- COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF PZ CUSSIONS NIGERIA PLC)
- EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF VITAMALT PLC)
- EFFECTS OF PERFORMANCE EVALUATION THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT ON INVESTMENT DECISIONS (A CASE STUDY OF LOGMAN NIGERIA PLC.)
- EFFECTS OF LABOUR TURNOVER ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF UNILEVER AND PZ NIGERIA PLS)
- EFFECTS OF BUDGET AND BUDGETARY CONTROL IN BANKING SECTOR (A Case Study of First Bank of Nigeria Plc.)
- EFFECTS OF THE PRACTICE OF ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF MANAGEMENT ON THE GOAL ATTAINMENT OF BUSINESS (Focus on Promasidor Nig. Ltd. and Nestle Nig. Plc.)
- IMPACT OF CORPORATE LEVEL MANAGEMENT ON THE EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE (A Case Study of Fidelity Bank Plc.)
- EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF FIRST BANK)
- EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY (A case study of U.A.C Foods, Nigeria)
- COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICES [LIRS])
THE EFFECTS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENT
This study investigated the effects of classroom management and control on the academic performance of students in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State. The study concentrated on the influence of such variables as classroom management, good classroom management and classroom sitting arrangement. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested for the study as follows:
i. Classroom management has no significant relationship with students’ academic performance.
ii. There is no significant relationship between good classroom management and students’ academic performance.
iii. Student’s classroom sitting arrangement has not significant relationship with their academic performance.
The main instrument used for this study was questionnaire administered on two hundred students randomly selected from five secondary schools in the study area. The data generated from the questionnaire were analyzed using Pearson Product – Moment Correlation Coefficient (r). The results reveal that, in Ojo Local Government Area,
I. Classroom management has significant relationship with academic performance.
II. There is significant relationship between good classroom management and students’ academic performance.
III. Students’ classroom sitting arrangement has significant relationship with their academic performance.
Based on these findings, the researcher therefore recommended that school authorities, government, teachers should always do their best to provide the enabling environment for the intellectual development of their students. Being that, such will build and inculcate in them desirable learning habits.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
LIST OF TABLES vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii-viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 9
1.3 Purpose/objectives of the Study 10
1.4 Significance of the Study 10
1.5 Research Questions 12
1.6 Research Hypotheses 12
1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study 13
1.8 Definition of Terms 13
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Classroom Management 14
2.2 Good Classroom Management 18
2.2.1 Establishing Rules of Conduct 19
2.2.2 Consequences Versus Punishment 20
2.2.3 Preventing Disruptions 21
2.3 Classroom Management and Students’ Academic Performance 22
2.4 Students’ Performance in Social Study from 2007-2011 27
2.5 Summary of the Review 28
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design 29
3.2 Area of study 30
3.3 Population 29
3.4 Sample and Sampling technique 31
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 32
3.6 Validation of the Instrument 32
3.7 Method of Data Collection 32
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 33
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION ANDDISCUSSION OF RESULTS
4.1 Data Analysis and Interpretation of Results 35
4.2 Summary of Findings 39
4.3 Discussions 40
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of Results 43
5.2 General Conclusion 44
5.3 Implications of the Study 45
5.4 Recommendations 45
5.5 Limitations 46
5.6 Suggestions for Further Studies 46
Appendix 1 52-58
Appendix 2 59-60
Appendix 3 61-62
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: Analysis of Hypothesis I
TABLE 2: Analysis of Hypothesis II
TABLE 3: Analysis of Hypothesis III
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Arranging the physical environment of the classroom is one of the most important ways to improve the learning environment and prevent behavior problems before they actually occur. This research work shows that the physical arrangement of the classroom affects both the behavior of teachers and students. It discusses the importance of a well-arranged classroom and gives guidelines on how to achieve this. The issue of classroom management is a continuous exercise, which a teacher has to cope with any time he enters the classroom. Wong and Rosemary (2001) see classroom management as what the teachers do to organize students’ space, time and materials so that instruction in content and students learning can take place. The teacher has to cope with the activities of the students in the class giving the students the deserved attention. This may be seemingly difficult because each student in the class needs different things at a point in time. It is the responsibility of the teacher to pay attention to the needs of the individuals in the class. However, Prophy (2002) observe that a lot of activities go on in the classroom simultaneously even when a teacher gives the same problem for the students to solve. Some of the students may get stuck on the way, while some may neglect the problem and do something else. Others may finish solving the problem because they understood it while some may prefer doing correction of a previous work. This simple explanation points to the fact that at any point in time, each student needs different attention, different things, different kinds of encouragement and different materials. A teacher who will cope with this situation must be knowledgeable in the skills necessary for managing classroom activities and taking care of accommodating the individual needs simultaneously in the classroom.
Classroom management could pose a problem to the teacher, if he lacks the competence to create the setting, decorate the room, arrange the chairs, speaking to children and listen to their responses, putting routines in place and then executing, modifying and reinstating them, developing rules and communicating those rules to pupils. The action perform by a teacher on each of these variables mentioned above will determine the academic achievement and behaviour of the students.
It is the duty of the teacher to create a good learning environment. This creation of good learning environment involves how a teacher manages or ensures both physical space and cognitive space. The way the teacher prepares the classroom physically could determine the level of students’ participation in lesson. A physical management of the classroom could make the classroom warm and inviting, while distracting features of a room are eliminated. The physical arrangement of the classroom should match the teachers’ philosophy of learning. Pupils should also have easy access to necessary materials. The teacher has to manage the cognitive space properly. This refers to the expectations the teacher sets for students in the classroom and also the process of creating motivational climate. An effective teacher is expected to create classroom management practices that will make the students see the need for learning. This could happen where the teacher develops plans of what to achieve and rules and procedure to be followed by both teachers and students especially at the beginning of the term. Lewis (2000) says that setting limits for students make them behave better and know what to do. The rules will show the expected behaviours in the classroom such as how students interact with peers and teacher while procedure will spell out how things are done. The rules are best made by both teachers and students. Teachers should also encourage the students to see the need for the activities in which they are involved and that of others. This will encourage them to put in their best. Teacher should be able to take appropriate decisions at an appropriate time. Brophy (1998) says that teacher should always be attentive to students’ individual behaviour and learning needs. This means that for a teacher to maintain a learning environment, he needs to actively monitor the activities of the students.
Active monitoring from classroom research, involves watching behaviour closely, intervening to correct bad behaviour before it escalates. Jones (1996) says that teacher must monitor both students’ behaviour and learning by keeping eyes out for when students appear stuck, when they need: help, redirection, correction and encouragement. Teacher must always anticipate learners’ actions and reactions during a lesson in order to deal precisely with any problem that could occur. Another important factor in classroom management is the communication pattern used by both teachers and students. The communication style of a teacher has a lot of influence in the achievement of students. Cowley (2003) says that, effective teacher will describe objective clearly, give accurate instructing for assignment and respond to students questions and understand the needs of the students. Communication should be made in clear language, which will enhance students understanding. Students should be encouraged to make their own contribution freely and they should be made to understand that their contribution is valued.
However, discipline is an integral aspect of classroom management; Discipline is an instrument that mouldes, shapes, corrects and inspires appropriate behaviour. Gieger (2000) observed that behaviour management is necessary in order to maintain discipline. He suggested that every teacher must exhibit firmness, tenderness and gentleness in order to cope with and curb students’ misbehaviour.
Nearly every teacher agrees that classroom management is an important aspect of successful teaching. Fewer agree on how to achieve it, even fewer claims the concept of classroom management is operating in their own classrooms.
Classroom management and discipline are terms often used interchangeably are not synonymous. Teachers asked to defined classroom management in one word have given the following responses: discipline, control and consequences. Discipline was always the first word they choose. In recent times, however, teachers have responded with the following words: organization, control, positive climate and incentive.
In effect, discipline has become a much smaller part of the term classroom management. Classroom management is much more than any of these words or the sum of these words (Charles, 1992; Wolfang, 1995).
Classroom management involves how the teacher works, how the class works, how the teacher and students works together and how teaching and learning happen. For students, classroom management means having some control in how the class operates and understanding clearly the way the teacher and the students are to interact with each other. For both teachers and students, classroom management is not a condition but a process. Many teachers, especially beginning teachers cite classroom management as an ever present concern (Roger and Freiberg, 1994, Veenman, 1984). A meta-analysis of the past 50 years of classroom management research identified classroom management as the most important factor, even above student aptitude, affecting student learning (Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1994). But contrary, to popular belief, classroom management is not a gift bestowed upon some teachers. While it’s true that some teachers adapt to classroom management easily, making it look to their colleagues like they posses some innate talent, classroom management is a skill-a skill that can be taught like any other and most importantly, a skill that like any other must be practiced to achieve proficiency.
Although much has been written about classroom management, teachers have not been taught comprehensive, practical methods of improving classroom management and little emphasis has been placed on “helping teachers understand the issues in effective classroom management and the relationship among various strategies” (Jones & Jones 2004 P.I) many teachers try classroom management ideas and strategies, tossing them spontaneously and inconsistently into the classroom, then become discouraged when the classroom they hope for does not materialize. Effective classroom management does require specific skills such as planning, organizing and reflecting as well as an aptitude for teamwork and perseverance. It requires a great deal of commitment initially, then willingness to adjust ones thinking and actions as one learns what works and what does not work.
How can our native’s educational goals and objectives be attained if our classroom and learning environments are defective and plagued with teachers who are not active and aggressive and generally non-conforming to classroom management. If effective curriculum implementation is necessary to the success of improved academic performance of students, it follows therefore that its management must be of utmost concern to teachers and other stakeholders in the education sector.
It is on the heels of the fore going that the researcher intends to investigate the effects of classroom management on the academic performance of students in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The widespread good academic performance of students in almost all subjects offered in schools has very often been blamed on a member of other factors neglecting one of the most important ones – classroom management.
It is very obvious nowadays that there is no proper classroom management in our schools whereas, a controlled and well ordered classroom management is a sine qua non for good academic performance of students even in the class.
It is against this background that, this work aims at investigating the effects of classroom management on the academic performance of students in the class.
1.3 PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of classroom management on academic performance of students in Ojo local Government Area, Lagos State. Specifically, the work is aimed at ascertaining whether:
i. Classroom management affects student’s academic performance.
ii. Classroom management has relationship with students’ academic performance.
iii. Classroom arrangement has relationship with the academic performance of students.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The place of classroom management in the overall development of students especially in academic performance in schools needs not to be over- emphasized. This is because the classroom serves as a dressing room where future leaders are dressed before they go out to display what they have on the field of play.
This research will therefore be relevant to teachers as it will encourage them to adequately prepare themselves with all the knowledge and skills required to fully harness the potentials in the students through proper management of the classroom. It would also help school managers – head teachers and proprietors to adequately stock the classroom with the right personnel and facilities that will enhance the academic performance of the students.
This study will help the government/policy makers in framing their educational policies as it affects the sizes of classroom, furniture and other relevant facilities in the classroom environment, thereby correcting the cases of overcrowding, poor ventilation, lack of other teaching – learning aids in the classroom and even the dream of qualified teachers. Also, the work would be of great help to curriculum planners in the analysis of student’ learning conditions, motivational pattern reinforcements and punishment. Thus facilitating planning based on facts rather than assumptions which will in turn result in the development of an effective and efficient curriculum.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To achieve the listed purposes/objectives, the following research questions are posed.
i. Does classroom management affect students’ academic performance?
ii. Is there any significant relationship between good classroom management and student’ academic performance?
iii. Can student’ academic performance in the class be traced to their classroom management?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses are formulated.
I. Classroom management has no significant relationship with students’ academic performance.
II. There is no significant relationship between good classroom management and students’ academic performance.
III. Student’s classroom sitting arrangement has not significant relationship with their academic performance.
1.7 SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research effect concentrates on some selected schools in Ojo Local Government Area. The schools selected for the study are as follows:
i. Osolu High School, Irewe Ojo
ii. Ivery Grammar School, Ibeshe
iii. Egan High School, Ojo
iv. Awori College, Ojo
v. Ojo High School
1.8 DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
For the purpose of clarity, the following terms are defined as they are used in the study:
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: this involves the way and manner the classroom environment is manipulated by the teacher with a view to bringing the best out of the students in terms of achieving educational objectives.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: this refers to educational attainment in terms of grades or scores obtained by the students in a standardized test.