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The issue of slum in Nigeria as exemplified by the situation in Lagos being the commercial nerve Centre of Nigeria has been aggravated by high rate of rural urban migration coupled with inability of the urban areas to create jobs for the immigrants. Currently Lagos reflects of the contemporary decay of urban life as evident in the standard of living congested apartments, degraded environment crime among others. This research, therefore, examines the growth of slum and urban sustainability in Lagos using Ajengunle Owode in Agboyi Ketu as a case study.

Chapter one of the research looked at the background of study (introduction) the statement of problems and objectives of study. It also highlights research questions, research methodology, and significance of study, scope/limitation of study and literature reviews.

Chapter two focused on the origin of slum Lagos, the first phase of the chapter carry out research on a brief history of Lagos, the second phase of the chapter discusses about urbanization of Lagos and last phase of the chapter talks about the origin of slum in Lagos.

Chapter three of research discusses about the history of Agboyi Ketu, the origin of slum in Agboyi Ketu and outlined the problems of slum in Agboyi Ketu. It finally identifies major problems caused by slum in Lagos State through a percentage chart table.

Chapter four analyzed different efforts at resolving problems of slums in Ajegunle Owode in Agboyi Ketu.

Finally, chapter five brings the research work to conclusion by giving a summary, conclusion and recommendations.



CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of Research Problem

1.3       Objectives of the Study

1.4       Significance of Study

1.5       Research Questions

1.6       Research Methodology

1.7       Scope and Limitation of Study

1.8       Literature Review

1.9       Notes and References



2.1       A brief history of Lagos

2.2       Urbanization of Lagos

2.3       The Origin of slum in Lagos

2.4       Notes and References



3.1       The history of Agboyi Ketu

3.2       The origin of slum in Agboyi Ketu

3.3       The problems of slum in Agboyi Ketu 3.4 Table Chart

3.5       Notes and References



4.1       Lagos State Government efforts

4.2       Communal efforts

4.3       Successes achieved

4.4       Notes and References



5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3         Recommendations







1.1     Background of study

Lagos is one of the thirty-six states in a Federal polity called Nigeria. The governmental structure consists of a Federal Government, 36 state governments and the Federal Capital Territory and 774 Local Government.

In March, 1999 the civilian administration inherited 20 Local Governments. This has increased to 57 with the creation of new 37 Local Governments by the state. 'The law backing this development was published in the supplement to Lagos State of Nigeria Official Gazette Extraordinary No.35 Vo1.32 of 18th October 1999. There are about 20 wards in each local government in the state and each is adequately represented in the local government legislature.

Lagos State is a sprawling urban Centre whose unique endowments and strategic location have attracted domestic arid international immigration, producing a megacity of immense dynamic complexity and opportunity? Metropolitan Lagos, which approximates to 17 of the old 20 Local Government areas covering about 350/0 or the states landmass, accounts for over 85% of the estimated population,

Q1aking it the most urbanized state in Nigeria.

The state is estimated to be growing at between 6% and 8% annually, making it one of the fastest growing cities in the world growing 10 times faster than New York and Los Angeles. Lagos State is a melting pot of cultures attracting diverse Population from within and outside Nigeria. These in population has actually resulted into slums in many areas of Lagos state.

Slums, in heavily populated urban areas are characterized by substandard housing and equating. They emerge in response to housing needs created by rapid population shift from the rural areas to the cities.

Two types of slums are easily identifiable in Lagos. The first type grew out of illegal occupation of vacant land- called "squatter settlement" and the second grew out of legal land tenure.

The growth of slums in Lagos State has its root in the structure and distribution of its population. Estimates by' the United Nations and the Lagos State regional Master Plan put the state's population at about 11.6 million inhabitants. The 1991 census of Nigeria however puts the population of Lagos State at 5,685,781 or 6.42 percent of the national total.

The figure still makes Lagos State the most populous State in the federation with a land area of 3, It is the smallest in the country. The state's population density of 1,590 persons per is high. The density value for built up metropolitan Lagos, estimated at 20,000 per sq km is even higher still.



1.2     Statement of Problems

Slums occur when the demand for houses in rapidly growing cities outstrips the supply. While Lagos State has the highest population in Nigeria; it has the smallest land space which has translated to rapid concentration of population which will require continual provision of infrastructural facilities.

The Lagos State Government, in its blueprint for the regional development of the 1980- 2000 emphasized the provision of social-economic facilities for the ever expanding metropolis to make life tolerable particularly in the rural areas and encourage population stability.

The government's effort at urban sustainability has been stated at various forms.

The problem to be addressed by this study is what has been done to reduce the growt of slum in Ajegunle Owode and blighted community in the environs.


1.3     Objective of study

The primary objective of the study is to focus on the development of urban, the growth of slums and the role of the government to reduce them.

It also seeks to identify the role(s) if any, of the communal groups and self-help efforts in urban sustainability.

The study also proposes to document the missing gaps in the development of sighted communities.

1.4      Significance of Study

The process of urbanization in Lagos has thrown-up developmental problems like local governance, land acquisition, housing, sanitation, transportation, water supply and the Provision of public infrastructure which have remained endemic subject of governmental policy and programmes.

The road development since the 1970s, the reconstruction of Ikorodu Road into a 10-lane dual carriage way, the construction of the Third Mainland Bridge and the

Inter connecting roads that link them into elaborate route ways have been both responses to and catalysts of the explosive growth of metropolitan Lagos. The study is significant in identifying and appraising the factors that contributed to the Growth of slums and their role in urban sustainability.

It hopes to determine the place of communal effort in urban development and help understand the symbiotic relation between governmental agencies. Most importantly, the study will update the available records on rural development by

Inclusion of its projects at urban sustainability at the grassroots.


1.5     Research Question

The following questions are important to the research work. These questions will be used has guide to make the work genuine for further study.

i.                What are the possible factors that led to the growth not slum in Agboyi Ketu.

ii.              Who were the slum dwellers in Ketu.

iii.           What measures is taking by Lagos state government to control the growth of slum in Lagos

iv.           Do the local government and community identify the problem of slum of slum in Agboyi Iketu

v.              What are the relationship between the local government, state government and community to tackle the problem of slum in this area

vi.           is there any significant control to environmental degradation in Ketu

vii.         How has the growth of slum affect urban sustainability in Lagos

viii.      The Lagos state government has embarked on a megacity plan, how this will be achieved.


1.6     Research Methodology

The methodology of the research is a very crucial historical because it exhibits the details II of how the research exercise was performed. This gives credence to the study. t' he methodology entails a comprehensive and objectives  description of the method employed in carrying out this research and thereby enhancing the study acceptability. The work will consider primary sources such as oral interview, journals and some other secondary sources such as internet document and news I journals.


1. 7     Scope and Limitations of Study

The study would be limited in depth and coverage to the area of study, even as it takes a global view of slums growth in the state.

It is envisaged that the study will depend mostly on primary sources like interviews with Community leaders and records from government publications in the face of dearth materials on the area of study.



Urbanization is an unending process in Africa. Mabogunje "Cities and African

Development" (1976), p33, asserts that the primary role of cities as centers of transformation underlies their attraction for an ever increasing number of migrants from rural areas all over the continents. He suggests that the very rapid growth of .population in Lagos especially since 1920 has been marked by a remarkable land­ use development.

Mabounje "Urbanization in Nigeria" (1968), p267, notes that the overall land-use development of the city is mean to be governed by zoning regulations as to the sitting, I design, quality and use of buildings.

These regulations have however not been applied with firmness and decisiveness resulting in a proliferation within metropolitan Lagos of problem areas of localized poor housing, poor environmental sanitation, low accessibility and discordant land-use.

He attributes the problem of inefficient urban management in Lagos to a set of complete factors related partly to the fact that Lagos was the federal capital and partly t4 the nature of metropolitan expansion. The nature of the metropolitan expansion has meant that the Greater Lagos now include parts of a number of administrative divisions outside the municipality. The process of urbanization Omiya, the City of Lagos, Ten Short Essaysl, (1995), p.47, believes slums occur when the demand for houses in rapidly growing cities outstrips the supply George describes a slum as an "environment in which a set of forces interact to give rise to a devalued physical and social image of an area by a large community.

A report to the state of Lagos Mega City, Lagos, (2004), p. 31, notes that the city witnessed several suburban expansions into the country-side from its central core, an area of 70km2 encroaching and absorbing other fringe settlements.

Through several land reclamation schemes the land area of the metropolis was greatly enraged after 1952 as it engulfed several small neighbouring areas, such as Mushin, Somolu and Bariga, which used to be part of the former Western Region.

The annexation of nearby settlements like Ikeja, Somolu Ketu and Ojo, impinging on Ik1rodu and others made the problem of urban sprawl and agglomerations apparent. .

The report adds that the inadequacy of the combined efforts of private and public institutions to provide housing for the populace has encouraged the proliferation of such slams and squatter settlements which house about half the total population of metropolitan Lagos.

Cases in point are Ajegunle, Aiyetoro, Okobaba., Badia, Amukoko, Makoko,

Somolu, Bariga, ketu, Ilado- Maroko and Coker village. Badejo Urban Settlementsand Derelopments (1999), p.46, argues that the political economic, industrial and social affluence enjoyed by Lagos State led to the massive migration of people into It, parti1ularly Lagos metropolitan area, hence the state's urban problems.

Badejo Urban Settlements and Developments, (1999); p.50, identifies the main urban problems of Lagos:

(i)       Inadequate and inefficient provision of basic services, amenities and conveniences such as public transport, health facilities, housing, water supply and educational facilities which remain the greatest failure.

(ii)      Environmental deterioration and degradation owing to inadequate solid waste disposal system, poor sanitation, flooding and blocked drainage.  

(iii)     Urban management

(iv)     Urban unemployment

(v)      Mabogunje, Cities and African Development (1976) p.21], also notes that Lagos suffers from all the ailments of a city that has grown too rapidly housing shortage makes over-crowded dwellings and shim conditions widespread.
















1.     Staffs of Lagos Megacity Report, Lagos State Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget, Ikeja. 2004, p. 31.

2.     AL. Mabogunje, "Urbanization in Nigeria" London, University of London Press, i 968, p.267. Nigeria,

3.     A.L. Mabogunje, "Cities and African Development" Ibadan: Oxford University Press, p976, p. 33.

4.     B. Badejo, "Urban Settlements and Developments" in Balogun, Odumosu and Ojo (ed), Lagos State in Maps, Ibadan: Rex Charles Publications, 1999, p 50.

5.     B. Omiyi, The City of Lagos, Ten Short Essays1 New York: Vantage Press, 1995, Pi 47.

6.     T. Jlkin, D. McLaren and M. Hiiman, Reviving the City: Towards Sustainable Urban Development, London: Friends of the earth 1991 vivi.p.

7.     World Commission on Environmental and Development (WCED), the Brundtland Report, Our Common Future, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987, p.43.

8.     Lagos State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (LASEEDS), A Publication of the Lagos State Economic Planning and Budget; 2005, p. 16.

9.     Ibid, 48


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