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THE EFFECTS OF EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF J.S.S STUDENTS IN BASIC SCIENCE
The aim of this study is to assess the role of The effects of extracurricular activities on the performance of J.S.S students in basic science.
The study was divided into five parts viz introductory chapter, the literature review, research methodology, analysis of data and the concluding chapter.
Primary and secondary data were used, with two groups of respondents sample for the study. A sample size of two hundred and fifty (250) was chosen for each groups of respondents.
T-test score was used for the respondents bio-data, and some aspects of the research questions. The average mean ( x ) and Standard Deviation (SD) was used to test the relationship between the views of the two classes of respondents.
The common problem for many students involved in extracurricular activities is that they take on too much on the extracurricular activities than the academic aspects. Students should make a schedule that balances school, after-school activities, and home life. Also, activities should be fun rather than stressful for students. School grade should not suffer because of time spent at work or in after-school activities. For example, a student soccer player could not finish or even start his or her homework due to exhaustion after a long game or strenuous activity. Extracurricular activities may also cause lack of time for academic concerns or may lead to unsatisfactory performance to studies. Marsh and Klietman (2002) discovered that as the total of participation increased, the benefits to academic success began to diminish to the point where negative effects emerged.
Children face many challenges to become educated and contributing members of society.
These challenges can include poverty, neighborhood violence and peers who engage in anti-social activities. How can these students become resilient and change their educational and civic outlook for the better? One commonly held solution is that extracurricular activities may confer many benefits besides adorning high school resumes. A recent longitudinal study with high school student participants indicates that involvement in extracurricular activities predicts academic and psychological adjustment, educational status and to a limited extent civic engagement (Fredricks & Eccles, 2006).
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Hypothesis Questions
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope and limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Study Population
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
3.6 Validation of the instrument
3.7 Reliability of instrument
3.8 Methods of Data collection
4.1 Hypothesis Testing
4.2 Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.3 Testing and interpretation of hypothesis
5.1 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
When students learn in laboratories, they can learn hard and abstract subjects easily and permanently, (Ayas, Çepni & Akdeniz, 1994). When students comprehend the relationships in scientific study methods and when they observe things, do experiments and research things, it enables them to determine an appropriate method to gain an attitude towards real life problems and to solve them efficiently. Carrying out more laboratory activities enables students to understand the nature of physics and to form a connection between concepts and real life situations (Olagunju, 1992). Laboratory application must be considered more seriously to make learning in physics lessons reach higher degrees than just knowledge and comprehension level. This situation provides students with cognitive, affective and psychomotor developments and besides it makes students gain positive attitudes towards physics.
An attitude towards physics laboratory is related to several variables. Motivation for classroom engagement is one of these variables. As a concept, motivation and amotivation has a significant role in teaching and learning. In the past, students used to be considered as machines whose necessities were supplied. But today, according to motivational perspective, students are considered as individuals who are able to reach a decision by assessing possibilities and consequences that can transfer their aims into life and form meaning. The importance of students’ attendance to school and classrooms was noticed when teachers observed that pupils were bored with academic and social activities at school and they didn’t have any motivation (Maehr & Midgley, 1991).
If students take active part in classroom and school activities it means that they take part in the activities that are provided by school. Researchers consider it as a Meta structure by combining their different findings about topics such as motivation for classroom engagement, reference and school atmosphere. In spite of it there is not a common definition or consistency about concepts and terms in studies which are carried out on this topic. Engagement means that the students participation to the activities which are offered by the school (Okebukola, 1996).
In literature, engagement is discussed with two or three factors. First factor is the behavioural dimension which includes characteristics such as exhibiting positive behaviors and efforts. Another factor is the emotional dimension which includes the positive attitudes on the subjects such as interest, identification, and learning. This study will be carried out with respect to motivation to classroom engagement. Motivation to classroom engagement means that students want to engage the classroom activities if they have motivation. On the other hand amotivation to classroom engagement means that students do not want to engage the classroom activities if they have amotivation.
The most significant problem that teachers confront in physics lessons is that abstract or concrete subjects cannot be comprehended by pupils correctly or efficiently. A lot of techniques and methods are used to handle this situation. We can apply any technique or method but students’ attitudes toward the lesson and their knowledge that they gain previously are mainly effective in learning by doing and their knowledge that they gain previously are mainly effective in learning. Learning by doing and forming knowledge has been outstanding among these methods recently (Azizoglu, 2005). This method involves students being active in learning process and doing instead of being passive. If we want students to gain permanent knowledge and form a connection between knowledge and real life, it is possible by making students take an active part in experimental laboratory based activities.
The studies which are done about the classroom engagement reveal that when the students are open to learning, they show more competence in terms of academic and they use more strategies to learn (Pintrich & Maehr, 2004). Also, when they participate in the lesson, they are connected to the subject and they are undaunted by the difficulties and they are happy about the studies they did. As a result, students’ classroom engagements affect students’ needs and meanwhile the success of learning (Bomia et al., 1997). If the students do not have motivation to participate in the lesson, in this case many of them get bored, they cannot focus their attention on the subject, and they cannot establish any connection with the studies done in the school and real life. As a result of the students’ being bored and reduction of their lesson attention, we see that the students dropout. One of the most important factors which affect students’ academic success is their attitudes toward school, lessons and academic success.
Pintrich and Maehr (2004) classifies students in three groups such as the ones who avoid failure, the ones who would like to satisfy their curiosity and the ones who want to get high marks. He remarks that students in classrooms, their motivation degrees and strategies are different. When students have positive attitudes, they show positive behaviors and they fulfill their academic necessities. In consideration of this knowledge and the findings, in this study it was aimed to examine the relationships between attitudes towards physics laboratories, motivation and amotivation for classroom engagement in senior secondary schools.
In this study, it is aimed to examine the relationships between attitudes toward physics laboratory and motivation-amotivation for classroom engagement.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The issue of students’ underachievement in physics is a major problem that befalls the educational sector in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
Yearly, students record massive failure in physics especially in the West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) and the National Examination Council (NECO) Examination.
The subject of motivation is important especially in student’s learning and in their academically successful life. Studies, which have been carried out, reveal that more motivated individuals learn a subject better. Moreover, it is concluded that individuals who have high-level motivation provide positive contributions to the school and class.
Recognizing the fact that learners attitudes if taken into consideration can improve the level of academic achievement of students in senior secondary school physics. This study is aimed at identifying the relationship that exists between the attitudes toward physics laboratories, motivation and amotivation for the classroom engagement since no research work has extensively concentrated on this issue.
The study also seeks to determine the extent to which learners approach to laboratory and classroom activities can modify their academic performance in physics. Hence, this justifies the relevance of the study.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between attitudes toward physics laboratories, motivation and amotivation for the classroom engagement in senior secondary schools.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In specific terms, the objectives of this study are to:
· Determine the various motivation-amotivation levels exhibited by students in physics classrooms.
· Determine the correlation between learners’ classroom engagement and their academic achievement.
· Determine whether laboratory work can stimulate motivation-amotivation for the classroom engagement.
· Determine the factors necessary to promote the learners’ classroom engagement.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In accordance with the purpose of the study, the following research questions will be tackled;
i. Does learners’ readiness have any effect on their academic achievement in physics?
ii. Is there any relationship between the attitudes of students and classroom engagement?
iii. To what extent do students get motivated or amotivated for laboratory experiments?
iv. Would learners’ attitude improve the rate of assimilation of physics?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
a. The most significant problem that teachers face in physics lessons is that, abstract or concrete subjects cannot be comprehended by pupils correctly or efficiently.
b. Students gain permanent knowledge only when they do laboratory work.
c. The student’s classroom engagements affect his needs and the success of learning.
d. There is no significant relationship between attitudes of students and their achievements in physics.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The researchers will try to find out the extent to which attitudes toward physics laboratories, motivation and amotivation affect the performance of students in some selected senior secondary schools in Somolu Local Government Area of Lagos State.
The knowledge gained or knowledge that would be acquired from the study may help the teachers and educational administrators determine the reason why some schools find it difficult to effectively achieve adequate level of performance in physics as a subject. It will serve as a way of increasing the rate of students’ permanent retention of knowledge.
This study will also help to discover how motivation can be stimulated in the learners thereby leading to maximum classroom engagement and greater achievement in physics. It will further help teachers to realize the type of behaviour they can exhibit in order to enhance the learners’ characteristics toward the learning of physics and they will also be able to realize what teaching method each student needs for the successful learning of physics.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
For the purpose of this study, the investigation will be limited to senior secondary school two (SSII) physics students in selected secondary schools in Somolu Local Government Area of Lagos State. As a result of the numerous schools in this local government, ten schools would be selected which includes both single and mixed schools.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Attitude: A way of thinking or acting
Characteristics: Distinguished features of performance. It may be slow or fast learners, individual differences in rate of aptitude, background, home environment, provision of textbooks and readiness to learn.
Motivation: Something that makes a person choose to act in a particular way; a reason.
Learner: One who aspires to gain knowledge through learning.
Amotivation: diminished inspiration to participate in social situations and activities, with lapses in apathy caused by an external event, situation, substance (or lack of), relationship, or other cause.