THE CAUSES AND IMPACT OF FRAUD ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA BANKING INDUSTRY (A Case Study of Access Bank)


Content

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Chapter one deals with the introduction of the topic which explain the background of the study

Chapter two deals with the review of related literature of the topic.

Chapter three discuss the research methodology of the study.

Chapter four discuss the data presentation and analysis of the topic.

Chapter five which is the last chapter deals with summary, findings, suggestion, recommendation and conclusion.

References is also included to aid the study.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Cover Page

Certification                                                                                   i

Dedication                                                                                     ii

Acknowledgment                                                                           iii

Abstract                                                                                         iv

Table of content                                                                             v

 

Chapter One

1.0    Introduction                                                                         1

1.1    Background of Study                                                          1

1.2    Statement of Problem                                                          2

1.3    Objective and Relevance of Study                                      3

1.4    The Scope and Limitation of the Study                              4

1.5    Research Question and Hypothesis                                   5

1.6    Methodology                                                                        7

1.7    Sources of Data                                                                   8

1.8    Variable in the Study                                                          10

1.9    Data Analysis                                                                       11

 

Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature

2.0    Introduction                                                                         13

2.1    Definition of Fraud                                                              13

2.2    Types of Clearing Fraud                                                      14

2.3    Causes of Bank Fraud                                                        16

2.4    Institutional Factors                                                            17

2.5    Conversion of Clearing Instrument                                    17

2.6    Returning an Instrument with Deceitful Reason               18

2.7    Forging of Clearing Instrument                                          18

2.8    Environmental/Social Frauds                                            19

2.9    Effect of Bank Frauds                                                         22

         

Chapter Three

3.0    Research Methodology                                                        36

3.1    Research Methods Used                                                     36

3.2    Research Instruments Specification                                  37

3.3    Sampling Procedure and Sampling                                    40

3.4    Method of Data Analysis                                                     44

3.5    Research Questions                                                            44

 

Chapter Four

4.0    Data Presentation and Analysis                                         47

4.1    Introduction                                                                         47

4.2    Personal Data                                                                      47

4.3    Test of Hypothesis                                                               55

 

Chapter Five

5.0    Summary/Findings Suggestions, Recommendations      

          and Conclusion                                                                   57

5.1    Summary/Findings                                                             57

5.2    Suggestions                                                                          58

5.3    Recommendations                                                               59

5.4    Conclusion                                                                           61

 

          References                                                                            63

          Questionnaire                                                                      65

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0   INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Banks are like any other business organization which are established for the primary purpose of making profit. Frauds has become a bone of contention to the development of banks and other financial institutions particularly this past decade. However, due to frauds or bad management, granting of loans without collateral and other related factors increased the distress syndrome and total collapse of some banks and the resultant effect on the action economy was quite devastating. Consequently, this is an attempt to examine the impact of fraud on organization performance in the Nigeria banking industry. The causes, the nature and suggestions as to how the menace of fraud can be reduced or minimized to the barest minimum or possible totally eliminated shall be examined. This will help to forestall the total collapse of the banking system as such would have serious consequence on the economy.

John C.E. (1996) noted that fraud has always been in existence; it effects on banks has become a source or worry to the government, the customers, the management of the various banks as well as the international community, the pre-civil war banking industry has fe operational problem than the post-civil war banking system banks workers exhibited a his/her degree of job discipline and their customers showed a better degree of normal discipline than what is a seen in banking sector of the Nigerian economic today. Bank fraud was not common within this period.

The monumental growth witnessed between 1987 and 1996 brought in the sharp practices, which latter metamorphosed into malpractices that had to the collapse of many banks institutions.

Ajibola (1999) further said/stated that the banking industry constitute one of the pillars which the economy of any nation can be created.

Hence, the government, bank management and customers should be everything possible to reduce fraud or possibly eradicate it.

Bank fraud and for series have been a case for concern in the industry and its growth may lead to a fall in the Nigeria economy.

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The problems addressed in this study is the overall of fraud and its negative impact on organisational performance in the banking industry in Nigeria. It is clear that fraud has become a serious problem for many years. This has a negative impact on top management staff as more as their time spent on attempt to find solution to the persistent fraudulent practices among all cadres at bank staff.

This menace of fraud in banks ahs often had to loss of huge amount of with the active collaboration of bank officials, some banks officials collaborate with customers and other outsiders to perpetuate fraud in banks, the regularity and magnitude of the occurrence of fraud in banks has led to loss of pubic confidence in banking system and also loss of reputation of the bank(s) involved in a number of cases the relevant regulatory authorities had to close some affected banks where fraud of considerate magnitude has led the banks into difficulties.

Apart from closure of banks by the relevant regulatory authorities; Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), many customers or potential customers are not willing to deposit their money with any bank. This has adversely affected the growth of savings culture, which has not assured well for the economy in general and banks in particular. This is because banks depend on deposits fund to lend to their potential investors and since this funds are not sufficient, they are unable to meet a fundamental rite of banks, that is, challenging idle funds to where they are needed.

The economy has also suffered as a result of the inability of banks to lend to investors and this economy has not been able to grow as expected, leading to increased unemployment, robbery and other crimes, social unrest etc mainly as a result of unemployment.

These various consequences of fraud in bank and the economic in general has brought to the fore the need for fraud detection and control in Nigeria, needless, to say that the relevant authorities banks management regulation authorities and the government are in their various and joint capacity doing all that is conceivable than to arrest frauds in banks and also in the society in general. It is therefore hoped that an insight into ways frauds are perpetrated and the resultant effect on the economy in general will enable the appropriate authorities take not only necessary but appropriate setups in checking the menace of fraud on the banks, customers and the economy in general.  

 

1.3   OBJECTIVE AND RELEVANCE OF STUDY

The occurrence of fraud in the banking industry has been on the increase and this has impacted negatively on the banking industry and the economy in general.

This study therefore intends to examine the impact of fraud and misappropriation on organizational performance in the Nigeria banking industry. This study also intends to find out in general terms, the causes of frauds in banks. This study also intends to find out in general terms, the causes of frauds in banks. This study also intends to recommend for reaching solution to control of fraud and reduce it impact and also to minimize the incidence of frauds in banks so as to prevent failings of banks due to fraud cause neither by customers, outsiders not by the management of such banks. This study relevant lie in the fact that there is a public outery against the frequently reported cases of fraud in banks from the media based on information obtained from the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) Nigeria Deposit Insurance Co-operation (NDIC) and reports from various banks. A studying of fraud impacts on organisational performance because of very great significance to every Nigerian, customers banks, regulatory authorities, government etc.

This is because any study that can help in reducing the incidence of fraud is not totally eliminated and will bring great relief to all participants in the Nigeria economy.

 

1.4   THE SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY  

This study is a case study of Access Bank Plc with head office and several branches in Lagos. This study will involve twenty-five staff of Access Bank from the head office and branches in Lagos. These respondents will be divided into these groups i.e. ten respondents in each group the groups will be made up of management senior, junior staff respectively. The choice of Access bank informed by the fact that the banks has her head office in Lagos and Lagos is the largest commercial city in Nigeria with over ninety percent of the study carried out in Lagos respectively of incidence and impact of fraud in the banking industry.   

The major limitation of the study is the relatively small sample, the sample, the sample is not large enough and therefore might not be representative of the total population of bank in Lagos or Nigeria in general. Due to the small sample, which might not be representative of the total population, there is difficulty in arriving at results, which may be accurate. The smallness of the sample is as a result of the difficulties is not only having stuffs of the bank to participate but also due to the cost involved and the high rate or either not required questionnaire or not fully completed.

Again, a major limitation is the made of settings respondents from each of the groups of the bank staff, this is as a result of the apathy by members of the groups to give information concerning their organisation.

Inspite of these limitations, the method used to divided into management, senior staff may give a fair reflection of the group.

 

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS

Research Question

1.           Can poor staff remuneration package cause fraud in Nigeria banks?

2.           Can incessant fraud lead to collapse of banks

3.           Can incessant fraud lead to damage of bank reputation.

 

NULL HYPOTHESIS

1.           Poor staff remuneration package are not the causes of frauds in Nigeria banks.

2.           Incessant fraud can lead to collapse of banks

3.           Incessant fraud cannot lead to collapse of banks and cannot damage banks reputation

 

Alternative Hypothesis

1.           Poor staff remuneration ractice are the causes of frauds in Nigeria banks.

2.           Incenssant fraud can lead to collapse of banks.

3.           Incessant fraud cannot lead to damage of banks reputation in Nigeria economy.

 

1.6   METHODOLOGY

This is a case study however, the survey method was adopted in choosing the respondents from each of the three categories of groups in Access bank, the respondents were made up of management, senior staff and junior staff of the bank.

Two main causes of fraud were used for the study both poor remuneration package and collapse of banks and damage to a bank’s reputation.

A total ten respondents in each staff cadre of equity bank (Access bank) were chosen through simple random sampling to guide the stratification of respondents into employment cadre dependence was placed on:

a.       Information provided by respondents

b.      the nature of respondent job and

c.       Type of car and residential area.

 

Sample size: in chosen the sample size, one factor we contend with in the study is the size of your sample which is economic sample: because it include enough participants to ensure a valid design because choosing small sample may witness sampling error to be 300 of completely eliminated, therefore will determine to choose the junior staff because it has more population in the groups and result obtain in this populace will be used to represent other groups and for such large sample the formular which was drawn by Yard (Yard 1973) was used:

n =         N              

 1 + N (e)2

Where         n = sample size

                   N = population size

                   e = margin of samplings error

When the population size is not know to us then the formula: n

n = p (1 – p)

  e2

was used to determined the exact population of staffs and management in the bank.

Data collections begin the next step taken by obtaining information from the respondent (junior staff) such information like:

1.           Type of car each one them is using

2.           There residential area of each respondents

3.           To known whether salary, obtained by each staff is sufficient to them.

4.           To known whether working hour is comfortable to each staff. ]

 


And also the data analysis techniques were use like:

1.           Time Sampling: This samplings techniques is appropriate when behaviour occurs continuously interaction between the junior staff for example (30 seconds).

2.           Individual Sampling: This technique is appropriate when you want to preserve the organization of a staff behavior over time rather than simply notions how often particular behaviors occur.

3.           Event Sampling: This samplings technique is appropriate when you can clearly define one behavior as more important than others and focus on the one behaviour.

 

1.7   SOURCES OF DATA

The primary source of data will be through the administration of questionnaire on different employees of (Access bank) questionnaires will be designed and administered on the selected employees of the banks chosen for his study.

Secondary sources of data include journals, textbooks, Nigeria deposit insurance cooperation (NDIC) and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) publications, government gazettes etc.

 

1.8   VARIABLES IN THE STUDY

The independent variables in the study are

a.           Staff remuneration

b.           Collapse of banks

c.            Damage of the bank reputation

d.           Internal control

The dependent variables are

a.           Education

b.           Staff cadre

c.            Income class

d.           Number of years in the bank (experience)

 

1.9   DATA ANALYSIS

In analysis data collected fro the purpose of the study a simple percentage will be computed. Chi-square will be used to test the hypothesis, the formular for chi-square is

X2     = (0 – E)2

              E – 1

Where

X2 = chi-square

E = expected chi-square

0 = observed frequency

 

Level of significance according to statistical model 0.5 = 5.99. At the end of test, a categorical statement shall be made, whether to accept the null or alternative hypothesis.

Data analysis involves transforming of collected data through research instrument to a form that allow data collected from the junior staff to be accurately and efficiently analyse through such steps:

1.           Codins (i.e. assigning letter and numerical valve to various answers to prepare them for tabulation.

2.           Re-cording: using an array of number, calculation and frequency distribution.

3.           Data description and summation: this can be achieved through percentages, measures of central tendency, measure of dispersion of variation (bar, histogram)

 

 


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