THE HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF DEPENDENCY AND THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE


Content

ABSTRACT

This study examines the relationship between the third world countries and the western capitalist countries. It shows dependency as a phenomenon of relationship that gave rise to the economic growth and development of the western world in expense of the third societies which are economically underdeveloped, and lack the capacity and ability to control the economic system or productive processes of the societies. In our attempt to analyse and address this problem we used dependency theory for the analytical framework while documentary research method was employed in gathering and analysing data. Unequal relationship between Nigeria and countries of the western world coupled with negative role of the Nigeria economic elite was discovered as, the major problem. The study revealed that this problem is historically rooted in foundation of the society, as such, ordinary measures are not suitable, rather concrete type in form of socialist transformation is recommended by the study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Front Page                                                                                        i

Certification                                                                                                             ii

Dedication                                                                                                                iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                               iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                   v

Abstract                                                                                                                    vii

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0    Background of the Study                                                                           1

1.2    Statements of the Problems                                                                     2

1.3    The Objectives of the Study                                                                      2   

1.4    Significance of the Study                                                                           3

1.6    Research Methodology                                                                          4

1.7    Scope of the study                                                                                       5   

1.7    Limitation of the Study                                                                               5

1.8    Definition of Terms                                                                                     5

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                    

2.1   Dependency and Colonial Make - Up in Nigeria                                 8

2.2.   Conceptualising Dependency Attitudes in Nigeria                          19                                                      

CHAPTER THREE: HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

3.1      The Pre-Colonial Political Economy of Nigeria                                        22

3.2      The Colonial Political Economy of Nigeria                                         27

3.3      The Post- Colonial Political Economy of Nigeria                                35                              

 

CHAPTER FOUR: GENERAL ANALYSIS

4.1.     The Role of Multinational Corporation in Nigeria:

            A case study of Shell –BP                                                                         43

4.2.     Negative Role of Multinational Corporation                                      46

4.3.     High Rate of Importation in Nigeria                                                      49

4.4.     Foreign Loan in Nigeria                                                                            53

4.5.       The Role of International Financial Institutions in Nigeria:

A case study of World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF)   59

4.6.     Negative Roles of Nigeria Economic Elite                                            62

4.7      Foreign Oriented Policies in Nigeria:

            A case study of NDE AND SAP                                                                67

4.8.     The Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP)                                   69                            

4.9.     National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS)       72

4. 10  Lack of Self-Reliance                                                                                 78

 

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1            Summary                                                                                                      80

5.2            Conclusions                                                                                                  80

5.3     Recommendations                                                                                     81

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                                                      87

 

 

 

 

                                                    

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.         Background of Study

Economic dependency is the lack of capacity and ability to control the economic system or productive process of a society such that the society as a state depends on foreign developed economy states for leadership and control through regulations and some economic institution. The country that are depending on the rest are mostly poor countries of the third world, Nigeria is a typical poor third world country and underdeveloped that depend on the western world for decision and implementation of economic policies, thereby contributing to the economic development of the west to her own detriment. For example, (SAP) structure Adjustment programme of 1986, National Directorate of employment (NDE) of 1986, Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF) poverty alleviation programme etc. all seems to have end in failure after gulping in estimate material and human resources, funded with loan and the associated interest.

Since the economic structure is disarticulated, being the main structure; the foundation; on which raise the political super structure; and which controls both the intellectual and material production, the implication is the underdevelopment of the entire society. The state of underdevelopment of the entire society raises serious alarm in whole third World countries and the international community. Historically, most of the third world countries suffering dependency, passed common rigorous stages of development from

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

 The followings are the study stated statement of problems:

i.                   What are the major cases of dependency in Nigeria?

ii.                 Do the Nigerian Economic Elites have any role to play in solving the dependency rate of the country?

iii.              What the hiccups and the possible implications of this to the Nigeria project?

iv.              What are the roles of Multinational Corporation to the Nigerian Economy?

v.                 Do the Nigeria dependency ratio affects Human capacity development in the country? 

 

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

It is the objective of this study to examine certain crucial concepts that are closely related to the problem of economic dependency and underdevelopment in Nigeria, specifically:

i.        the study will investigate the major case of economic dependency in Nigeria.

ii.       To discover the impact or the role Nigerian economic elite in the economic dependency problem of the country.

iii.      To examine the role of Multinationals in the economic dependency of Nigeria.

iv.      To determine the cost benefit effect of the Nigerian economy to the populist

v.    To examine the implications of Nigerian dependency ratio to the development of human capacity of the country.

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significance in several ways. Firstly, dependency is alien and at the same time imported to dwarf the recipient IQ about self-reliance and independent, apart from the ripple effects on the society, people and other sectors, it is highly exploitative. We now know the dependency render a country useless and may even keep such state in a conspicuous consumption paradigm. It only take inner-will and commitment for a particularly the Leadership of the state to provide positive direction so that dependency can be gradually alienated.

 

Secondly, international organisations and imperialist states sees Nigerian oil as the single largest item of the world trade that they cannot afford to missed like Shell BP position in Nigeria. The global economic meltdown and fallen prices of crude oil at the international market more than before makes it imperative for Nigeria to greatly depend on them the more.

 

Thirdly, it is an obvious fact that dependent on foreign goods have destroyed our values and prestige because of our failures to develop human capacity. Investment and development also suffers because of over dependent on foreign aids, loans and donations among others to which this study tends to disabuse in totality, thereby projecting our own efforts to be relied on. The subsequent reduction in unemployment will reduce poverty which has been identified as bane to development.

Fourthly, apart from the above, when people will begin to grow home made goods and even seek initiative to develop more ideas about being self-reliant. In essence, more money will be available to individuals, organizations involved in the sector as well as the entire country.

 

Lastly, in the area of social welfare, development rather than dependency, particularly on the economic arena will attractive positive effects on the health, industry, development and well-being of Nigerians.

This work will serve as material to other researcher and in practical it will serve as a tool to the government guiding them on implementation of policies, this policies shall serve as a guide to Nigerians development rather than dependent.

This work, prescribes how to manage the nations resources, for the benefit of the general citizens, and this will determine the relevance of the existing government policies.

 

1.5     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This involve documentary research method was used in gathering and analyzing data for the project work. Again review of relevant textbooks newspapers internet and all relevant publications and journals on economic dependency are used in this work. Therefore the method of data analysis is explanatory in nature.

Since the method of data is based on secondary source the method of data analysis is based on the qualitative method of data analysis, which is explanatory in nature. This would help in finding out the degree of effectiveness of what led to third world dependency.

 

1.6     SCOPE OF STUDY

This study focus on what led to the third world dependency Nigeria to be precise. However, this study is confined on the underdevelopment of Nigeria.

 

1.7      LIMITATION OF STUDY

The work is limited in many respects. These include the long year of neglect that had made it impossible to have enough literature for the study. Logistic and poor funding had also halted the necessary development in the course of the investigation. Poor logistic and fund for traveling to the site also acted as limitation to the duration of the work. The study also experienced hiccups that acted as a hindrance to early completion, especially on the issue of attend to the researcher by the library attendance. Also, lack of security and the role of the tradition indigenes trying to obstruct and impose problems to the researcher. The absent of elderly men and true worshippers make the study tedious and cumbersome. 

 

1.8     DEFINITION OF RESEARCH TERMS

To avo1d distortion and misinterpretation of words there is need to define some concepts used in this work.

 

Modernization: This is the process whereby society or social institutions change or move from traditional or less developed ones to those that characterize the developed ones. For this work, modernization is seen as involving a complex or changes in institutions or societies for the betterment of citizens.

Economic Dependency: This means depending on the developed countries for over economic problems, that is the wholesale importation of western art crafts for our developmental purposes, we depend on the west for goods and services which we cannot create for ourselves with the resources available at disposal.

Economic Development: Is the ability of a country to deal with its environmental through the knowledge of science and technology and applying this in changing its environment. Therefore, development connotes training in the art of using local resources and creative human energy in the problem solving rather than a wholesale limitation of the path to a good life that some societies have achieved.

Underdevelopment: This means economic backwardness which results from the inability of a country to deal with its environments, the underdevelopment is characterized by lack of indigenous industry inadequate production of food unscientific agriculture, underdevelopment is not absence of development but it makes sense only as a way of comparing levels of development. Underdevelopment is very much tied to the fact human social development has been uneven and from a strictly economic view point, some human groups have advanced further by producing more and becoming wealthier.

Comprador Bourgeoisie: These are the internal bourgeoisie that is those that help the westerners in the control of means of production.

Bourgeoisie: These are the individual that own and control the means of production to achieve that with the help of the comprador in exploiting the nation.

Multi-National Corporation (MNCs): These are foreign oriented companies in less developed countries (LDCs).

Loans: These are aids given to less developed nations or countries (LDCs).

Economic Elites: Economic elite are the individuals that help in influencing economic policies in some countries of the world.

Capitalist Countries: These are western allied nations that situate in Europe and North America and have colonies in Africa and other third world countries.

Financial Institutions: These are monetary or fiscal institutions that give loan to other countries especially third world countries.

Economic Policies: These are guidelines used in the economic development of a nation. In Nigeria, we have (SAP) Structural Adjustment Programs, National Directorate of Employment (NDE), etc.

 Importation: These involve the movement of goods from outside the country to another, in this sense it involves the western capitalists and third world countries.

Exportation: This involves the movement of goods from a country to other countries.

 

 

 

 

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