THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE STRATEGY ON INVESTMENT DECISION IN NIGERIA (A Case Study of Cadbury Nigeria Plc)


Content

Abstract

The research work investigates the impact of corporate strategy on investment decision in Nigeria. Effective corporate strategy plays a critical role in defining the businesses in which a company will compete, preferably in a way that focuses resources on how to convert distinctive competence into competitive advantages. The broad objective of the study is to investigate whether Cadbury Nigeria plc strategic pattern affects the company’s expansion investment decision and also to investigate how strategic pattern shows the growth and profitability of a firm that is increase in sales and market value. The primary source of data collection was used where stratified questionnaires were distributed to respondents. The simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 50 personnel. The chi-square statistical tool was used to test the stated hypotheses and the findings revealed that the Net profit margin, measures the overall firm’s ability to turn each naira sales into profit. The study concludes that corporate strategy affects expansion investment decisions of organizations, i.e. strategic pattern affects the company’s expansion investment decision. The study recommends among others that management should reinforce the need for a strategic framework for problem solving under complexities and the relevance of strategic considerations in investment planning.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                           i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                                        iii

Acknowledgements                                                                          iv

Abstract                                                                                            v

Table of Contents                                                                             vi

          Chapter One: Introduction                                                        1

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                1

1.2       Statement of Problem                                                                      5

1.3       Research Questions                                                                        6

1.4       Objectives of the Study                                                          6

1.5       Statement of Hypotheses                                                                7

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                 8

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                           8

1.8       Limitations of the Study                                                                  9

1.9       Definition of Terms                                                                          9

 

Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature                11

2.1       Introduction                                                                                     11

2.2    Definition of Strategy                                                                       11

2.3    Concept of Corporate Strategy                                                       16

2.4    Definition of Investment Decisions                                                 21

2.5    Definition of Expansion Investment Decisions                    25

2.6    Importance of Investment Decisions                                              25

2.7    Reasons for Corporate Strategy                                                     27

2.8    Factors that Account for a Successful Strategy                            34

2.9    Why corporate strategy fails                                                  38

2.10 The Corporate Strategy of Cadbury Nig Plc                                   40

2.11  Cadbury Expansion Investment Decisions                                   43

Chapter Three: Research Method and Design                     45

3.1       Introduction                                                                                    45

3.2       Research Design                                                                              45

3.3       Description of Population of the Study                                          46

3.4       Sample Size                                                                                      46

3.5       Sampling Techniques                                                                      46

3.6       Sources of Data Collection                                                             46

3.7       Method of Data Presentation                                                          47

3.8       Method of Data Analysis                                                                 47

Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and

Hypotheses Testing                                                          49

4.1       Introduction                                                                                     49

4.2       Presentation of Data                                                                        49

4.3       Data Analysis                                                                                   49

4.4       Hypotheses Testing                                                                          57

Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Conclusion

and Recommendations                                                      62

5.1       Introduction                                                                                     62

5.2       Summary of Findings                                                                      62

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                       64

5.4       Recommendations                                                                           65

References                                                                         67

Appendix I                                                                                       69

Appendix II                                                                                       70


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

It is glaring that investment decisions without a sound corporate strategy is like a ship without a rudder and a waste of time no wonder said that allowing resources to investment without a sound concepts to divisional aid corporate strategy is a lot like throwing darts in a darkroom. Investment decision which involves a firm’s decision to invest its current fund most efficiently in the long-term assets in anticipation of an expected flow of benefit over a series of years include: expansion acquisition, modernization and replacement of the long term assets, sales of a division or business (divestment), change in the method of sales distribution advertisement campaign, research and development programme etc needs a well formulated strategy.

A well formulated strategy help to marshal and allocate an organization resources into a unique and viable posture based on its relative interval competences and short comings anticipated changes in the environment and the contingent moves by intelligent opponent. Therefore, this study is aimed at focusing on the impact of overall corporate strategy on investment decisions in Nigeria with a particular emphasis on Cadbury Nigeria Plc to highlight the effective and efficient attainment of investment decisions of an organization particularly on expansion in achieving a sustainable competitive advantage capital efficiency and profitable long term growth and wealth maximization of shareholders.

Corporate strategy is the pattern of decision in a company that determines and reveals it objectives, purposes or goals, produces the principal policies and plans for achieving this goals and defines the ranges of business the company is to pursue, the kind or economic and human organization it is or intend to be and the nature of the economic and non economic contribution it intends to make to its shareholders, employees, customers and communities.

Effective corporate strategy plays a critical role in defining the businesses in which a company will compete, preferably in a way that focuses resources on how to convert distinctive competence into competitive advantages. It also means an ineffective corporate strategy will affect the overall performance of the organization particularly the firm’s investment decision since it the primary driven force (Verrechia, 2005), organization must therefore formulate a strategic decision that will determine the overall direction of the firm major goals, policies and action sequences into a cohesive whole.

It becomes a matter of great concern to management because any wrong step taken with a view of addressing any of the above taken will adversely affect the smooth running of the organization for instance, the huge amount of capital tied up in long term assets in anticipation of the expected cash flow over a series of years that is irreversible and even if reversible at substantial loss could be committed to other profitable venture within a short period that will yield quick return. The internal and external environment trends that gives the firms its identity. Its power to mobilize the strength and likelihood if success in the market place may crystallize to formless reality of loss of sustainable competitive advantage, superior skills, superior position and resources. As Charles Dawin said that it is not the strongest of the series that survive or the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change. In the same way, if manager do not evaluate their resources in relative to competitor’s strategy there will be no superior return over long term on investment (expand) and shareholders values, growth and competitive advantage will dissipate.

Recently, a lot of emphasis has been placed on the view that a business firm facing a complex aid changing environment will benefit immensely in terms of improve quality of decision making if capital budgeting decisions are taken in the complex of its overall corporate strategy. This approach provides the decision making if capital budgeting decisions are taken in the complex of its overall corporate strategy. This approach provides the decisions maker with a central theme or a big picture to keep in mind at all times as a guideline for effectively allocating corporate fimucia1 resources.

1.2   Statement of Problem

The practice of corporate strategy in relation to investment decision by business organization in Nigeria is a new phenomenon; however, it is self evident that no individual firm is problem free. The problem to be addressed is; the effect of strategy on the firm’s investment decision particularly on the area of expansion. How strategic pattern shows the growth and profitability of a firm. From various business reviews, management and accounting literatures read and discover more problems like: What should we expand on or acquire within our core competences and resources at hand? And what are the approach to allocating investment capital and resources within the context of the interval and external environment trends.

 

 

1.3   Research Questions

1.     Does Cadbury Nigeria plc strategic pattern affects the company’s expansion investment decisions?

2.     How does strategic pattern shows the growth and profitability of a firm?

3.     What are the approach to allocating investment capital and resources within the context of the internal and external environment trends?

1.4   Objective of the study

The objective of the study in line with the stated problems are:

1.     To investigate whether Cadbury Nigeria plc strategic pattern affects the company’s expansion investment decision.

2.     To investigate how strategic pattern shows the growth and profitability of a firm that is increase in sales and market value

3.     To investigate what approach of allocating investment capital and resources within the context of the internal and external environment.

1.5   Statement of Hypothesis

In line with the objective of the study, the researcher tested this hypothesis:

Hypothesis One

HO:   Cadbury Nigeria Plc strategic pattern does not affect the company’s expansion investment decisions.

HI:    Cadbury Nigeria plc strategic pattern affects the company’s expansion investment decisions.

Hypothesis Two

HO:   Strategic pattern does not show the growth and profitability of a firm.

HI:    Strategic pattern shows the growth and profitability of a firm.

Hypothesis Three

HO:   Allocating investment capital and resources has no negative influence on internal and external environment.

HI:    Allocating investment capital and resources has negative influence on internal and external environment.

1.6   Significance of the study

The significance of the study lies in its ability to unveil the benefit of corporate strategies to managers and the need to adopt a more rational approach to investment decisions in the complex and changing environment where the firm exist rather than adhering to the traditional methods which is more or less a rule of thumb before committing the scarce resources of an organization to a decision which once taken and committed is irreversible.

To the general public, the study will serve as an eye opener to them on the importance of corporate strategy as they prepare to venture in any investment decision.
To this, researcher the project provides an understanding and “broad insight” to appreciate corporate strategy. The research also equips with the art and science of carrying out a similar or more complex research in the future.

1.7   Scope of the study

The research work is design to focus on the impact of corporate strategy on investment decisions of organization. With particular emphasis on expansion decisions, other variables held constant. Cadbury Nigeria plc will be used as a case study, focusing on a five year financial summary of the company from 2011 – 2015.

1.8   Limitations of the study

The researcher faces a number of challenges in the effort to carry out a sound survey among, which include:

1.     Inability to obtain necessary information due to administrative bottleneck, couples with the fact that some information were considered as confidential those do not encourage sound research.  

2.     Time and finance, among other constraint hindered the researcher from doing a more thorough and rigorous work.

1.9   Definitions of terms

1.     Strategy: it is the pattern or plan that integrates an organization’s major goals, policies and action sequence into a cohesive whole.

2.     Company Strategy: It is the game plan management is using to stake-out a market position conduct its operations, attract and please customers, compute successfully and achieve organizational objectives strategy entails managerial choices among alternatives and signals organizational commitment to specific markets, competitive approaches and ways of operating.

3.     Investment Decision: Investment decisions are generally known as the capital budgeting or capital expenditure decision. It may be defined as the firm’s decision to invest its current funds most efficiently in the long term assets in anticipation of an expected flow of benefits over a series of years.

4.     Corporate Strategy: It is pattern of decision in a company that determines and reveals its objectives, purposes, goals, produces the principal policies and plans for achieving these goals and defines the range of business the company is to pursue to kind of economic and human organization it is, or intends to be and to make to its shareholders employees, customers and communities.

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