THE EFFECTS OF BOKO HARAM IDEOLOGY ON ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA


Content

ABSTRACT

This research work was to find out the effects of Boko Haram Ideology on Islamic Education in Nigeria. A Case Study of Higher Institutions in Lagos State

It was discovered that the Boko Haram Ideology does not represent the Islamic ideology. It was also discovered that Islam encourages useful knowledge and education regardless of its origin.

This study suggested that the government should do all within its ability to avoid the emergence of violent religious groups in Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Pages

Title page                                                                                i

Certification                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                    iii

Acknowledgement                                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                                  v

 Table of content                                                           vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       Introduction                                                                 1

1.2        Statement of the problems                                          8

1.3        Purpose of the study                                                   10

1.4       Research questions                                                      10

1.5       Research hypothesis                                                    11

1.6       Significance of the study                                              11

1.7       Scope of the study                                                        12

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Introduction                                                                              13

2.2 Concept of Islamic Education                                                  14

2.3 Western Educational systems in Nigeria                                 15

2.4 Islamic Educational system in Nigeria                                    18

2.5 Factors inhibiting the development of Islamic education in Nigeria                                                                                                21

2.6 The way forward for Islamic education in Nigeria                   25

2.7 The challenges facing Islamic education in Nigeria                28

2.8 The Vision of Islamic education                                               30

2.9 The emergence of Boko Haram                                                34

2.10 The Boko Haram uprising: Building on precedents             36

2.11 Fall-out of Boko Haram uprising                                          39

2.12 Lesson from Boko Haram uprising                                       46

2.13 Conclusion                                                                    51

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Introduction                                                                              53

3.2 Research Design                                                                       54

3.3 Population of the study                                                            54

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique                                             55

3.5 Research Instruments                                                              55

3.6 Validity of Research Instruments                                             56

3.7 Reliability of research Instruments                                          56

3.8 Method of Data Analysis                                                           56

CHAPTER FOUR

Analysis of data, results and interpretation                                  58

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Summary of finding                                                                  88

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                94

5.3 Recommendations                                                           96

References                                                                              99

CHAPTER ONE

1.1          BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

During the colonial period in Nigeria, some local Muslim scholars saw western education as means to propagate Christianity and convert Muslim children. It is therefore not surprising if any Islamic group such as Boko-Haram is alleged to be averse to the acquisition of western education for the same reason advanced by the Muslim clerics and parents during the colonial period. It has been noted that western education has currently made available does not adequately cater for the spiritual needs of its recipients.

The first Western schools were established by the Christian missionaries. The first school was founded in Badagry in 1843 by the Methodist Church. The missionaries established schools to facilitate the training of the clergy and as an instrument of conversion. They stress the knowledge of the Bible, the ability to sing the hymns, recitation of catechism and of course competences in oral and written communication. Emphasis was on teaching Christianity more than anything else. Anything taught was linked to the Holy Writ. The period 1845-1882 is considered a period of exclusive Christian missionary education since the government of the day paid little or no attention to the educational needs of the populace. (Fafunwa 1982, 52).

The word “Boko” in classical Hausa language literally means deception or deceits as used in Hausa term “amaryar Boko” which means “fake bride” or literally “bride of deception”, This sometimes features in the traditional Hausa wedding where a grandmother usually dresses up like the bride as part of a practical joke played on the groom, “Haram” is a Hausa word adopted from Arabic. It means Islamically unacceptable, forbidden or prohibited. While “Boko Haram” may therefore be interpreted as meaning that the Western secular education is Islamically prohibited, it could be also be interpreted to mean that evangelism deceptively camouflaged as Western Education is Islamically unacceptable. Others consider the word “Boko” as a corruption for the English word “book” which was associated with Western Education.

The group calls itself’ Ahl us as-Sunnah wa al-jama’a ala Minhaj as-salaf’ which means “People of the way of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the community of Muslims, in line with the earliest generation of Muslims”, This name has a positive meaning that is acceptable to all Muslims. The name “Boko Haram” has its origin in media and public/community coinage. The word “Boko” in Hausa is popularly used to refer to the formal public or private Educational system in Nigeria, also referred to as Western secular Education. The word is also used to refer to Western Education in all its ramifications, along with anything it is associated with.

The current state of insecurity in Nigeria can be traced to the British control of the country since 1903, as there has been resistance among some northern leaders to Western Education. Since then, the actions of several separatist movements have been set against this state of affairs, while simultaneously shaking the country’s integrity, and thus increasing the security problems currently faced by the country. An organization named the Sahaba group, was created in 1995 and led by   Abubakar Lawan when the leader left to study at the University of Medina, the leadership was conceded to Mohammed Yusuf, who was a young and versatile man. Yusuf, a charismatic Muslim cleric, changed the doctrine of the sect in 2002 and formed Boko Haram. Boko Haram is now an Islamic sect, based largely in the northeast part of Nigeria. The group is based on a fundamentalist ideology, which rejects the legitimacy of the Nigerian state, insists on an Islamic state, and rejects Western Education.

In fact, the name, Boko Haram, given to the group by residents in the northeastern city of Maiduguri, where the group has its headquarters, loosely translated means “Western education is forbidden.” The group’s official name is Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal – Jihad, which in Arabic means “People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad.” Boko Haram promotes the doctrine, which forbids it members to take part in any political or social activity associated with Western culture. Yusuf has described his group as non – militants – a group of youths who are bent on upholding the words of Allah. Yet the group has also stated, and shown, their willingness to die for an Islamic state.  It is this dedication that makes this group such a threat to the entire country.

 Until recently, the Boko Haram’s trademark has been the use of gunmen on motorbikes. From gunmen on motorbikes, their activities recently have escalated to another level. It seems that of all the separatist groups operating in Nigeria, the Boko Haram is the most daring. It is this intensifying and growth that make the group a possible developing threat, and makes it harder to predict what the group will achieve in the future.

Since 2009, the sect has gradually increased the sphere and range of their activities and the police have been the main target of the group, but they have also bombed churches and assassinated Islamic clerics. These assaults started in 2009 when Boko Haram carried out attacks on police stations and other Government buildings in Maiduguri, which eventually led to shoot –outs in the streets. Hundreds of Boko Haram supporters were killed and thousands of residents fled the city. When the Nigerian security forces finally seized the group’s headquarters, capturing its fighters and killing its leader Muhammad Yusuf, this round of violence ended. In spite of the loss of leadership, another uprising followed, with the loss of more civilian lives. Since then, Boko Haram has been involved in more bombings, assassinations and armed attacks, targeting police officers, Government officials and religious leaders in the north of the country.

In a 2009 BBC interview, Yusuf stated that the belief that the world is a sphere is contrary to Islam and should be rejected, along with Darwinism and the theory that rain comes from water evaporated by the sun. Tell Magazine aptly captured the ideology and philosophy of Boko Haram sect thus: “The mission of the sect was to establish an Islamic state where ‘orthodox Islam’ is practiced. Orthodox Islam according to him (Mohammed Yusuf, leader of the sect) frowns at Western Education and working in the civil service because it is sinful. Hence, for their aim to be achieved, all institutions represented by government including security agencies like police, military and other uniformed personnel should be crushed” (Tell, August 10, 2009, 9.34)

This is because students especially in tertiary institutions in Borno and Yobe states like the University of Maiduguri, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri. Federal Polytechnic Damaturu and others who constitute their members withdrew from school, tore their certificates and joined the group (Tell, August 10, 2009, p. 34).

In the state of Yobe, fighters reportedly “used fuel laden motorcycles” and “bows with poison arrows” to attack a police station. On 30th July, allegations were made that Yusuf himself was killed by Nigerian security forces after being taken into custody. In January 2010, the group struck again in the Nigerian state of Borno, Killing four people in Dala Alemderi ward in Maiduguri metropolis. On September 7, 2010, Boko Haram freed over 700 inmates from a prison in Bauchi State. In December 2010, Boko Haram was blamed for a market bombing, following which 92 of its members were arrested by police. On March 29, police “thwarted a plot to bomb an {ANPP} election rally” in Maiduguri, Borno State. The threat was blamed on Boko Haram. On April 1 (the day before the original date of Nigeria’s legislative elections), suspected Boko Haram members attacked a police station in Bauchi. On April 9, a polling center in Maiduguri was bombed. On April 15, the Maiduguri office of the Independent National Electoral Commission was bombed, and several people were shot in a separate incident on the same day. Authorities suspected Boko Haram. On April 22, Boko Haram killed a Muslim cleric and ambushed several police officers in Maiduguri. On April 22, Boko Haram freed 14 prisoners during a jailbreak in Yola Adamawa State.  On Tuesday February 8, 2011, Boko Haram gave conditions for peace. The radicals demanded that the Borno State Governor, Senator Ali Modu Sheriff, should step down from office with immediate effect and also allow members to reclaim their mosque in Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State. On 9th May 2011 Boko Haram rejected an offer for amnesty made by the governor-elect of Borno state, Kashim Shettima. Boko Haram was blamed for a series of bombings in northern Nigeria on May 29, 2011 that left 15 dead. On June 17, 2011, the group claimed responsibility for a bombing attack on the police force headquarters in Abuja that occurred the previous day. Officials believed that the attack was the first suicide bombing in Nigeria’s history and that it specifically targeted Police Inspector-General Hafiz Ringim. On June 26, 2011, the sect carried out a bombing attack on a beer garden in Maiduguri according to officials and witnesses. Militants on motorcycles threw explosives into the drinking spot, killing about 25 people. On June 27, 2011, another bombing in Maiduguri attributed to the group killed at least two girls and wounded three customs officials. On July 03, 2011, a bombing in a beer garden in Maiduguri attributed to the group killed at least twenty people.

At this juncture, it is pertinent to establish whether or not the doctrines and Teachings of Boko Haram is in consonance with the ideals which Islam as a religion stands to promote. First and foremost, Islamic education is a system of education, which entails ideological concepts of expounding the very nature of life (here and after), and prescribing the position of man and his role on earth. In arriving at this definition this researcher is influenced by the opinion of Qutub (1997) from which we can infer that Islamic education includes the doctrine and the pragmatic set –up which emanate from and premised on the ideological frame work in question entails ethics and its sustaining power, politics and its characteristics, social order and its values, economic precept and its philosophy and internalism in its ramification.

Semantically, the word Islam is a combination of three Arabic letters sin-lam-Mime. The verbal noun is Salam which means peace. This shows the primary meaning of Islam as a religion that aims at establishing peace between the creator (Allah) and His creatures, as well as to establish and main peace among the creatures of Allah.

Islam was introduced through Education as clearly shown in the first revelation to the holy prophet Muhammad (saw). It was revealed as a command to the prophet, to read in the name of Allah. This shows clearly that knowledge and Education are essential and paramount to the religion of Islam. The revelation says:

Read in the name of your Lord,

He who created, He created man

From a blood clot

Read, And your Lord is the most Generous,

Who taught by the pen, taught man that he knew not (Q96: 1-5)

Islam has from its inception placed a high premium on Education and has enjoyed a long and rich intellectual tradition. Knowledge (ilm) occupies a significant position within Islam, as evidenced by the more than 800 references to it in Islam’s most revered book, the Quran. The importance of education is repeatedly emphasized in the Quran with frequent injunctions such as “God will exalt those of you believe and those who have knowledge to high degrees” Q58:11, “O my Lord! Increase me in knowledge” Q20:14, and “As God has taught him, so let him write” Q2:282. Such verses provide a forceful stimulus for the Islamic Community to strive for education and learning.

 Ideology is another important concept in this task. Advanced Learner’s dictionary defines ideology as a set of ideas that an economic or political system is based on. It is a set of beliefs especially one held by a particular group that influences the way people behave. Ideology is a body of ideas characteristics of a particular individual, group or culture, the assertions, theories and aims that constitute a political, social and economic program.

We can therefore infer from this premise that the ideology of a single group cannot be attributed to Islam as a whole.There is therefore a distinction between Boko Haram ideology and Islamic ideology. It is therefore clear that since Islam promotes all knowledge that is beneficial and frowns at all forms of knowledge that is harmful to either the individual or the society then, Boko Haram ideology of referring to all forms of knowledge emanating from western world as prohibited and forbidden is therefore baseless.

This is why the goal of Islamic Education as derived from its Ideology and philosophy according to Oladosu; 2003 includes the following;

To train Muslims to become obedient and righteous servants of Allah. Education should turn the natural inclination of Muslims in the right direction and enable them mentally, physically, culturally, morally and practically to become grateful servants of Allah.

       To inculcate morality into the mind of the students.

       To serve as a means of wiping out moral decadence in our society

       To give birth to citizens who will be useful to themselves, their family and the society at large which is the general aim of education.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Tell Magazine aptly captured the ideology and philosophy of Boko Haram sect thus “The mission of the sect was to establish an Islamic state where orthodox Islam is practiced. Orthodox Islam according to him (Mohammed Yusuf the leader of the sect) frowns at western Education and working in the civil service because it is sinful. Hence for their aim to be achieved, all institutions represented by government including security agencies like police, military and other uniformed personnel should be crushed “(Tell, August 10, 2009, P.34)

 “And this is the reason why  students especially in tertiary institutions in Borno and Yobe State like the University of Maiduguri, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu and others who constitute their members withdrew from school, tore their certificate and joined the group for Quranic lessons and preaching” (Tell, August 10, 2009, p.34).

Boko Haram opposes not only Western Education but Western culture and modern sciences as. In a 2009 BBC interview, Yusuf stated that the belief that the world is a sphere is contrary to Islam and should be rejected, along with Darwinism and the theory that rain comes from water evaporated by the sun. In July 2009 the Nigerian police started investigating the group following reports that the group was arming itself, several leaders were arrested in Bauchi, Sparkling deadly clashes with Nigerian security forces which led to the deaths of an estimated 700 people.

On April 15, the Maiduguri office of the Independent National Electoral Commission was bombed, and several people were shot in a separate incident on the same day. Authorities suspected Boko Haram on April 20, Boko Haram killed a Muslim cleric and ambushed several police officers in Maiduguri. On June, 17, 2011, the group claimed responsibility for bombing attack on the police force headquarters in Abuja that occurred the previous day. Officials believed that the attack was the first suicide bombing in Nigeria’s history and that it specifically targeted police Inspector General Hafiz Ringim.

The question that arises here is that does Islamic Education encourage violence and destruction carried out by Boko Haram group? And what are the effects of their actions on Islamic Education in Nigeria? This leaves a vacuum to be filled by this research work.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The general purpose of this study is to find out the effects of Boko Haram ideology on Islamic Education in Nigeria.

Specifically, this study is set to achieve the following objectives:

i.                   Find out whether or not the activities of the Boko Haram group has positive effect on Islamic Education in Nigeria.

ii.                 Investigate the impact of the activities of the Boko Haram group on the image of Islam in Nigeria.

iii.              Ascertain whether or not the teachings of Boko Haram group are in consonance with the Islamic ideology.

iv.              Identify the challenges which the activities of Boko Haram group pose to Islamic Education.

 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In order to give a sharp direction to the study, the following research questions served as guiding prelude:

i.                   What are the effects of the activities of Boko Haram on Islamic Education?

ii.                 What are the effects of Boko Haram activities on the image of Islam in Nigeria?

iii.              What is the relationship between Boko Haram teachings and Islamic ideology?

iv.              What are the challenges posed by Boko Haram activities on Islamic Education in Nigeria?

1.5        RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following research hypothesis will be tested in this study.

1.     The Boko Haram Ideology has no significant effect on Islamic education in Nigeria.

2.     The Boko Harm ideology has significant effects on Islamic education in Nigeria

3.     Boko Haram ideology put no significant challenge on Islamic education in Nigeria.

4.     Boko Haram ideology put significant challenge on Islamic education in Nigeria.

 

 

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is very significant and it will be of benefit in the following areas.

i.                   It will increase literatures available for Boko Haram issues in Islamic Studies

ii.                 It will be of benefit for the policy makers in making policies that would forestall the future evolution of violent religious sects in Nigeria.

iii.              It will be of benefit for curriculum development so that education for peace would be included in our curriculum.

iv.              It will help to redirect future research in Islamic Education

v.                 It will benefit the Teaching and Learning process in the sense that the Teachers will always reemphasize religious tolerance in Teaching and Learning process.

 

1.7    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work will be limited to the Nigerian Muslims in educational sector in order to obtain their opinions on the effects of Boko Haram ideology on Islamic education In Nigeria. This is because the issue is of great concern to Muslims in the educational sector the students, instructors and administrators within the school setting. The research will focus on the selected institutions in Lagos state with the attention being put on students of different levels, to sum up to about 300 respondents from the two institutions of learning. This is done to ensure authentic and reliable information for the research work.

 

 


 

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