THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERIZATION OF ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN A BUSINESS ORGANISATION


Content

 

 

    

   

PROJECT PROPOSAL

 

INTRODUCTION

Computer as an automated sophisticated high technology has come to have potential significant affect on business profession such a accounting.

 

With modern days, development accountants specialized knowledge and expertise is directed to collecting, collating, interpreting and communicating a wide range of accounting information needed for a sound day-to-day control of accounting system in a business organisation can be analysed both positively and negatively but nevertheless the positive effects are much more than the negative effects.

 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS           

The strategic analysis of problems facing a computerized accounting system and by implication it means that the accuracy of these statement is very important to be dealt with  as it affects the extent of dependability an subsequent utilization of information.

 

The statement had to do with computerized accounting system has been able to have impact or effect on the volume of work quality of services demanded by clients, savings time of customers and to effect changes in cost revenue and profit of a business organization.

 

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 

(1)         Describe the accounting procedures in operation.

(2)         Explain the main accounting principles adopted.

(3)         Find out if the positive effects of computerization and accounting system in a business organisation are more than the negative effects.

(4)         The effect of computerized accounting system, how the computer has become relevant to the practice of accounting in a business organisation in recording business transactions and events of a financial nature, with a view of preparing financial statement and alerting such statement.

 

RESEARCH QUESTIONS         

(1)         What are the accounting procedures in the Guardian Newspaper Limited?

(2)         What are the positive and negative effects of computerized accounting system in a business organisation?

 

PLAN OF STUDY   

The project shall contain five chapters:

CHAPTER ONE: This chapter deals with the background of the study and the purpose of study. The aim of the research question is to give a clear focus of the study. It shall also deal with the significance, scope and limitation of the study.

 

CHAPTER TWO:   This deals with the evaluation of accounting division and different phases of computer system. The objective of accounting information system and computer and the new Generation accountants shall also be treated. The effect of computerized accounting system in a business organisation shall be dealt with.

 

CHAPTER THREE: This shall deal with the method of data analysis, collection of data, research design, target population and quantitative analysis of collected data.

 

CHAPTER FOUR: This data mainly with finding on research question and data on respondent.

 

CHAPTER FIVE: This contains the summary of all major findings and conclusion based on the analysis. Finally, recommendation will be made.

 

METHODOLOGY                  

The method that shall be used for obtaining adequate information as regards this study shall be collection of published work like journals, newspaper, magazines and personal interviews that would be carried in the staff of Guardian Newspaper Nigeria Limited.      

      

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification                                                                                     i

Dedication                                                                              ii

Acknowledgement                                                                           iii

Proposal                                                                                           iv

Table of Contents                                                                             viii

 

CHAPTER ONE 

1.1       Introduction                                                                           1

1.2       Background of Study                                                            1

1.3       Statement of Problem                                                            3

1.4       Purpose of Study                                                                   4

1.5       Research Question                                                                5

1.6       Hypothesis                                                                             5

1.7       Significance of Study                                                             5

1.8       Scope and Limitation of Study                                              6

1.9       Summary                                                                               6

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Brief Introduction to Computer                                            7

2.2       Computer System and Evolution of Computer

Technology                                                                             7

2.3       Evaluation of Accounting Division                              11

2.4       Objectives of Accounting Information System                     15

2.5       Application Software in Guardian Newspaper Limited       16

2.6       Computer and the New Generation Accountants                19

2.7       Computerized Accounting Implementation and

Operation                                                                               20

2.8       Effects of Computerized Accounting System in a

Business Organisation                                                          22

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction                                                                           24

3.2       Research Design                                                                    24

3.3       Administration of Data Schedule                                          24

3.4       Quantitative Analysis of Collected Data                     25

3.5       Collection of Data                                                                  25

3.6       Hypothesis                                                                             26

3.7       Target Population                                                                  26

3.8       Limitation of Methodology                                                     27

3.9       Method of Data Analysis                                                       27

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1       Introduction                                                                           28

4.2       Percentage Analysis of Respondents Bio-Data                    28

4.3       Test of Hypothesis                                                                  42

 

CHAPTER FIVE 

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 

5.1       Summary                                                                                45

5.2       Recommendation                                                                   46

5.3       Conclusion                                                                             47

Bibliography                                                                           48

Questionnaire


CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Computer as an automated sophisticated high technology, has come to have potential significant effect on business profession such as accounting.

 

With modern days development accountants specialized knowledge and expertise is directed to collecting, collating, interpreting and communicating a wide range of accounting information needed for a sound day-to-day control of the use of resources. The impact o computerization of accounting system in a business organisation can be analysed with positively and negatively  but nevertheless the positive effects are much more than the negative effects.

 

1.2    BACKGROUND OF STUDY            

Accounting practices have changed exceptionally and rapidly in the last decades, particularly because of changes of laws and standards.  Accountants and goes through stages in the preparation of financial statements and other accounts.

 

First is the dependence on foreign standards such as International Accounting Standards (IAS) Financial accounting Standard  Board, Besides the issuing of Statement of Accounting Standards (SAS), the Nigerian Accounting Standard  Board (NASB) is saddled with two major responsibilities.

These are:

1.           To ensure that financial reporting satisfy legal requirement stipulated in company and Allied Matters Acts of 1990.

2.           To ensure that the prepared financial statements and accounting confirm with international standard (NASB), 1984. Accounting system in a business organisation is changing with new markets springing up such as the proliferation of banking establishment and establishments of new newspaper.

 

These new establishments usually computerized their operations. Some of them employed Data Base Management system (DBMS) like Newswatch magazine. The employment of computer bring about a reduction in the time taken to process data and produce output, easier access to store data, increasing processing capacity without an increase in staff and an overall improvement in the quality of management information, better management report that are relevant to manager’s work, produced more accurately and on time due to the positive effects of computerization. Coping with effects of computerization in accounting system in a business organisation which brought about changes necessitates the inclusion of courses in data processing, system analysis and designs in the examination of most professional bodies like I.C.A.N and C.I.M.A. Infact, in many companies nowadays where computers are used extensively, their accountants are sent on further training system analysis and design.

 

1.3    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM                        

The strategic analysis of problems facing a computerized accounting system and by implication, it means that the accuracy of these statement is very important to be dealt with as it affects the extent of dependability and subsequent utilization of information.

 

The statement has to do with how computerized accounting system has been able to have impact of effects on the volume of work, quality of services demanded by clients, saving time of customers and to effect changes in cost, revenue and profit of an business organisation.

 

 

 

1.4    PURPOSE OF STUDY              

The purpose of this project is to know:

1.           The effects of computerized accounting system, how the computer has become relevant to the practice of accounting in a business organisation, in recording business transactions and events of a financial nature with a view to preparing financial statement and alerting such statements.

2.           Describe the accounting procedure in operation.

3.           Explain the main accounting principles adopted.

4.           Find out if the positive effects of computerization and accounting system in a business organisation are more than the negative effects.

 

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTIONS                 

At the end of this research critical examination and analysis would have to been given the following questions

1.           What are the positive and negative effects of computerized accounting system in a business organisation?

2.           What impact has computer played in the accounting system in areas of services, time savings, cost reduction and revenue generated?

3.           How can computer be used to operate on:

(a)          Trading, profit and loss account

(b)         Balance sheet statements

(c)          Statements of sources and uses of finds  

4.           What are the accounting procedures in the Guardian Newspaper Limited?

5.           Is the positive effects more than the negative effects.

 

1.6    HYPOTHESIS                 

Ho:    There is positive effect of computerization of accounting system in a business organisation.

Ho:    These is no positive effect of computerization of accounting system in a business organisation.

 

1.7    SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY     

Computer has truly become a part of everyday life, though some people see it on a negative side as making more and more people lazy by taking over their jobs and roles. Despite these waves of criticism, its utilization has continuously increased factors of production in an accounting business organisation. As in most profession, the use of the electronic data processions in accounting has presented two sides:

1.           One that threatens the professional in the field vis-a-vis their roles and

2.           The sides that hold promise to the study problem.

 

1.8    SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY             

Accounting applications can be broadly divided into three (3) namely:

1.           Financial Accounting

2.           Management Accounting/Administrative Accounting

3.           Additive Accounting

However, because of time constraint, as indicated by the time allowed for this study and because of need to afford detailed and not surface treatment of the effects of computerized accounting system in a business organisation, this study is limited to only financial and management accounting operations of the Guardian Newspaper Limited.

 

1.9    SUMMARY               

The chapter has dealt with the introductory aspect of this research work, issues like statement of problem, purpose of study, background of the study, scope and limitation, others are highlighted.


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