THE EFFECT OF SOCIO- ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF STUDENTS ON THEIR PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION


Content

ABSTRACT

Parent’s status has a problem which has faced the academic performance of the students as a matter of facts this study focused on the effect of socio-economic background of student on their performance in secondary school certificate examination economics.

     

Hence the effects of socio-economic background on student performance were strictly analyzed by and large the result of the study indicated that socio-economic background has effect or academic performance of the learner.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                  i

Certification                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                                 iii

Acknowledgement                                                                      iv- v

 Abstract                                                                                   vi

Table of content                                                                         vii -ix

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.0   Introduction                                                                      1

1.1   Background to the study                                                    1 - 4

1.2   Statement of the Problem                                                   4 - 5

1.3   Purpose of the Study                                                         5 - 6

1.4   Research Hypothesis                                                          6

1.5   Significance of Study                                                         7 - 8

1.6   Delimitation of the study                                                    8

1.7   Limitation of the study                                                       8

1.8   Operation definition of terms                                              9

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.0   Introduction                                                                      10

2.1   Family background of the children                                      10 -16

2.2   Socio Economic  Status  of parent  in a child school

performance:                                                                     17

2.3   Parent educational attainment                                            18 - 21

        ICT and student’s performance cleared ICT effect         20 - 21

2.5   A need for clarification and for  appropriate explanation       21 -22

2.6   Student performance indirect effect                                     23

2.7   Students characteristics                                                     23-24

2.8   Educational environment                                                   25 - 28

2.9   ICT and student performance an enormous lack of

organizational change                                                        28-32

2.10 Flexibility of training                                                          33

                             CHAPTER THREE

                                        Research Methodology                            

3.0   Introduction                                                                      34

3.1   Research Design                                                                34

3.2   Population of the Study                                                      35   

3.3   Sample and Sampling techniques                                       35

3.4   Instrument and instrumentation                                        35 -36

3.5      Validity of Instrument                                                36

3.6      Reliability of Instrument                                             37

3.7      Method of data analysis                                             37

                                      CHAPTER FOUR

                         Data Analysis And Interpretation

4.0      Introduction                                                              38

4.1      Presentation of Data                                                  39

4.2      Data analysis and interpretation                                 43

4.3      Analysis of research question                                      46

4.4      Analysis of hypothesis                                                46 -58

 

                                           CHAPTER FIVE

5.0      Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation               59

5.1      Summary                                                                 59-61       

5.2      Conclusion                                                                61-62                               

5.3      Recommendation                                                       63-64                                               

           Bibliography

           Appendix                                               

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1       Background To The Study

Over the last decades, multiple attempts have been made to estimate an education production functions, linking various  socioeconomic factors to an indicator of students’ performance.

This empirical literature, however, had led to ambiguous results. In particular. No mechanical relationship between the amount of resources fed the educational system and pupils performance has been identified (e.g. Coleman, 1966); Hanushak, 2003; Woessmann, 2000). In this context, some authors suggested paying more attention to the organizational aspects of the schooling process and in particular to the specific incentive structures which prevail within schools (Hanushak, 1997, Bishop et al 2000).

In recent years policymakers at the federal, state and local levels have worked to increase accountability in our education system by measuring student’s performance and raising standards. These joint efforts have equipped policymakers, educators and parents with the tools needed to grade not only students but also   their schools. With the groundwork set, it is curricle that parents take advantages of opportunities for involvement in their children learning experience and play an active role in ensuring education excellence. During the last two decades, higher education institutions have invested heavily in information and communication technologies (ICT) ICT has had a major impact in the university context, in organization and teaching and learning method.

One puzzling question is the effective impact of these technologies on student’s achievement and on the returns of education.

 

Many academics researchers have tried to answer this question at the theoretical and empirical levels. They have faced two main difficulties, on one and student’s performance is hard to observe and on the other, ICT is involving technologies and there effects are difficult to isolate from their environment.

 

There is no standard definition for student performance the approach focus on achievement and curricula, how students understand courses and obtain their degrees or their makes. However, a move extensive definition deals with competencies, skills and attitudes learned through the education experience the narrow definition allows the observation of the outcomes of any change in higher education, while the more extensive definition needs a more complex strategy  of observation and a focus on labour market the outcomes of education are mainly validated in the labour market.

The relationship between the use of ICT and student performance in higher education is not clear, and there are contradictory results in the literature. Earlier, economic research has failed to provide a clear consensus concerning the affection student’s achievement.

Institutional and organization variables also have consistent effect more precisely, schools autonomy in the recruitment of teachers has a strong positive influence on students’ performance.       

 

We used the program for international students’ assessment (PISA 2000).

Cross section data to estimate the impact of organizational and institutional factors on students’ performance (controlling for individual characteristics).

In other to take into account hierarchical nature of the data, we introduced a country fixed-effect and school random effect in our regression model of education production function.

 

1.2       Statement Of The Problem

Over the years, there have been many researches to investigate the effect of socioeconomic background of students on their academic performance

Researches have been conducted to find out.

i.             How does the socio-economic background affect the academic performance of the learners?

ii.           Do the teachers’ characteristics have effect on student’s performance?

iii.          Does the students socio-economic characteristics affect their education performance?

iv.          Does the educational environment have impact on students’ performance?

v.            What are the impacts of ICT on student performance in higher education: Direct effects indirect effects and organization change?

Also the researches work originated as a result of late coming to school; not performing well in their class-work and the effect on indiscipline of the student with special reference to Awori College Ojo.

 

1.3       Purpose Of The Study        

The purpose of the study is summarized  as follows

i.             To find out how the economic of the parent affect the academic of the student.

ii.           To find out the economic of the parent affect the academic of the student.

iii.          To find out why students are been affected by their socio-economic background on their academic performance.

iv.          To find out some other factors that affect student’s academic performance.

v.            To find out the relationship been the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and student performance in  higher education.

 

1.4       Research Hypotheses 

Ho1: Socio-economic background does not have a significant relationship on academic performance of the students.  

Ho2: Educational background of the parents has a significant relationship on the academic performance of the students

 

 

 

1.5 Significance Of The Study               

The result and out come of this study will provide the basis for effective guidance by parents and guardians to modify the students’ behaviour towards their academic performance.

Also the research will re-orientated parents and guardians on the effect of socio economic background on child’s education attainment in life.    

 

ICT play a role on student’s achievement. They found significant, but low, positive impact on students performance due to ICT use. But they showed that some ICT seems to be positively correlated to performance while others are not (Sosin et al 2004).

 

PISA. Showed that while bivartate correlation between the availability of ICT and students’ performance is strongly and significantly positive, the corrections becomes small and insignificant when other student’s environmental characteristics are taken into consideration.

 

On this note, the study would delivery secondary education from the state of failure and dropping-out if only some of its findings are actualized.

 

 

1.6 Delimitation Of The Study                  

This study will focus mainly on students and parents with reference to District V of Lagos State Secondary Schools

 

 

1.7 Limitation Of The Study 

Due to shortage of time and resources at the disposal of the researcher and inability of major educational actors to give out information cornering research work.

 

 

 

 

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms   

Socio economic background: the socio economic background of the parents also have a significant relationship on the academic performance of the students e.g if a the parents of a particular student s so poor, this will tell on the student performance, because that child will not be able to afford his or her text book and at a particular time he/she does not feed well. A hungry student will not pay attention in class when he is so hungry etc.          

 

 

 

 

 

 

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