF LIMITATION

The study will be carried out in Lagos state in Shomolu Local Government Area in four different secondary schools for students in SS 1 and SS 2and it will look into the variables of:

·         Students perception on Teachers’ support in a biology classroom,

·         Students’ perception based on the level of availability of instructional materials,

·         Students’ perception based on students’ habit

·         Students’ level of involvement in the classroom and

·         Students’ perception based on the classroom disciplinary climate of biology class room.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study would be of importance towards improving the perception of students towards the learning of biology study at the secondary school level.

The study also lies in its contribution to the pedagogical body of knowledge. It’s value to teacher effectiveness, academic development and performance of the students. It is also important in investigating student perception of biology class room learning environment to enhance development of positive approach towards biology and to understand the way students perceive their biology learning environment because of its effect and achievement on the subject and its influence on students’ learning.

Understanding students’ perceptions of their classroom learning environments and the factors associated with their perceptions may help teachers and educational researchers to find out some alternative ways that enhance the student’s learning.

This study provides information and moreover helps to discover the weakness of some classroom determinants such as students’ habit, teachers’ support, classroom climate, availability of instructional material, students’ involvement which when sort out will improve the perception of students towards their classroom learning environment.

The study will enhance the active participation of students in the class and also help teachers to be aware of suitable and required teaching methods that will promote teacher-students interaction in the class room environment and also help to give teachers the reason to place more emphases on giving the students tasks in the classroom setting.In student centered learning environment learners are given actual control and self-direction of academic tasks through task and assessment design by enhancing classroom learning environment.

As teachers and students actively participate in the teaching and learning process with the aim of resolving the challenges unveiled, there will thus, be an enhancement in the academic achievement of students thereby improving the learning of biology and preparing the students for the future.

 

 

 

1.7       OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS:

SCHOOL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT:School learning environment is the perception of the student and is a summatedscore measured by a self-administered rating scale on parameters such as teachers’ support,study habits, students’ involvement, instructional materials, and laboratory facilities in the school,

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT:Average of the previous and current years’ marks is the academic achievement.

ACADEMIC:It pertains to school subjects or to fields of liberal arts or to the sphere of ideas and abstraction (Chaudary, 2004).

ACHIEVEMENT: It was denoted by knowledge attained or skills developed by pupilsusually in the schools, measured by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers (Chaudhary, 2004).

BSPQ:Biology Students’ Perception Questionnaire

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