THE EFFECT OF ARCHIVES AND MUSEUM IN THE TEACHING OF HISTORY IN THE SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN LAGOS STATE


Content

 

ABSTRACT

This study examined, the effects of Archives and Museum in the teaching of History in the selected Senior Secondary Schools in Lagos State. The study posses four (4) basic research questions centred on the problem of history teaching and learning in the secondary schools. The study has also high-lighted the role museum and Archives can play in improving the performance of the students in history. It has also discussed the teacher – student relationship and how it affects the learning and teaching of history in Nigeria schools, it has also stressed how Museums and Archives can influence students’ acceptability of learning history as a subject. The research question and the interview conducted were discussed qualitatively.  The result of the findings reveals that policy makers have either purposely, accidentally left out the study of history in the secondary school syllabus. It was also revealed that most schools have never visited any Museum or use Archive to teach history in their schools. The study discusses the nature and value of Museums and Archives and in the study of history. The concluding chapter made suggestion for the study of history in all schools. A careful examination of the suggestions, can draw the attention of students to the value of Museums and Archives in the teaching of local history in the secondary schools in Lagos State and Nigeria generality.


 

 

                                              TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                      Pages

Title Page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                             iv

Table of Contents                                                                                       v

Abstract                                                                                            vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study                                                                            1

Statement of the Problem                                                                  6

Purpose of the Study                                                                        7

Research Questions                                                                           7

Significance of the Study                                                                            8

Scope of the Study                                                                            9

Definition of Terms                                                                           10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction                                                                                      11

Why study History                                                                                    11

The role of Archives in the Society                                                   12

The importance of Museums                                                            17

Studies relating to the Educational Significance of Archives and                 19

Museums in History Teaching                                                         

New Evolution Resources for Primary and Secondary Schools                 22

Summary                                                                                          23

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES

Preamble                                                                                           24

Research Design                                                                                24

Population                                                                                        25

Sample and Sampling Procedures                                                     25

Research Instrument                                                                         26

Administration of the Instrument                                                     27

Methods of Data Collection                                                              27

Method of Data Analysis                                                                  28

Limitation of the Methodology                                                                   29

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Preamble                                                                                           30

Presentation and Analysis of Data                                                    30

Discussion of Findings                                                                      38

Conclusion                                                                                        41

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Introduction                                                                                                42

Summary                                                                                          42

Discussion of Findings                                                                      43

Recommendations                                                                                      44

Conclusion                                                                                      46

Implications of Findings for Future Studies                                               46

References                                                                                         48­

Appendix                                                                                          50


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

One may be forced to ask a question such as: why do we consider archives and museums so significant in the teaching and learning of history? It is because of some problems in teaching the subject in such a way that students would learn more easily about their cultural heritage, and also to appreciate it. History should be taught in such a way to, encourage students to appreciate the value of heritage and the need to take cognizance of it.

Although, history reveals that archives and museums have been established in Nigeria since the early 1950s, it is only used at the tertiary levels. It has not been utilized in secondary institution for the teaching of history. The use of Museums and Archives would have been employed to restore back the study of history to the original pride of place, Anah (2006).

Furthermore, Museums and archives help to reduce ignorance about history and improves mans thinking and horizon, about the events of the post. James (2001) notes that history as a subject gives student basic knowledge about the importance of antiquities, images, structures, historical statues of both the contemporary and renaissance personalities in history.

History education is the stability of life experience that people acquire, which enable them to cope and to make a conducive resolution about the past and the present challenges confronting the people of the world. This is because it enables them to achieve historical knowledge, and enhance their individual development.

The availability of Archives and Museums and their utilization constitute the lifeline of the teaching and learning of History in the Nigeria educational system. Among all the educational problems facing all states of Nigeria including Lagos State, none is as persistent as the problem of Archives and Museums in the teaching and learning of History in the educational institutions in Nigeria (Joshua, 1995)

The poor performance of secondary school students in the History subject has been attributed mostly to the problem of teaching resources and quality of teachers. It is either that the resources are in short supply or not available in some schools. While in some schools, the problem is that of shortage of teachers and if the problem is nor arrested the future of history as a subject in Nigerian schools in very black.

Before teachers are posted to schools, they must have been exposed to sound intellectual and professional training. The quality of the teachers to a great extent will dictate their efficiency and productivity in their work.

The number of teachers in the school depends on the availability of teachers. Teacher need to be well trained in their subject areas, for efficient performance. Teachers are in history must be well trained in the techniques of history for effective performance; and learning resources include: books, stationeries, Archives and Museums, laboratories Library and machineries. The teaching materials provided, and made available to the teachers, and for the achievement of educational objectives.

The success of the history as a subject in the education system depends on the availability of the above resources Without them,  it will be very difficult to achieve to achieve success in history in the Nigeria educational system. For this reason, there is a need for an antiquity or object of remembrance that can link the past with the present – an archive or a museum.

An archive is a place where people can go to gather firsthand facts, data, and evidence from letters, reports, notes, memos, photographs, and other primary sources.

Private organizations, government organizations, families and individuals create and acquire documents in the course of their business or personal activities all the time.  Archives are those documents which no longer have an everyday use, yet have been kept because of their historical value.

It is what we call 'primary evidence' - the raw material used by all kinds of researchers to find out about the past (as opposed to ‘secondary evidence’ which refers to books that may have been written using the information found in the archives).

It was well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks, and ancient Romans (who called them Tabularia). However, they have been lost, since documents were written on organic materials like papyrus and paper. On the contrary, many archives founded since Middle Age by churches, kingdoms and cities survive and often have kept their official status uninterruptedly till now. They are the basic tool for historical research on these ages.

Historians, genealogists, lawyers, demographers, filmmakers, and others conduct research at archives. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archive - cite_note-11 The research process at each archive is unique, and depends upon the institution that houses the archive.

Archives are created by many different groups, namely:

  • families
  • individuals
  • businesses and industry
  • churches
  • schools
  • charities
  • government departments
  • councils

Most documents are written on either paper or parchment (which is made from the skin of animals).  However, they may also be in electronic format.  For example, e-mails and word-processed documents on your computer are just as much part of an archive today as paper documents are.

Archives can come in many different formats:

 

Files

Files
(a folder containing lots of pages with writing
either hand written or in type)

Cine film

Cine films

Volumes

Volumes
(sometimes with decorative bindings and gold
lettering)

CD

CDs

Letter from the PRONI archives

Individual documents
(such as letters)

Photograph of a group of creamery workers

Photographs

Tape casette

Tapes

Map

Maps

Microfilm

Microfilms

Plan

Plans

Email

Emails

Electronic document

Electronic documents

                                                                             (source: goggle. Com )

Archives are sometimes referred to as ‘records’ but the latter is more accurately used to describe documents that are still in current use. Many keep archives for some reasons which include:

1.                 To learn about the past

2.                 To help us understand who we are and how we came to be the way we are – both as a community and as individuals.

3.                 For evidential reasons

4                   Wills are kept as proof of inheritance

5                   Title deeds as proof of ownership of land or of mineral rights

6                   Registers of births, marriages and deaths are kept as evidence of our identity and are needed for a whole range of purposes from passports to pensions

7                   Maps and plans might be used to identify contaminated land or old mines that could cause building subsidence.

8                   For education and learning

9                   For personal reasons that affect individuals’ lives today

10              It contributes to accountability in government. (source: goggle. Com ).

A museum is an institution which collects, documents, preserves, exhibits and interprets material evidence and associated information for the public benefit'. (Erdberg 2006).

It is a building, place or institution devoted to the acquisition, conservation, study, exhibition and educational interpretation of objects having scientific, historical or artistic value. Museums collect and care for objects of scientific, artistic or historical importance and make them available for public viewing – through exhibits that may be part of the permanent collection or through temporary exhibits. (Erdberg 2006).

Many people explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment. Archives and Museums are institutions that collect, safeguard and make accessible artifacts and specimens, which they hold in trust for society.' Museums can be said to ‘bring the past to life’ and are fantastic representations of the different periods of our cultural history. They enable visitors to touch, feel, see, hear, experience and smell the past. Many museums now offer a programme of events for different groups e.g. families, under fives etc. This is in contrast to the early museums which mainly catered for adult audiences. As useful and important archives and museums are, many are yet to fully utilize its potential to the fullest to affect lives maybe due to its unavailability or the primitive thinking of our people.

The inadequacy of Archives and Museums in the teaching and learning of history in our secondary schools need to be addressed. It is only when this is done that the nation can have trained, knowledgeable and dedicated citizens in different professions. Also, with the availability of Archives and Museums in our schools, the problem of falling standard will become a thing of the pasts

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The focus of this study is on the necessity and usefulness of Archives and Museums in the teaching and learning of history in secondary schools in Lagos State. The problem of this study therefore is to investigate into the necessity and effect of Archives and Museums in the teaching and learning of history in secondary schools in Lagos State. Our school administrators or principals seem to be ignorant of this fact by the way they take history subject with loose hands. In the whole state, students pay PTA levy on yearly basis for the purpose of getting relevance facilities and materials essential for the school better performance in all the subjects. The ignorance (or better still, negligence) of the school administrators over this issue constitutes the problem of this study. Moreover, the standard guide policies have not been properly followed in the implementation of school teaching facility.

There are inadequate tools and materials to work with, many school buildings are dilapidated and nobody cares, many of the buildings do not have doors, windows and nobody takes care of the sinking toilets, etc. The above inadequacies constitute the problem the research is determined to investigate and find out their impact on the academic performance.

Archives and Museums, its usefulness, effects and efficiency, purpose and achievement are all part of the statement of this research problem. It is an area in which generation coming after could benefit from, its contribution and profiles will form an important aspect of this research.

1.3     Purpose of the Study

This research work is to investigate the importance or relevance of Museums and Archives in the teaching of history in the Nigerian secondary schools and the performance of students in history education in some selected schools of Onike Junior Girls High School in Lagos State and the specific purpose are to:

i.                   Examine the causes of the problems that hinder history teaching and learning.

ii.                 Identify the role Museums and Archives play in the fostering and propelling the Nigeria history education to a greater and acceptable height.

iii.              Access and analyze the level of teachers and students’ participation in the learning and teaching of history.

iv.              This study seeks to investigate whether Museums and Archives will influence the rate of students’ acceptability of learning history as a subject.

1.4     Research Questions

In other to ascertain the importance of this research, these questions are formulated by the researcher for a conclusive result and it is as follow:

i.                   What are the causes of history teaching/learning problems that hinders history learning in the secondary schools?

ii.    What role can museum and Archives play in improving the performance of the students in history education?

iii.   Can the level of teachers / students’ relationship affect the learning and teaching of history in Nigeria schools?

iv.   Can Museums and Archives influence students’ acceptability of learning history as a subject?

1.5     Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to the teachers in making the teachers to be aware of where museums and archives are located in their locality. Also, this study will bring out the relationship between archives, museums and education for a better understanding and clear identification.

The museums and archives will develop into a curiosity which brings about experience personal acquaintance with man’s artistic cultural and intellectual evolution and so develops a sense of discrimination in the users. It is worthy of note that the relationship between culture, past and present creates a new understanding for visitors and therefore enhances intelligent sense of connection and understanding.

Archive and museums as resource centres cannot be neglected because students and teachers of history will adequately furnished with historical facts.

Museums and archives are very helpful for understanding history and should therefore, be fully integrated into the teaching methods of local history in Nigerian schools. Their integration should be seen as part of the effort to review the ideas of concepts that should underline the teaching of higher school local history.  

1.6     Scope and Limitation

The research is aware that there are many museums in the federation such museum are located in the following places which includes: Gidan Makama  museum in Kano, National Museum Lagos, Oron Museum in Oron, Museum of antiquities in Oshogbo museum of Ife antiquities, Benin museum etc. Also, there are many archives institution in the country which are: National archives in Lagos, Enugu, Sokoto, Benin, Kano, Ilorn, Calabar etc. But as a result of crowded academic programme the researcher will not be able to visit all the museums and available archives only National museum in Lagos will be visited.

This study will be limited to National museum in Lagos and the focal school which is Onike Junior High School. Therefore, the researcher is limited by many factors like; time, which posse a constraint in writing this study. The study has to be carried out amidst equally compelling university programmes. Lack of easy means of transportation, distance of schools for the study, finance which at this time of economic recession did not allow a more comprehensive study to be carried out. 

Therefore, recommendations and suggestions of this study were based on findings from the selected museum and the school in focus with the result of the conducted interviews.

1.7     Operational Definition 

Archives: A place where public records are kept.

Museum: An institution for the collection, permanent preservation and exhibition of objects of all kinds of illustrations. Especially the development of the arts and sciences, the growth and civilization of all ages and of natural products or the building in which arts collections are kept and preserved for future reference.

History: Is the branch of knowledge or the study of events that have already taken place.

Institution: An established law, custom etc. an organization having some social educational or religions purpose.

Antiquities: Means the ancient period of history or great age: oldness.

Culture: Means improvement by study or training. Or the skills arts etc. of a given people in a given period; civilization.

Generation:  Means a single stage in the succession of descent the average time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0     Introduction

This chapter deals with the basic issues raised in this study. It is divided into four selections namely:

1.     Why study history?

2.     The role of Archives in the society

3.     The importance of Museums

4.     Studies relating to the educational significance of Archives and Museums in history teaching.

2.1     Why study History?

It is necessary for us to be aware of why we study history at this point. By studying history, students have a common knowledge about their past and their cultural heritage. This knowledge about the past is the key to the present. There is the need to study history because it enables us to chart our future clearly. This study can only enable us to chart our future clearly and wisely only when we know the path - (past) which led to the present. It is no wonder, therefore, that Buston and Green (2002) said that ‘the past is different and enables us to see the present in a new and prompts to ask whether we are always better than our forefathers’.

Similarly, it is true that history considers the past as very important. Hence Shaw (2005) says, ‘we must strive constantly to understand the past because the past is to explain the present… ’. Thus the study of history is important because it helps the students to understand their past, present and have the idea of what the future could look like.

The study also makes us to realize that students need to formulate their own ability and history helps them in doing this. Hence Shaw (2005) writes, ‘it is a psychological need for everybody to draw strength and inspiration from a knowledge of its roots and identity from the merit of things which are particularly its own and can be demonstrated to have so in the past’. It could be noted also in this study that Gosder and Sylvester (2008) supported the idea that local history is very important hence they say; ‘A man who is ignorant of the society in which he lives, who knows nothing of its place in the world and who has not thought about his place in it is not a free man even though he has a vote. He is easy game for easy persuaders’. Local history is very important in this regard hence Erik Walker (2008) made this point quite specifically that: Local history is a most effective way of showing pupils what history is and how it is made and of giving them some acquaintance with the sources and research methods of history.

Erik Walker also went further and emphasized that ‘like the scientist who studied natural phenomena with the aid of a microscope, so the historian uses local history to focus on small units in history in order either to substantiate or to question general theories about the nature of historical change’. It is as a result of these views by different author that the study emphasizes on the importance of Archive and Museum in the teaching of history. The researcher is, therefore, convinced that local history can also give pupils a more direct experience of how history is made. In local study, the pupils can see and handle the actual sources of history whether they be documentary or materials.

2.2     The role of Archives in the Society

The role of Archives in the teaching of history cannot be overemphasized. Hence according to the famous German Archivist Adolf Brenneke in 1995 says: Archives are the whole on business activities of a physical or legal body which are intended for permanent preservation at a particular place as the sources and evidence of the past’. The study therefore considers Archives as an important means of teaching history because the records and documents deal with the past. Similarly, Dr. Schellenberg (2006) said that ‘all books, papers, maps, photographs or documentary materials regardless of physical form and those records of any public or private institution which are adjudge worthy of permanent preservation for reference and research purposes and which have been deposited or have been selected for deposit in an Archival institution’. All these records of public and private institutions are valuable for teaching history in this study.

In another development, it is also observed that the Nigerian National Archives (1997) defines Archives as All public records, documents and other historical matters of every kind, nature and description which are in the custody of any public office on which may be transferred or acquired by the National Archives of Nigeria’.

What's an Archive?

An archive is a place where people can go to gather firsthand facts, data, and evidence from letters, reports, notes, memos, photographs, and other primary sources.

The National Archives is the U.S. Government’s collection of documents that records important events in American history. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is the Government agency that preserves and maintains these materials and makes them available for research.

Personal Archives versus Federal Archives

Every day Government agencies create new records that might be transferred to the National Archives. NARA’s holdings are created either by or for the Federal Government. The material comes from the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Whereas your family’s archives is personal, those held by the National Archives are official. Your family’s archives might include your birth certificate. The National Archives holds the original, signed “birth certificate” for our nation—the Declaration of Independence.

Your family’s archives are available only to you and family members. The holdings in the National Archives are available to almost everyone.

About Our Nation's Records

More than 95 percent of the records in the National Archives are declassified, meaning they are available to all researchers. NARA employs approximately 3,000 full- and part-time employees to help facilitate the use of its holdings, (The National Archives and Records Administration, 2011). Many of the records in the National Archives are available on microfilm, and more than 1.8 million digital images of documents can be seen.

Some of the oldest materials in the National Archives are on parchment and dated back to the Nigeria’s pre-independence and post independence era. Some of the recent holdings include electronic files transferred from the Department of State and are available online through Access to Archival Databases (AAD).

Preservation of Records

To help preserve material, NARA stores archives records in acid-free folders within acid-free boxes that are placed in dark spaces with consistent temperature and humidity.

For many years Federal records were created on paper and stored in files and boxes. These days’ electronic records are created by government agencies at an astounding rate. To meet this challenge, the National Archives is finding new ways to manage and preserve electronic materials.

Why do we keep archives?

To learn about the past

If you want to write a history book, find out about something that happened in the past or about a character in history, then you would have to look at the archives, analyze the evidence and decide what the evidence is telling you.

Since historians can't always question the witnesses who lived at the time, archives often provide the only source of evidence which can be used to inform us about the past.

To help us understand who we are and how we came to be the way we are – both as a community and as individuals.

Without knowing what has shaped our community, our country and us as individuals, we have a lesser sense of identity. Without a documented heritage in the form of archives, our knowledge of communities, families and the built environment would be the poorer.

For evidential reasons

Archives have long been kept as evidence, to be used in a court of law if necessary, as proof of rights and entitlements.

For example:

1.                   wills are kept as proof of inheritance

2.                   title deeds as proof of ownership of land or of mineral rights

3.                   registers of births, marriages and deaths are kept as evidence of our identity and are needed for a whole range of purposes from passports to pensions

4.                   maps and plans might be used to identify contaminated land or old mines that could cause building subsidence.

For education and learning

Archives can also provide a stimulating and exciting learning environment - for schools, universities and for the lifelong learner. They help to enrich and enhance teaching at all levels.

For personal reasons that affect individuals’ lives today

Access to archives is often needed for personal reasons, for example, if one is trying to establish the circumstances surrounding the death of a loved one or for tracing missing members of a family.

Contributes to accountable government

Citizens have a general right of access to information about the activities carried out by government organizations acting on their behalf.  Government records whether of central government, local government or of other public bodies are vital for democratic accountability.  Without archives that document the decisions of government and how those decisions were made, there could be no public scrutiny of government activities.

What is a Museum?

A Museum is a building, place or institution devoted to the acquisition, conservation, study, exhibition and educational interpretation of objects having scientific, historical or artistic value says Kirkstall Abbey (2012). The word Museum is derived from the Latin muses, meaning ‘a source of inspiration’, or ‘to be absorbed in one’s thoughts’.

Museums collect and care for objects of scientific, artistic or historical importance and make them available for public viewing – through exhibits that may be part of the permanent collection or through temporary exhibits. It is the role of the curator to look after the objects and explain their history to visitors. A building that is a Museum can often be part of the collection itself, such as ‘the 1st up-stair in Nigeria’ which is one of the historical artifacts still left in the Badagry Local Government of Lagos State and many more like that in the country. It is now a Leading Museum and its collection depicts past e.g. slavery or slave trade epitome, printing, locomotives, machinery, optics etc.

Museums can be said to ‘bring the past to life’ and are fantastic representations of the different periods of our cultural history. They enable visitors to touch, feel, see, hear, experience and smell the past. Many museums now offer a programme of events for different groups e.g. families, under fives etc. This is in contrast to the early museums which mainly catered for adult audiences.

 

2.3     The importance of Museums

It is worthy of note that Eric Carabeel (2008) defines a Museum ‘As an institution, a place where artifacts are used to tell the story of man and his achievements’. In this regard, the Museum functions as a place of learning. It is, in fact, the Museums that archeological and historical materials are found displayed. It is also to be noted that artifacts have helped in no small measure also reveals the story of man’s past and which invariably provide a link with the present are displayed in Museum.

In this study, it is therefore, noted that conservation function of Museums affect the scope of education. in this case, a free contact between visitors and items is favoured by many exhibitions are helpful to educational objectives. There is, no wonder, why Harrison and Letterberg (2007) stated that, ‘Museum exhibits can be made use of as an extension to the classroom lesson, as another kind of reference book, presently factual information in valid and pleasing form’.

In some of the seminars organized by the International Committee of Museums (ICOM) and the United Nations Education and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) on Museum education (1995), the participants have agreed with Zethenberg, Harrison and Arah that the visual experiences provided by the Museums help in improving learning. According to Arah, (1990) ‘the Museum stands as one of the means of bringing cultural awareness to the community and also emphasizing the variety of ethic cultures which blend to form national heritage’.

In another development, UNESCO (2003) recorded that students’ visit to the Museums is ‘A moment when eyes, hearts and minds if not ears are alert and receptive; when energies are stimulated and ready to be unleashed. Even the most hundred secondary school boys and girls admit to interest being aroused at this moment, even if this is a mere flash gloan, mere flash or more, it is a precious and vital moment’.

The Museum trains up a child to observe, question and analyze and to be prepared to revive and to reproduce his knowledge in such a way that he or she can show power of appreciation. The training assists the child to answer examination questions systematically. It is no wonder that Major C.K Agrey in the article ‘A modern concept of the roles of Library and Museums as educational institutions to effective learning published in Pedagogue Magazine of the Nigerian Army Educational Corps Vol. 2 (1980) says – ‘The Museums on its own accumulate materials of tangible hard facts and artifacts of actual human experiences of the past and present of which we can see, handle and taste and which has responsibility towards education as the physical guardians of culture and environment’.

Thus, by making the best use of Museum collections, UNESCO findings indicate that the child becomes stimulated. This stimulation comes through the child’s contact with objects, the creative work of artists, craftmen and with the achievement of the great mind in science and technology.

2.4     Studies relating to the Educational Significance of Archives and Museums in History Teaching.

In the article ‘ the role of the Museums in the society’ in the tourist International of June 1990, Arah says: ‘The Museum stands as one of the means of bringing cultural awareness to the community and also emphasizing the variety of ethics cultures which stand to form the national heritage. As one of the institutions responsible for searching and keeping of material evidence for supporting or denying the existence of indigenous cultures, the Museum is relevant’.

In fact, the museum has the responsibility to train our people to understand the complex and Wonderful civilization they have inherited and to understand the world about them.

Another prime role of Museum is to discover the best means for schools and museums to work together in making the best use of the resource materials mutually available to them. Museums evolve interest in students and teachers.

Umebe (1992) of the National Museum, Onikan, Lagos suggest that, ‘We in Nigeria need Museums as much as we need the schools for it in the Museum that we have to look for the materials which are essential in building up our history as a people’. In fact, the bulk of Nigeria history is buried in the ground and some are embodied in our ethnographic materials and work of art.  ‘Museum and education go hand in hand’. There is a definite link between the two.

Ubeme went further to say that… ‘the museum functions as a place of learning. The museum is more than elsewhere like, archeological and historical materials, works by researchers are found displayed’.

In another development, Archives have been described by the Nigerian National Archives as the ‘records of any public or private institution (a term which includes government offices, firms, churches and missions, associations and unions and even private families) which are adjudged permanent preservation for reference and research purposes, and which have been deposited or have been selected for deposit in an archival institution’.

The former minister of information and culture Prince Tonny Momoh made a speech at the opening of the workshop on the guide to success of the Nigerian history at the conference centre, University of Lagos on 2nd May, 1989 and said according to the Lord Acton, ‘History that is not based on record is open to dispute’. The Minister went further to say that ‘Human memory as we all know is short’.  Records, especially archives constitute a unique and irreplaceable source of reliable information without which the distinctively human creative and adaptive characteristics cannot flower to the fullest if possible’. He also emphasized that ‘Archives preserves the heart, mind, spirit, conscience and memory of a nation, of a people, a community and an individual’.

Finally, emphasis has been laid on Museums and Archives because it has been observed that visual experiences, museums and archives provide help in improving history teaching and learning. From the literature reviewed, museums and archives as suggested by the educationist that these institutions should be used as a teaching aid and an extension of classroom teaching so that the standard of history teaching can be improved.

Climate Change: Our Global Experiment

Materials for Educators

In conjunction with the exhibition Climate Change: Our Global Experiment, the Harvard Museum of Natural History has developed a suite of educational materials designed to extend learning from the exhibition to the classroom and to help teachers address various National Science Standards in earth science, physics, chemistry, and science and technology. Although educators are encouraged to schedule a visit with their students, the materials also stand on their own as effective teaching and learning tools and how to order this resource for your classroom.

Schools and teachers

Girls with elephant tooth

The museum offers a wide range of taught workshops for all key stages, based on the Science National Curriculum. For each workshop there is a teacher sheet (including Learning Outcomes, suggested pre-visit and post-visit activities).

2.5     New Evolution Resources for Primary and Secondary Schools

Evolution is entering the Primary Science Curriculum for the first time in September 2014. The museum has designed a range of new resources to support teachers in delivering lectures based on history in the primary schools and also conduct classroom resources and a taught session in the museum.

Evolution Solutions is a full day lecture or training course equipping you with the skills and knowledge to teach this confidently in the classroom.

Taught session in the museum using museum specimens.

RWS_image

Real World Science

The Real World Science programme is a collaborative partnership of museums with natural history collections that aims to enrich and enhance science teaching and learning at upper primary and secondary levels. At each partner museum, pupils can experience science in context and understand its relevance through inspiring educational activities. These include facilitated discussions with leading research scientists, engaging science shows and practical science workshops.

 

2.5     Summary

In this chapter, an attempt has been made to map out the place of museums and archives in local history, the importance of local history has been discussed and also the role of Archives and Museums in our educational activities and in the society has been established.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Preamble

This research is carried out to look into the effects of the usefulness of Archives and Museums in the teaching of History in the Nigerian schools. This is to test the validity that there is significant relationship between the usefulness of Archives and Museums in the teaching of History. This chapter presents the research methodology which includes: Research design, Population of the study, Sample and sampling technique, Research instrument, Validity of the instrument, Administration of the research instrument for collection, instrument for data collection and analysis procedures.

 

3.2     Research Design

The research design used in the study is survey-descriptive in nature. Survey is used in Education for a variety of purposes:

To determine levels of knowledge and to ascertain needs in order to plan programmes and also in evaluation of curriculum.

The research design used in the study is survey-descriptive in that it involves face-to-face gathering of data from the grassroots.

Data gathered will be used to describe the relationship between the usefulness of Archives and Museums in the teaching of History. There is no conscious manipulation of the variables since the interaction among them has been completed.

 

As far as this investigation is concerned, the descriptive design is used to find out the degree of the relationship between the usefulness of Archives and Museums in the teaching of History in some selected schools in of Lagos State.

 

3.3     Population of the Study

The target population of this study includes students and teachers of selected secondary schools in Lagos State. Moreover, for convenience and financial reasons, a small population sample was taken from selected schools to represent the whole population which comprises five (5) schools where history is taken as a subject and they are:

1.                 Unity Secondary School.

2.                 University of Lagos International Secondary School.

3.                 Command Secondary School, Ikeja.

4.                 CMS Grammar School Bariga

5.                 Eva Adelaja Girls High School, Bariga.

 

3.4     Sample and Sampling Procedures

A sample of 250 secondary school students and teachers comprising 100 males and 150 females whose ages ranged from 14 to 40 years, constituted the sample for the study. All the 250 respondents were in public and private secondary schools in Bariga, Ikeja and Yaba Local government of Lagos State; and had a reputation for dedication on the job, as well as ten years and above experience in active classroom teaching and learning. Also, all the respondents were selected through hat-and-draw method of simple random sampling technique from each of the five secondary schools and were from different Socio-Economic and educational backgrounds. The distribution of the sample by sex and location is as follows in table I below:

Table 1: Distribution of the sample by school location and sex.

NO

SCHOOL LOCATION

SUBJECT

TOTAL

 

MALE

FEMALE

 

1

Unity Secondary School, Yaba.

25

25

50

2

University of Lagos International school Yaba

25

25

50

3

Command Secondary School, Ikeja.

25

25

50

4

CMS Grammar School, Bariga.

25

25

50

5

Eva- Adelaja Girls High School, Bariga.

25

25

50

 

TOTAL

250

250

200

Source: field survey

 

3.5     Research Instruments

The main instrument used in collecting information for the research is questionnaire. The questionnaire is for both the teachers and the students in the selected schools. The instrument was in a Likert form with five graded responses ranging from Strongly Agree (SA) to Strongly Agree (SD). The respondents were instructed to tick [X] the key in front of each item to indicate the extent of their agreement or disagreement with each statement.

Also, the questionnaire has two parts. Part one provided personal information of the respondents such as age and sex, marital status, years of working experience, educational qualification etc.

Part two has four sections A, B and C and D. Section A measured the causes of history teaching/learning problems that hinder history learning in the secondary schools. This consists of 5 items; section B addressed issues related to the role museum and Archives can play in improving the performance of the students in history education. This consists of 5 items. Section C measured the level of teachers / students’ relationship and how it affects the learning and teaching of history in Nigeria schools. This consists of 5 items. The last section D measured how Museums and Archives can influence or aid students’ acceptability of learning history as a subject. This consists of 5 items.

 

3.6     Administration of the Instrument

The researcher personally administered the questionnaires to the respondents in each of the public and private secondary schools selected for the study.

In each of the secondary schools used for the study, the principals of such schools were approached for co-operation and their interests were obtained. The confidentiality of subjects’ responses was assured while the respondents were given enough time to complete the inventory. At least, the questionnaire was allowed the second day to be with subjects and the researcher only paid sack the visit on the appointed days,

A total of two-hundred and fifty questionnaires were administered, while two-hundred and forty questionnaires were finally collected on return, as being properly completed, showing 96% retrieval rate.

 

3.7     Methods of Data Collection

The primary data for this research was collected via a questionnaire and research interviews Also, secondary source of data collection was used which include; journals, textbooks and material on internet etc. For this research purpose, a questionnaire with two sections: Section A sought to elicit the background information of the respondents e.g. name of the school, sex, qualification, years of experience etc. Section B was the Likert type instrument was administered for the respondents. It is designed to measure several variables relating to the Archives and Museums for the teaching of history as a subject. The respondents were responsible for providing information on the effect of Archives and Museums in the teaching and learning of local history in our secondary schools. The simple percentage method was adopted due to the fact that it is precise and presents no ambiguity in its interpretation and can lend itself to various statistical manipulations and analysis.

 

Table 2: Likert Scale of Item Scoring

OPTIONS

VARIABLES

Strongly Agree

5

Agree

4

Undecided

3

Disagree

2

Strongly Disagree

1

 

250 copies of questionnaire were distributed to students and staff in the schools under study in Lagos.

 

3.8     Method of Data Analysis

The data from this research was analyzed using simple percentage based on the information given. The data was rated according to the percentage of the total number of the respondents based on the questionnaire while hypothesis were tested using Chi-Square (X2) method taking 0.05 df test of freedom.

 

                             X2 = S (0 – E)2

                                          S


Where         X2      =      Chi Square

                   S       =       Summation

                   0        =       Observed Frequencies

                   E       =       Expected Frequencies

3.9     Limitation of the Methodology

The project was carried out with restriction to time and also financial constraint. The research is restricted to the five selected Schools in Bariga, Yaba and Ikeja local government of Lagos State.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Preamble

This chapter deals with the presentation and analysis of data collected for this research. In addition, the hypothesis formulated for this study are analyzed and tested. Also data collected from questions are presented and analyzed. The results are presented and interpreted.

This Section presents the analysis of two hundred and fourty (240) responses collected out of two hundred and fifty questionnaires administered. It is on these data collected that formed the basis in which this research work is based.

4.2     Presentation and Analysis of Data

Table 1: Bio-Data

Variable

Status

Frequency (%)

Total

Gender

Male

136 (56.7 %)

 

240 (100%)

Female

104 (43.3%)

Age

8-10 years

30 (12.5%)

 

 

240 (100%)

11-12 years

69 (28.7%)

13-14 years

130 (54.2%)

15 and above

11 (4.6%)

Marital Status

Single

200 (83.3%)

 

240 (100%)

Married

40 (16.7%)

Level of Education

WAEC/SSCE

0 (0%)

 

 

240 (100%)

NCE/OND

60 (25%)

HND/B.Sc.

140 (58.3%)

OTHERS

40 (16.7%)

Employment Status

Employed

5 (2%)

 

240 (100%)

Unemployed

235 (98%)

The table I above shows that 136 (56.7%) of the respondents are male while the remaining 104 (43.3%) are female, 30 (12.5%) are between ages 8-10 years, 69 (28.7%) are between 11-12 years, 130 (54.2%) are between 13-14 years, while 11 (4.6%) are above 15 years. 200 (83.3%) of the respondents are single and 40 (16.7%) are married. 0 (0%) are WAEC/SSCE certificate holder, another 60 (25%) are NCE/OND certificate holder, 140 (58.3%) have HND/ B.Sc. degree while 40 (16.7%) have other forms of higher educational level. 40 (16.7%) of the respondents are unemployed while 200 (83.3%) are employed.

 

4.2.2  RESPONSES TO RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Research Question One:-       What are the causes of history teaching/learning problems in the secondary schools?

 

The causes of history teaching/learning problems in the secondary schools?

Table II

 

SD

D

UD

A

SA

Total

Lack of competent teachers are barrier to teaching and learning of history as a subject.

22

(9.2%)

10 (4.2%)

-

(0%)

92

(38.3%)

116 (48.3%)

240 (100%)

The use of proper and specific resource materials in a particular subject makes learning easy.

1

(0.4%)

4

(1.7%)

3 (1.25%)

127 (52.9%)

105 (43.75%)

240 (100%)

Overpopulation in the Nigeria schools is a major factor that hinders proper teaching and learning of history.

4

(1.7%)

12

(5%)

1

(0.4%)

160 (66.7%)

63

(26.2%)

240 (100%)

There is no subject teacher to teach history in my schools.

11

(4.6%)

7

(2.9%)

-

 (0%)

137 (57.1%)

85

(35%)

240 (100%)

Some teachers lack the knowledge to use resource materials, this affect my learning efficiency.

49

(20.4%)

29

(12.1%)

1

(0.4%)

97

 (40.4%)

64

(26.7%)

240 (100%)

Source: field Work

 

Table 2 reveals that 22 (9.2%) strongly disagree that lack of competent teachers are barrier to teaching and learning of history as a subject, 10 (4.2%) disagree, 0 (0%) are undecided, 92 (38.3%) agree while 116 (48.3%) strongly agree with the statement. 1 (0.4%) strongly disagree that the use of proper and specific resource materials in a particular subject makes learning easy, 4 (1.7%) disagree, 3(1.255%) are undecided, 127 (52.9%) agree, while 105(43.75%) strongly agree to the statement. 4(1.7%) of the respondents strongly disagree that overpopulation in the Nigeria schools is a major factor that hinders proper teaching and learning of history, 12 (5%) disagree, 1(0.4%) are undecided, 160 (66.7%) agree, while 63 (26.25%) strongly agree to the statement. 11 (4.6%) of the respondents strongly disagree that there is no subject teacher to teach history in my schools., 7 (2.9%) disagree, 0 (0%) is undecided, 137 (57.1%) agree, while 85 (35%) strongly agree to the statement. 49 (20.4%) strongly disagree that Some teachers lack the knowledge to use resource materials, this affect my learning efficiency, 29 (12.1%) disagree, 1 (0.4%) are undecided, 97 (40.4%) agree, while 64 (26.7%) strongly agree to the statement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What role can museum and Archives play in improving the performance of the students in history education?

 

The role museum and Archives can play in improving the performance of the students in history education.

Table III

 

SD

D

UD

A

SA

Total

Museums and Archives increase the knowledge of the students.

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

80 (33.3%)

160 (66.7%)

240 (100%)

Museums make teaching of history more enjoyable.

2

(0.8%)

-

(0%)

1

(0.4%)

93 (38.8%)

144

(60%)

240 (100%)

Museums and Archives bring learners back to the (ancient) past with reality.

6

(2.5%)

2

(0.8%)

2

(0.8%)

140 (58.4%)

90

(37.5%)

240 (100%)

Museums and Archives is an embodiment of the past and a forecast to the future.

0

(0%)

1

(0.4%)

0

(0%)

140 (58.3%)

99

(41.3%)

240 (100%)

Students who visit Museums and Archives performance are better than those who do not.

1

(0.4%)

2

(0.8%)

0

(0%)

124 (51.7%)

113

(47.1%)

240 (100%)

Source: Field Work

 

The table 3 above shows that every respondent unanimously without any bias agree, or strongly agree to the statement that Museums and Archives increase the knowledge of the students. 2 (0.8%) of the respondents strongly disagree that Museums make teaching of history more enjoyable, 0(0%) disagree, 1(0.4%) is undecided, 93 (38.75%) agree, while 144 (61.25%) strongly agree to the statement. 6 (2.5%) of the respondents strongly disagree that Museums and Archives bring learners back to the (ancient) past with reality, 2(0.8%) disagree, 2 (0.8%) are undecided. 140 (58.3%) agree, while 90 (37.5%) strongly agree to the statement. 0 (0%) of the respondents strongly disagree that Museums and Archives is an embodiment of the past and a forecast to the future, 1(0.4%) disagree, 0(0%) are undecided, 140 (58.3%) agree, while 99 (41.3%) strongly agree to the statement. 1 (0.4%) of the respondents strongly disagree that Students who visit Museums and Archives performance are better than those who do not, 2(0.8%) disagree, 0 (0%) are undecided, 124(51.7%) agree, while 113 (47.1%) strongly agree to the statement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Can the level of teachers / students’ relationship affect the learning and teaching of history in Nigeria schools?

The effect of teachers / students’ relationship on learning and teaching of history in Nigeria.

Table IV

 

SD

D

UD

A

SA

Total

Teachers’ teaching methods make me to enjoy learning history and is playing a significant role in making learning easy.

4

(1.7%)

1

(0.4%)

0

(0%)

150 (62.5%)

85 (35.4%)

240 (100%)

Teachers’ qualification and experience will aid teaching and learning of history in the classroom

1

(0.4%)

0

 (0%)

1 (0.4%)

131 (54.6%)

107 (44.6%)

240 (100%)

Teachers’ commitments enhance teaching and learning of history in my school.

11 (4.6%)

4

(1.7%)

2 (0.8%)

126 (52.5%)

97 (40.4%)

240 (100%)

Proper teachers / students’ relationship can affect the learning and teaching of history in the schools

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

170 (70.8%)

70 (29.2%)

240 (100%)

I can perform better if taught by a qualified and experienced teacher.

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

100

(41.7%)

140

(58.3%)

240 (100%)

Source: Field Work

Table 4 revealed that 46 (57.5%) of the respondents strongly disagree that they agree that Teachers’ teaching methods make me to enjoy learning history and is playing a significant role in making learning easy, 31 (38.75%) disagree, 0 (0%) are undecided, 1 (1.25%) agree, while 3 (3.75%) strongly agree to the statement. 11 (13.75%) of the respondents strongly disagree that Teachers’ qualification and experience will aid teaching and learning of history in the classroom, 10 (12.5%) disagree, 1 (1.25%) are undecided, 31(38.75%) agree, while 27(33.75%) strongly agree to the statement. 11 (13.75%) of the respondents strongly disagree that Teachers’ commitments enhance teaching and learning of history in my school, 4(5%) disagree, 2 (2.5%) are undecided, 26 (32.5%) agree, while 37 (46.25%) strongly agree to the statement. 8 (10%) of the respondents strongly disagree that Proper teachers / students’ relationship can affect the learning and teaching of history in the schools, 24 (30%) disagree, 0 (0%) are undecided, 37(46.25%) agree, while 11 (13.75%) strongly agree to the statement, all the respondent 100 (100%) unanimously without any bias agree/strongly agree to the statement that they can perform better if taught by a qualified and experienced teacher.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Can Museums and Archives influence students’ acceptability of learning history as a subject?

 

Museums and Archives can influence students’ acceptability of learning history as a subject.

Table V

 

SD

D

UD

A

SA

Total

Archives and Museum can complement and supplement local history?

2 (0.8%)

1

(0.4%)

2

(0.8%)

145 (60.5%)

90 (37.5%)

240 (100%)

Students who visit Museums and Archives find history more interesting as a subject.

6

(2.5%)

2

(0.8%)

1 (0.4%)

141

(58.75%)

90 (37.5%)

240 (100%)

Museums and Archives make life more valuable and interesting.

3 (1.25%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

156

(65%)

81 (33.75%)

240 (100%)

I can be a better student if I visit Archives and Museums.

23

(%)

12

(%)

0

(0%)

87

(%)

118

(%)

240 (100%)

Museums and Archives have some facilities aid that can help in the teaching of history as a subject.

1 (1.25%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

155 (56.25%)

84 (42.5%)

240 (100%)

Source: Field Work

 

The table 5 above shows that 2 (0.8%) of the respondents strongly disagree that Archives and Museum can complement and supplement local history, 1 (0.4%) disagree. 2 (0.8%) are undecided, 145 (60.5%) agree, while 90 (37.5%) strongly agree to the statement. 6 (2.5%) of the respondents a strongly disagree that Students who visit Museums and Archives find history more interesting as a subject, 2 (0.8%) disagree, 1 (0.4%) are undecided, 141 (58.75%) agree, while 90 (37.5%) strongly agree to the statement. 3 (1.25%) of the respondents strongly disagree that Museums and Archives make life more valuable and interesting, 0 (0%) disagree, 0 (0%) are undecided, 156 (65%) agree, while 81 (33.75%) strongly agree to the statement. 23 (9.5%) of the respondents strongly disagree that I can be a better student if I visit Archives and Museums, 12 (5%) disagree, 0 (0%) are undecided, 87 (36.3%) agree, while 118 (49.2%) strongly agree to the statement, 1 (0.4%) of the respondents strongly disagree that Museums and Archives have some facilities aid that can help in the teaching of history as a subject, 0 (0%) disagree, 0 (0%) are undecided, 155 (64.6%) agree, while 84 (35.4%) strongly agree to the statement.

 

4.3     Discussion of Findings

Effectiveness of Museums and Archives in serving as visual aids to teaching history

The museum conveys the message that history is no fairy tales but real. It shows that historical places are not just imaginary places. The Museums and artifacts in it make both teachers and pupils understand better the contents and concepts of history. In fact, with the aid of these materials and by the use look and say methods, the interest of teachers and students would be aroused and fostered into learning of history as discovered in the analyses above.

 

Archives are involved in keeping of records. As Lord Acton (1997) once said, ‘History not based on records is open to dispute’. Human memory as we know is short. Archives constitute a unique and irreplaceable source of reliable information without which the distinctively human creative and adaptive characteristics cannot flower to the fullest extent possible.

Furthermore, Archives aid local history because if any researcher goes to the archives, he/she will be able to get adequate information needed for the local history. It is a known fact that human being are culture conscious. Any Nigeria will be amused to see records of his family, clan or community on display hence archival exhibition is very important in teaching and learning of history. In addition, lectures and seminars are organized by activities. This is to keep the general public aware of the importance of archives in the teaching of history.

 

The problems confronting archives are quite enormous. One of the major problems is finance. As a result of this, the National archives find it so difficult ot execute their plans, Government does not give adequate support, thereby rendering them incapacitated to carry out their official assignments.

Archives are expected to be active and living but reverse is the case. In fact, despite the major roles played by the archival institutions in the National development coupled with the inadequacy of archival personnel, the institution continues to remain an elitist establishment.

 

The problems confronting the Museums are many. One of the major problems is lack of space. In this respect, just a small percent of the total collection of the museums’ property is displayed to the public. There are also not enough officers to attend to the museum patrons. Museum attendants were not properly trained so they could not provide some needed information to the public users.

Another one major problem as found out by the researcher is that, in the whole Nigeria, there is only one Museum school and to make things worse, the population intake is low.

 

Suggested solutions to the problems of Archives and Museums in Nigeria secondary schools.

In the first place, Museum should be extended to create rooms for workers and also to contain the artifacts that should be displayed. Government should adequately finance and annually increase the rate to conform to the on-going inflation in the country. Also, the public should be convinced to change their lukewarm opinion and fairy tales about museums being an abode of demi- gods/goddesses. Teachers should be orientated on the importance and adequate use of Museum in the teaching and learning of history in the secondary schools in Lagos State and Nigeria as a whole.

Moreover, relevance and up-to-date facilities like, art clubs and mobile museum should be provided in the Museums for consultation and easy accessibility.

As for the Archives, as the Director of Archive said: ‘if an old man/woman dies in a family, history is lost if there are no records’. Government should provide sufficient fund to run the National Archive so that they will be able to educate the patrons/masses, most especially the teachers.

In fact, the public do not know what an Archive is. The Government should make it a compulsory subject in the secondary school curriculum so that there can be a visit to the Archive at least once in a term. These may make the teachers and the students know what are in the Archives and their historical importance. The school authority should be made understand the importance of Archives and Museums in the teaching and learning of history.

With the policy of ‘catch them young’, Government should embark on programmes of educational services in the schools. The National Museums and Archives officials should visit schools or institutions to educate them about the value and the use of Archives and Museums.

 

4.4     Conclusion

Since the entire calculated hypothesis value of the statistics are greater than the tabulated value, the calculated value falls outside the accepted region.  Hence, the null hypotheses (Ho) are rejected and the alternative hypothesis (Hi) is accepted.

Therefore, Museums and Archives in Nigeria have some positive effects in the teaching and learning of history in the Nigeria secondary school if properly enhanced by the schools and motivated. Better still, the researcher implore the Nigeria Government to inscribed history subject into the secondary school curriculum for an effective and resourceful study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Introduction

This chapter discusses the findings and researches, draws conclusions and makes a summary, numbers of recommendations, discussion of the findings. The chapter also states the conclusions and likely implications for future research and curriculum development in local history.

5.1     Summary

This study sets out to investigate the effects of Archives and Museums in the teaching and learning of history in some selected schools in Lagos State. The subjects of the study consisted of 250 students selected from various schools and only 240 actively responded which formed the basis of the research analysis. A questionnaire instrument was designed to collect data from the respondents. The items structured on the instrument were done in line with the variables present in the research questions.

The data collected were subjected to qualitative analysis after which the following emerged as the summary of the major findings:

1. There was no provision for Museums’ visitation in some Nigerian schools to boost teaching and learning of history in Nigeria schools;

2. Some schools administrations were not in support of teachers in organizing visitation to Museums and Archives. They see it as a waste of money;

3. There was a significant relationship between uses of Museums and Archives and students’ academic performance;

4. There were causes of history teaching/learning problems that hinder history learning in the secondary schools;

5. Teachers / students’ relationship can affect the learning and teaching of history in Nigeria schools.

5. Museum and Archives can play a vital role in improving the performance of the students in history education; and

6. Museums and Archives can influence students’ acceptability of learning history as a subject in Nigeria schools.

5.2     Discussion of finding

The main concern of this research has been to examine the position of Archives and Museums in the teaching and learning of local history. There has been a general complain by most students of history that their classes are usually boring and that they do not like history because they have to read a lot. Some history teachers have also confirmed that their history classes is no more than giving notes and lectures.

Thu this study grew out of the need to establish that there can be more to history teaching apart from lecturing and giving notes, and at the same time that teaching and learning of history can be interesting and easy.

However, it was found out that most schools do not use Archives and Museum to teach local history and what is more, most schools do not visit Archives and Museums.

Four research questions were raised to address the issue of teaching and learning problems in the Nigeria schools. Some discoveries were made and summarize thus:

Ø From the response, the researcher discovered that some certain students had never been taken to Museum or visit any Archive ever since they started the history class. It also helps us to answer the question that history is not taught in a way the students will know about their culture and appreciate it. The researcher also discovered that the teacher’s teaching method being applied in some schools is more or less a lecture and the students could not fully understand what is being taught.

Ø From the oral interview conducted, the researcher was informed that the Museums and Archives have various educational facilities which can be used as teaching aids in history teaching and learning process.

Ø Another discovery made was what the Principal Archivist and Museums Educational Officer said that most teachers do not make adequate use of Museums and Archives because they were not taught that use of the use of the facilities in the Museums and Archives in their training.

Ø In another development, the researcher discovered that, a visit to the Museums or Archives enable the students to associate all the facts they were taught in the school with the visual objects and this makes learning more interesting and understandable.

Ø In addition, the researcher discovered from the oral interview made with some teachers who not only confessed their awareness of the importance of Archives and Museums in the teaching of history but problems associated with organizing such a visit which always discourage them.

Ø Finally, the researcher discovered that despite the fact that Museums and Archives provide various facilities for teaching and learning of history, few teachers were aware of these facilities.

 

5.3     Recommendations

Attempts have been made in this study to make contributions to knowledge and research by identifying the main factors considered to have significant strength to gear the use of Archives and Museums in the teaching and learning of history in the Nigeria schools. This includes field-trips and excision which helps to get to the roots of the problems and gives a better understanding in studying local (and international) history.

It is known that students who embark on field-trip at least three (3) times in a year will show some evidence of their knowledge of the locality without necessarily studying it as a theory in the class whether in history or Social Studies. Teachers should have an adequate idea of Museums and Archives resources and services. Since so much depends on them, the actual preparation of this should begin at the training college where the prospective teacher is trained. Thus, the teachers’ educational programme should include opportunity for training in the use of Museums and Archives.

Budgetary allocation for trips to Museums and Archives including other historical places should also be made for schools because one of the reasons given for the inadequate use of these facilities is fund.

The researcher also strongly recommend a visit to the Museums and Archives at least once in a term before they sit for their examinations rather than as a filler to occupy the students after the conclusion of their examinations. Such a visit should be made an integral part of the school curriculum because no lecture can provide a substitute for the actual observation by the students.

Also, teachers should arrange with the Museum and Archive officials to go on guided tours to historical places because this will provide an opportunity for the students to visit sites of all empires and other historical places so as to know that they actually exist and not just a fairy tales.

Teachers should also make use of some of the films, slides or replica of objects available for the Museums in teaching some topics. The workbooks and worksheets produced by Museums and Archives should also be made available to secondary schools to provide the students more experience in their history classes.

Lastly, Principals of secondary schools should make sure that their history teachers attend workshops, seminars and conferences organized by the Museums and Archives. This is necessary because, a good history teacher needed to be well informed about the Museums and Archives and the facilities they have in stock and offer.

 

5.4     Conclusion

The role of the Museums and Archives are to bring to students and teachers who live in the complex civilization where most adventures are secondary into a fresh knowledge of how their art and culture was in the past and is at the present.

It is the duty of history teachers to ensure that this knowledge is made accessible to the students. There may be those who say that teachers do not have time for these extra responsibilities. If Museums and Archives have so much to offer, if their value are recognized by educators who have experimented with their early knowledge to know the result that can be expected, does it not seem worthwhile to make their values available to more young people?

Teachers should therefore, be fully conscious of the possibilities Museums and Archives offer and the need to take the advantage of them. This will contribute immensely to the improvement of history teaching and learning Lagos State schools and in the Nigeria as a whole.

 

5.5     Implication of the study for further research

The finding of this research also seems to provide a basis for further research. The study set out to establish that the adequate use of Museums and Archives can help in history learning. Apart from Museums and Archives by which teaching and learning of history can be improved or discovered, different teaching methods should be integrated in the curriculum to improve the methodology of history teaching.

Furthermore, there is need to conduct an evaluation study of history curriculum syllabus used in the Nigeria secondary schools with a view to finding out if opportunity for a visit to this institutions and concluded. There should also be a research programme to be organized for improvement in the present method of teaching of history in order to make the subject more interesting, easy and lovely.

Historical excursion should be geared toward making the students aware that the evidences of history exists all around them and that through facilities, their imagination and appreciation of the past can be stimulated and prompted from assumptions to realities.

Though the researcher is emphasizing that the use of Museums and Archives can help improve history teaching and learning in secondary schools, there is a need to be sure that other Museums (apart from that in Lagos) have enough facilities to aid history teaching in the Nigeria secondary schools all over the nation. There is also the need to illustrate how more topics from the senior secondary school syllabus on history can be better taught with the use Archives and Museums materials.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Aina N.F., and Adeyoyin F.F. (2004) Methodology Review. Social Studies. Evans Publication Ibadan. Page 1-12.

Arian U. (2008) ‘The role of Museum in our Society’. Tourist International. The Journal of Applied Behavioural Science 19(3) 239 - 247.

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Arinze E. (2005). Museum in the service of the development. Nigerian Tribune February 26, 1999.

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APPENDIX

QUESTIONNIARE

Dear Sir/Madam,

 

REQUEST TO COMPLETE QUESTIONNAIRE

This questionnaire is designed to be completed by you and I will be grateful if you could endeavor to answer the research questions for the purpose of the research contained therein completely.

I will be grateful if you could endeavor to answer the questions. Your response will be treated with utmost confidentiality.

 

Thank you.

 

 

 

SECTION A

(Fill in or tick as appropriate)

1.       Sex:   Male  (   ) Female  (   )

2.       Occupation:

Students (   ) Staff (    )

3.                 Working Experience: 1-3 years (   ) 4 – 6 years (    ) 7 - l0 years (    )

above l0 years (    )

4.       Qualifications:     B.Sc. (    ) HND (    ) OND (    ) SSCE (     )

5.       Marital Status: Single (     ) Married (     ) Divorced (     ) (c) Separated (     )

Widow (    )

6.       What age group do you belong to?

25-29 (     ) 30-35 (     ) 36-39 (     ) 40-45 (     ) 46 and above (     )

 

SECTION B

The following three options are provided for your responses

Agreed {   } Disagreed {   } Undecided {   } Disagreed {   }

Strongly disagreed {   }

 

S/N

 

SA

A

UD

D

SD

What are the causes of history teaching/learning problems that hinder history learning in the secondary schools?

7.

Lack of competent teacher is a barrier to teaching and learning of history as a subject

 

 

 

 

 

8.

The use of proper and specific resource materials in a particular subject makes learning easy

 

 

 

 

 

9.

Overpopulation in the Nigeria schools is a major factor that hinders proper teaching and learning history

 

 

 

 

 

10.

There is no subject teacher to teach history in some schools.

 

 

 

 

 

11.

Some teachers lack the knowledge to use resource materials, this affects my learning efficiency.

 

 

 

 

 

What role can museum and Archives play in improving the performance of the students in history education?

12.

Museums and Archives increase the knowledge of the students

 

 

 

 

 

13.

Museums make teaching of history more enjoyable

 

 

 

 

 

14.

Museums or Archives bring learners back to the (ancient) past with reality

 

 

 

 

 

15.

Museums and Archives is an embodiment of the past and a forecast to the future.

 

 

 

 

 

16.

Students who visit Museums and Archives performance better than those who do not.

 

 

 

 

 

Can the level of teachers / students’ relationship affect the learning and teaching of history in Nigeria schools?

17.

Teachers’ teaching methods makes me to enjoy learning history and is playing a significant role in making learning easy.

 

 

 

 

 

18.

Teachers’ qualification and experience will aid teaching and learning of history in the classroom

 

 

 

 

 

19.

Teachers’ commitment enhances teaching and learning of history in my school.

 

 

 

 

 

20.

Proper teachers / students’ relationship can affect the learning and teaching of history in the schools

 

 

 

 

 

21.

I can perform better if taught by a qualified and experienced teacher.

 

 

 

 

 

Can Museums and Archives influence students’ acceptability of learning history as a subject?

22.

Archives and Museum can complement and supplement local history?

 

 

 

 

 

23.

Students who visit Museums and Archives find history more interesting as a subject.

 

 

 

 

 

24.

Museums and Archives make life more valuable and interesting.

 

 

 

 

 

25

I can be a better student if I visit Archives and Museums.

 

 

 

 

 

26

Museums and Archives have some facilities that aid that can help in the teaching of history as a subject.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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