- EFFECT OF MARKET SEGMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE OF BREWERY INDUSTRY (CASE STUDIES OF GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC AND. NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC)
- EFFECT OF MARKET SEGMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE OF BREWERY INDSUTRY (A CASE STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC AND NIGERIA BREWERY PLC.)
- EFFECT OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY ON CAREER CHOICE AMONG EMPLOYED YOUTHS IN ALOMOSHO LGA
- THE EFFECT OF TAXATION POLICIES ON THE PROPERTY MARKET TRANSACTION
- EFFECT OF LABOUR RELATIONS ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY (A Case Study Of Seven Up Bottling Company Plc)
- EFFECT OF LABOUR TURNOVER ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A Case Study of Nigerian Brewery Plc)
- IMPACT OF UMEMPLOYMENT AMONG GRADUATE IN NIGERIA AND ITS ECONOMIC EFFECT
- THE EFFECT OF LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATION (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC)
- THE EFFECT OF SALES PROMOTION ON PRODUCT PERFORMANCE AND MARKET SHARE OF THE ORGANISATION (A CASE STUDY OF NESTLE FOODS NIGERIA PLC.)
- THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP IN PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND PRODUCTIVITY)
THE EFFECT OF EMPLOYMENT ON SANDWICH GRADUATE AT THE LABOUR MARKET
The study examined the effect of employment on sandwich graduate at the labour market, case study of University of Lagos. In this study, relevant and related literature review was carried out under sub-headings. The descriptive research survey was used in order to assess the opinions of the respondents with the use of the questionnaire and the sampling technique. A total of 200 (two hundred) respondents were selected and used as samples of this study to represent the entire population of the study. A total four (4) null hypotheses were formulated and used in this study. the test instrument was the t-test statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the exercise, the following results emerged: there is a significant effect of sandwich programme on employment of sandwich graduates at the labour market, there is a significant difference in employment between sandwich graduates and full-time graduates of University of Lagos, there is a significant gender difference in the employment of sandwich graduates due to type of academic programme in the school, and there is a significant difference in employment of sandwich graduates as a result of age barrier. Based on the conclusions reached in this study, the following recommendations were made: the sandwich graduates should not be discriminated against due to age disparity of the students in question and in terms of issuance of certificate, the certificates given to the sandwich graduates should not be written part-time or sandwich different from those issued to the full-time graduates.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Scope of the Study 9
1.8 Limitation of the Study 9
1.9 Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 Concept of Employment and Full Employment 11
2.2 Full Employment Needs Revision 17
2.3 Basic Employment Right 28
2.4 Basic Income Right of Employee 32
2.5 Importance of Sandwich Education 37
2.6 Students’ Employment and Academic Performance at the
University Level 38
2.7 Employment on Academic Achievement Among Students 43
2.8 Sandwich Students and the Labour Market 48
2.9 Effects of Employment on Sandwich Students’ Academic Performance 52
2.10 Summary of Review 57
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 58
3.0 Introduction 58
3.1 Research Design 58
3.2 Area of Study 58
3.3 Population of the Study 59
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 60
3.5 The Instrument 60
3.6 Validity of Instrument 60
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 61
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection 61
3.9 Procedure for Data Analysis 62
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION
OF RESULTS 63
4.1 Introduction 63
4.2 Descriptive Analyses of Respondents Bio-Data 63
4.3 Analysis of Research Questions 66
4.4 Testing of Hypotheses 73
4.5 Summary of Findings 76
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 78
5.1 Introduction 78
5.2 Discussion of the Findings 78
5.3 Summary of Study 82
5.4 Conclusions 83
5.5 Recommendations 84
1.1 Background of the Study
The growing and expanding economic responsibilities of governments at the federal and state levels, have affected the capability of governments to continuously recruit adequately qualified teachers to meet with the expanding students’ enrolment in Nigerian secondary schools. Therefore, the use of Sandwich Programmes and part-time programmes of tertiary institutions in Nigeria, remains a dependable source of improving serving teachers professional academic quality as well as improving the number of teachers for Nigerian secondary schools quantitatively without sacrificing quality and standards (Mezieobi, 2006).
According to Mkpa (1997), the essence of Sandwich and Part-time teacher-education is to provide opportunity for the intellectual development and competence of teachers in their professional assignment or interested persons in teacher-education who would not be accommodated in the regular school based programmes as a result of job protection and maintenance of their family socio-economic responsibilities as adults.
Interestingly, the much vaunted distance education programme, promoted by Obasanjo regime in the year 2000 is ideal in improving access to education, but is frustrated by the non-provision of feasible communication gadgets and adequately packaged programmes, epileptic power supply, lack of trained manpower in distance or sandwich learning and effective machinery to monitor its implementation. Education innovation as sandwich and part-time teacher-education programmes are meant to provide wide access to human resources development in teacher-education (Dashen, 2002).
The great response of would-be learners to part-time study and sandwich programmes in this period of economic down-turn cannot be over stressed. This is because, many are willing to go to school on a full-time basis and to do nothing but reading. But with the prevailing socio-economic condition in our society, many a learner concludes that an individual has to engage in a job that would fetch the individual a regular pay before embarking on any study programe. Hence, it is a common sight these days to find candidates rushing into the sandwich programmess which is absolutely seasonal, leaving the rest of the year to gainful employment (Makinde, 1996).
It is not surprising that the majority of the candidates for such a programme are adults considering the varied mix of their vocational and non-vocational interests and especially, the barriers placed in their way to full-time study programmes such as the problems arising from domestic lives, work and study (Afe, 1990). According to Afe (1990), a survey of sandwich students’ age ranges, one would agree that the ages range between 25 and 51 by which time they are expected to be independent of parents’ or guardians’ care. Over 70% of them are married with children.
Interestingly, interests of sandwich students have increased generally in continuing education as evidenced by the number of Colleges of Education which rose from less than 8 to about 17 by the late 70s. External candidates are at present being trained for the Nigerian Certificates in Education by the NTI – National Teachers’ Institute Centres, and other centres with different labels like the Project-Time in the production of more teachers in our schools. The essence of this according to Ilogu (1996), is to cushion the effect of population explosion brought about by the execution of the National Develompent Plans (1960 – 1985) as well the Universal Primary Education (UPE) of the 70s.
Makinde (2001) puts it, the consequent rise in the number of secondary school leavers these days, compared to the fall in the number of new entrants into the universities yearly is generating much interest within institutions of higher learning. Equally, the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) is not helping matters due to the unprecedented cut via cut off points in the admission quota into the different facilities. Most adults would be learners who are disadvantaged as primary focus is on the emerging youth. Little wonder then the organisation of sandwich programmes in some Nigerian universities.
A sign of the above is contained in the functions of the Institute of Education. They are among others:
(a) to organize in-service training and other courses and programmes for teachers;
(b) to hold conferences, conduct seminars and organize study programmes;
(c) to organize pre-service, in-service and continuing education courses for teachers and educators and
(d) to bridge the gap between the “Gown” and the “Town” through programmes relevant to the current needs of the society it serves.
The National Policy on Education (1981), stipulates that the least qualifications of the primary school teachers would be the National Certificate in Education (NCE) as soon as the 6-3-3-4 system commenced. As we are all aware, many sets of SSCE graduates have been turned out. This presupposes that most secondary teachers who were hitherto holders of the NCE certificate must of necessity, improve upon their academic standards to properly fit in to the secondary school system or face re-assignment to the primary school sector (Madufor, 2000).
There is no doubt that employment of sandwich graduates has been hampered by the kind of programme (sandwich) they have undergone in school. Despite the fact that sandwich graduates do not any longer have sandwich written on their certificates, yet they do not get employment in the labour market as the full-time graduates. That is to say that they are grossly discriminated against in the labour market. For instance, many employers, according to Munachi (2000), prefer to employ or engage those who graduated in the full-time programme than the sandwich graduates. The perception of the employers is that sandwich or part-time students were not thorough bred in their chosen academic fields, and therefore, do not have content mastery. They also assume that those who graduated from sandwich programme are already old individuals who could work productively and effectively if employed.
According to Onwuama (2001), these days, the employability of graduates solely depends on their types of programme in school, their age and their grade points. Onwuama submitted that individual graduates who are relatively young, who passed through the full-time programme and finished up with first class or second upper division are required for employment than those who finished on second class lower, third class or who passed through the part-time or sandwich programme. This is as a result of lack of employment in the country, which has made the employers of labour to adopt a stiff approach in order to eliminate some candidates who seek employment in the labour market.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The effect of employment on sandwich graduates at University of Lagos cannot be overstressed. There is no doubt that employment of sandwich graduates has been hampered by the kind of programme (sandwich) they have undergone in school. Despite the fact that sandwich graduates do not any longer have sandwich written on their certificates, yet they do not get employment in the labour market as the full-time graduates. That is to say that they are grossly discriminated against in the labour market. For instance, many employers, according to Munachi (2000), prefer to employ or engage those who graduated in the full-time programme than the sandwich graduates. The perception of the employers is that sandwich or part-time students were not thorough bred in their chosen academic fields, and therefore, do not have content mastery. They also assume that those who graduated from sandwich programme are already old individuals who could work productively and effectively if employed.
The above problems propelled this researcher to examine the effect of employment on sandwich students at the labour market, a study of graduates of University of Lagos.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The objectives of this study include to:
(1) Find out whether sandwich programme affects graduates employment at the labour market.
(2) Examine whether there is difference in employment between sandwich graduates and full-time graduates of University of Lagos.
(3) Investigate whether there is gender difference in the employment of sandwich graduates due to type of academic programme.
(4) Find out whether the employment of sandwich graduates differ as a result of age.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised in this study:
1. Will sandwich programme affect graduates employment at the labour market?
2. Will there be any difference in employment between sandwich graduates and full-time graduates of University of Lagos?
3. How can we investigate whether there is gender difference in the employment of sandwich graduates due to type of academic programme?
4. To what extent will the employment of sandwich graduates differ as a result of age?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will bee formulated and tested:
1. There will be no significant effect of sandwich programme on employment of sandwich graduates at the labour market.
2. There will be no significant difference in employment between sandwich graduates and full-time graduates of University of Lagos.
3. There will be no significant gender difference in the employment of sandwich graduates due to type of academic programme.
4. There will be no significant difference in employment of sandwich graduates as a result of age.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to some people and group of individuals:
(1) The sandwich students would benefit from the results and recommendations of this study because, it will help them to understand the effect of employment on sandwich programme. Not only that, this study will enable students to understand some other factors that militate against being gainfully employed especially at labour market.
(2) The lecturers would be more aware through this study, the implication of students’ (sandwich) programme on their employment at the labour market. Lecturers and indeed, other teachers at other levels of Nigerian educational system, would be able to appreciate the relationship between type of programme and students’ employment at the labour market.
(3) School Authority will be able to understand more effectively, students’ situations as regards study and work. With the results and recommendations of this study, the school authorities would be able to give concession to those who engage in routine work and also enroll in sandwich programmes to update their academic profiles.
(4) The society will be well informed through the findings and recommendations of this study. With this study, the society will be aware that type of study affects students’ employment in the labour market.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study covers the effect of employment on sandwich graduates at the labor market, a study of University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In this study, finance, time-frame and other logistics would pose considerable constraints in the effective completion of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Operational terms would be defined in this study in the followings:
(1) Employment: In this study, it means the work an individual does to eke out a living.
(2) Sandwich or Part-time Students: This is the school programme in which students are allowed to enroll in academics at a part-time level or arrangement. It is different from full-time study.
(3) Constraints: This is what hinders or prevents something to succeed effectively.