THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SANDWICH STUDENTS AT UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND COUNSELLING


Content

ABSTRACT

 

The study attempted to examine the effect of employment on academic performance amongst Sandwich students at the University of Lagos.  Some relevant literature reviews were carried out under important sub-headings. The descriptive research survey was employed in this study to assess the opinions of the selected respondents using the questionnaire and the sampling technique.  A total of 200 (two hundred) respondents were selected and used in this study to represent the entire population of the study. A total of 4(four) null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study using the independent t-test statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance.  At the end of the data analyses, the following results were obtained: Hypothesis one revealed that there is a significant effect of employment on sandwich students’ academic performance Hypothesis two found that there is found that there is a significant difference between the academic performance of students in sandwich programmes and those in full-time programmes. Finally, hypothesis three showed that there is a significant gender difference in the academic performance of students due to engagement in employment.  Based on the conclusions reached in this study, it is recommended that: Sandwich students should ensure that they arrange themselves proper concerning their works and their academic career.  This is because, they would be doing disservice to themselves if they only pay attention to their works at the detriment of their academics.  In the light of this, sandwich students ought not to engage themselves in work activities that can make them to loose focus in their educational careers. The school authority and decision-makers in the school, should look into the Sandwich programme and ensure that the programme is formatted in such a way that it is not cumbersome to the students, especially students who combine work with schooling at University of Lagos

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page                                                                                                                  i

Certification                                                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                                                                 iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                                    vi

 

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                                      1

1.1         Introduction                                                                                                   1

1.2         Statement of the Problem                                                                           5

1.3         Purpose of the Study                                                                                  6

1.4         Research Questions                                                                                   6

1.5         Research Hypotheses                                                                                7

1.6         Significance of the Study                                                                           7

1.7         Scope of the Study                                                                                      9

1.8         Limitation of the Study                                                                                9

1.9         Definition of Terms                                                                                      9

 

CHAPTER TWO:    LITERATURE REVIEW                                                     11

2.1         Concept of Employment and Full Employment                                     11

2.2         Basic Employment Right                                                                            17

2.3         Basic Income Right of Employee                                                              21

2.4         The Role of Education in Employment                                                    26

2.5         Importance of Sandwich Education                                                         28

2.6         Sandwich Students’ Employment and Academic Performance

at the University Level                                                                                30

2.7         Employment on Academic Achievement Among Sandwich Students         34

2.8         Sandwich Students and the Labour Market                                           39

2.9         Effects of Employment on Sandwich Student Academic Performance       44

2.10      Summary of Review                                                                                                48

 

 

CHAPTER THREE                                                                                                 50

3.0       Research Methodology                                                                              50

3.1       Research Design                                                                                         50

3.2       Population of the Study                                                                              50

3.3       Sample and Sampling Technique                                                            50

3.4       The Instrument                                                                                             51

3.5       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                   51

3.6       Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                      52

 

CHPAPTER FOUR:            DATA ANLALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION              53

4.0       Introduction                                                                                                   53

4.1       Description of Bio-Data of Respondents According to Sex, Age

 and Class                                                                                                     53

4.2       Testing of Hypotheses                                                                                55

4.3       Summary of Findings                                                                                 58

 

CHAPTER FIVE:     DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS,

RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTION

FOR FURTHER STUDIES                                                            59

5.0       Introduction                                                                                                   59

5.1       Discussion of Results                                                                                 59

5.2       Summary of the Study                                                                                61

5.3       Conclusions                                                                                                 62

5.4       Recommendations                                                                                      62

5.5         Suggestion for Further Studies                                                                 63

 

References                                                                                                   64

Appendix                                                                                                       67

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1         Introduction

Employment for individuals, means having a job or other gainful occupation. For a nation, total employment is a measure of how well the economy provides opportunity to all who are willing and able to work. In a statistical sense, workers are considered employed if they have either full or part-time paying jobs or are self-employed, even if they are not working at a given time for reasons of health, strike or vacation (Darby, 2003).

The growing and expanding economic responsibilities of governments at the Federal and State levels, have affected the capability of governments to continuously recruit adequately qualified teachers to meet with the expanding students’ enrolment in Nigerian secondary schools. Therefore, the use of Sandwich Programmes and part-time programmes of tertiary institutions in Nigeria, remains a dependable source of improving serving teachers’ professional and academic quality as well as improving the number of teachers for Nigerian secondary schools quantitatively and improving qualitatively with respect to standards (Mezieobi, 2006).

According to Mkpa (1997), the essence of Sandwich and Part-time teacher-education is to provide opportunity for the intellectual development and competence of teachers in their professional assignment or interested persons in teacher-education who would not be accommodated in the regular school based programmes as a result of job protection and maintenance of their families’ socio-economic responsibilities as adults.

Interestingly, the much vaunted distance education programme, promoted by the Obasanjo regime in the year 2000 is ideal in improving access to education, but is frustrated by the non-provision of feasible communication gadgets and adequately packaged programmes, epileptic power supply, lack of trained manpower in distance or sandwich learning and effective machinery to monitor its implementation. Education innovation as sandwich and part-time teacher-education programmes are meant to provide wide access to human resources development in teacher-education (Dashen, 2002).

According to Anozie (2005), sandwich programme is an educational programme designed for teachers who could not come for the full-time studies in a formal school setting. The sandwich programme is organized by the Faculty of Education in University of Lagos and in any other tertiary institutions in Nigeria. For University of Lagos, the Sandwich programme is organized for teachers during the long term break or vacation in schools. It usually comes up between August and October annually. The programme offers variety of courses in many Departments in the Faculty of Education.

The great response of would-be learners to part-time study and sandwich programmes in this period of economic down-turn cannot be over stressed. This is because, many are willing to go to school on a full-time basis and to do nothing but reading, but with the prevailing socio-economic condition in our society, many a learner concludes that he/she has to engage in a job that would fetch him or her a regular pay before embarking on any study programe. Hence, it is a common sight these days to find candidates rushing into the sandwich programmess which is absolutely seasonal, leaving the rest of the year to gainful employment (Makinde, 1996).

It is not surprising that the majority of the candidates for such a programme are adults considering the varied mix of their vocational and non-vocational interests and especially, the barriers placed in their ways to full-time study programmes such as the problems arising from domestic responsibilities, work and study (Afe, 1990). According to Afe’s (1990) study of a survey of sandwich students’ age ranges, one would agree that the ages range between 25 and 51 by which time they are expected to be independent of parents or guardians. Over 70% of them are married with children.

Interestingly, interests have increased generally in continuing education as evidenced by the number of Colleges of Education which rose from less than 8 to about 17 by the late 70s in western Nigeria. Candidates are at present being trained for the National Certificates in Education by the NTI – National Teachers’ Institute Centres, and other centres with different labels like the Project-Time in the production of more teachers in our schools. The essence of this according to Ilogu (1996), is to cushion the effect of population explosion brought about by the execution of the National Develompent Plans (1960 – 1985) as well the Universal Primary Education (UPE) of the 70s.

As Makinde (2001) submits, the consequent rise in the number of secondary school leavers these days, compared to the decline in the number of new entrants into the universities yearly is generating much interest within institutions of higher learning. Equally, the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) is not helping matters due to the unprecedented high cut off points in the admission quota into the different faculties.

The Institute of Education in Nigeria places a significant role in the training and retraining of teachers. They roles include:

(a)     to organize in-service training and other courses and programmes for teachers;

(b)     to hold conferences, conduct seminars and organize study programmes;

(c)     to organize pre-service, in-service and continuing education courses for teachers and educators and

(d)     to bridge the gap between the “Gown” and the “Town” through programmes relevant to the current needs of the society it serves.

There is no doubt, that employments held by sandwich students can affect their academic achievement at the tertiary level of our school system. This is because, most students who registered for the sandwich programme, are engaged in one work or the other, mostly teaching. Most sandwich students may not perform well in school due to the kind of work they do. However it is noted that most of them could not have been to the tertiary institution without working. This is because, many sandwich students train, themselves through what they earn from their employment (Uzomah, 2007). This study therefore attempts to find out the relationship between the employment and academic achievement of sandwich students in tertiary institutions.

1.2         Statement of the Problem

The relationship between employment and academic performance of sandwich students cannot be doubted. This is because, employment and schooling may not work together positively. One must affect the other. Students who are gainfully employed, pay more attention to the routine duties they do at their work places, than their academic activities. This in any case, may have affected their performance at school. No wonder, most sandwich students do not do well in their academic activities. For instance, many of them barely escape being asked to withdraw from their educational programmes due to dismal or poor performance in their courses, while many others may drop out outrightly due to inability to cope with the rigours of academic activities in school due to employment. Only a handful of the students may be able to and be capable to completing their educational programmes with strong academic grades for further studies at the masters and or M.Phil/PhD levels of their academic career.

The above problems propelled this researcher to examine the effect of employment on academic performance of sandwich students in tertiary institutions.

1.3         Purpose of the Study

The objectives of this study include to:

(1)         Find out whether employment has effect on the academic performance of students.

(2)         Examine whether there is significant difference in academic performance between sandwich students and full-time students at University of Lagos.

(3)         Investigate whether there is significant gender difference in the academic performance of sandwich students due to employment.

(4)         Find out whether the performance of sandwich students who work differ from the performance of those who do not.

1.4         Research Questions

The following research questions were raised in this study:

(1)         Does employment affect the performance of sandwich students at University of Lagos?

(2)         Is there any significant difference in the academic performance of sandwich and full-time students?

(3)         Will there by any significant gender difference in the academic performance of students due to employment?

(4)         Will the performance of sandwich students differ significantly from that of the full-time students at University of Lagos?

1.5         Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated and tested:

(1)         There will be no significant effect of employment on academic performance of students.

(2)         There will be no significant difference between the academic performance of students who are in sandwich programmes and those in full-time programmes.

(3)         There will be no significant gender difference in the academic performance of students due to engagement in employment.

(4)         The performance of sandwich students will not significantly differ from that of the full-time students.

1.6         Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to some people and group of individuals as shown below:

(1)         The sandwich students would benefit from the results and recommendations of this study because, it will help them to understand the effect of employment on academic achievement of students. Not only that, this study will enable students to understand some other factors that militate against high academic achievement especially at sandwich or part time levels.

(2)         The lecturers would be more aware through this study, of the implication of students’ (sandwich) employment on their academic achievement. Lecturers and indeed, other teachers at other levels of Nigerian educational system, would be able to appreciate the relationship between employment and students’ educational career.

(3)         School Authorities will be able to understand more effectively, students’ situations as regards work and study. With the results and recommendations of this study, the school authorities would be able to give conclusions to those who engage in routine work and also enroll in sandwich programmes to update their academic profiles.

(4)         The society will be well informed through the findings and recommendations of this study. With this study, the society will be aware that work affects students’ academic career negatively.

 

1.7         Scope of the Study

The study covers the effect of employment on sandwich students’ academic achievement at the University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos.

1.8         Limitation of the Study

In this study, finance, time frame and other logistics would pose considerable constraints in the effective completion of this study.

1.9         Definition of Terms

Operational terms were defined in this study in the following areas:

(1)         Employment: Individuals or a person having job or other gainful occupation. Employment can be part-time paying jobs, or self-employed etc. It is what one does to earn a living.

(2)         Academic Performance: The academic performance of students, is the overall activity of a student(s) who have sat for test or examination in any subject(s) taught in school over a period of time.

(3)         Sandwich or Part-time Students: This is the programme organized by a school in order to provide education to people who are not able to attend the full-time programme of the school due to work or any other circumstances,

(4)         Counselling: This means advice or direction given to individual or group of individuals on a certain issue(s). It is the guidance of an individual for proper direction into a good part.

(5)         Implications: The effect of something on another thing. The aftermath or outcome of something done.

(6)         Constraints: This means limitation. Something that provides set back to work being carried out.


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