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THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNITY TECHNOLOGY ON CLASSROOM TEACHING AND LEARNING IN UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, AKOKA, LAGOS STATE
The research was undertaken to study the impact of information and community technology on classroom teaching and learning in University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos state. Chi-Square statistical tools were used. Descriptive research design was employed to analyse the data, and simple random sampling techniques was employed to obtain a representative sample, One hundred teachers both males and females from different socio-economic status and religion background were involved in the study, and they were randomly selected from the nine faculties in the University of Lagos Akoka.
Four hypotheses were posited and tested using Chi-Square analysis at 0.05 level of significant the result showed that ICTs are positively related with classroom teaching and learning.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
1.0 Background to the Study 1
1.1 Statement of the Problems 4
1.2 Objective of the study 7
1.3Purpose of the Study 7
1.4 Research Study 8
1.5 Research Hypothesis 9
1.6 Significant of the Study 9
1.7 Scope of the Study 16
1.8 Definition of Terms 17
2.0 Literature Review 21
2.1 Historical Perspective of Using Computer In Education 22
2.2 Concept of Information and Communication 28
2.3 Approaches to Information and Communication 36
Technology in Educational sector
2.4 Barriers Associated with Information and
Communication Technology in the University System 41
2.5 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework 45
2.6 Relevance of Information and Communication 51
3.0 Research Methodology 53
3.1 Research Design 53
3.2 Research Area 54
3.3 Population of Study 55
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure 56
3.5 Instrumentation 56
3.6 Validity of the Instrument 57
3.7 Data collection Procedure 58
3.8 Definition of variables 58
3.9 Procedure of Data analysis 62
4.0 Result and Discussion 64
4.1 Test of Hypothesis 64
4.2 Hypothesis Two 66
4.3 Hypothesis Three 68
4.4 Hypothesis Four 70
4.5 Discussion of the Study ` 72
Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
5.1 Summary 75
5.2 Conclusion 78
5.3 Recommendation 80
1.0 Background of the study
It is difficult and maybe even impossible to imagine future learning environments that are not supported, in one way or another, by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). When looking at the current widespread diffusion and use of ICT in modern societies, especially by the young – the so-called digital generation – then it should be clear that ICT will affect the complete learning process today and in the future. Virtually everywhere across the globe; the African Union (AU), European Union (EU) and the Member States have dedicated effort and resources to the promotion and implementation of ICT in education and training; and they continue to do so (e.g. the EU eLearning Programme and the SourceCrew Virtual Classroom Programme powered by Elluminate).
There is, in other words, a widespread belief that ICTs have an important role to play in changing and modernizing educational systems and ways of learning. There is, however, little scientific evidence of the concrete contributions of ICTs to the learning domain, despite the efforts of the last decades. Hence, there is a need to bring evidence together on the impact of ICT on education and training in Africa.
However, it should be noted that many early online courses, such as those developed in the 1970s and 80s at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, courses at the University of Guelph in Canada, the British Open University, and the online distance courses at the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard Inc. was first developed), have always made heavy use of online discussion between students. Also, from the start, practitioners such as Harasim (1995) have put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks for knowledge construction, long before the term e-learning. There is also an increased use of virtual classrooms (online presentations delivered live) as an online learning platform and classroom for a diverse set of education providers such as Minnesota State Colleges and Universities and Sachem School District.
E-learning is naturally suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term Blended learning is commonly used. E-Learning pioneer Bernard Luskin argues that the "E" must be understood to have broad meaning if e-Learning is to be effective. Luskin says that the "e" should be interpreted to mean exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational in addition to "electronic" that is a traditional national interpretation. This broader interpretation allows for 21st century applications and brings learning and media psychology into the equation.
In higher education especially, the increasing tendency is to create a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) (which is sometimes combined with a Management Information System (MIS) to create a Managed Learning Environment) in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface standard throughout the institution. A growing number of physical universities, as well as newer online-only colleges, have begun to offer a select set of academic degree and certificate programs via the Internet at a wide range of levels and in a wide range of disciplines. While some programs require students to attend some campus classes or orientations, many are delivered completely online. In addition, several universities offer online student support services, such as online advising and registration, e-counseling, online textbook purchase, student governments and student newspapers.
ICT in form of e-Learning can also refer to educational web sites such as those offering learning scenarios, worksheets and interactive exercises for children. The term is also used extensively in the business sector where it generally refers to cost-effective online training. The recent trend in the e-Learning sector is screencasting. There are many screencasting tools available but the latest buzz is all about the web based screencasting tools which allow the users to create screencasts directly from their browser and make the video available online so that the viewers can stream the video directly. The advantage of such tools is that it gives the presenter the ability to show his ideas and flow of thoughts rather than simply explain them, which may be more confusing when delivered via simple text instructions. With the combination of video and audio, the expert can mimic the one on one experience of the classroom and deliver clear, complete instructions.
From the learner's point of view this provides the ability to pause and rewind and gives the learner the advantage of moving at their own pace, something a classroom cannot always offer.
1.1 Statement of the problem
One of the major challenges confronting the educational sector in Nigeria is the scaring discrepancy between the astronomical increase in the number of applicants seeking admission into various higher institutions and the available facilities in these institutions to provide quality education; the main purpose for their existence. Each year the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) register hundreds of thousands of students seeking to get admission into various institutions of higher learning in the country. Unfortunately less than 20 percent of these students are absorbed by these institutions, as the facilities they have on ground can only support fewer students. As a matter of fact, those even admitted by these institutions often outstrip the facilities available to support qualitative education and make the academic environment conducive for learning environment. It is therefore not a surprise that in most of these institutions students are often cramped up in lecture rooms, with most of the students struggling to get themselves desks and chairs just to listen to lectures. More outrageous and embarrassing is the situation whereby students sit on the floor while some hang on window frames just to be in the class and listen to their lecturers.
The horrible situation of students sitting on the floor and hanging on the window frames in classes so they can receive lectures is not faced by the students alone. The lecturers also have their own share of this unfortunate situation in our institutions of higher learning. For instance due to huge number of students they have in their classes, lecturers dissipate their energy while lecturing as they need to shout, not speak, for them to be audible enough that the students can hear them. No public address system and when there is, there is often no electricity to power it. Obviously the productivity of both the lecturers and students are negatively affected. And ultimately the prior aim of these institutions (providing quality education of international standard) is defeated.
The introduction and adoption of effective and efficient ICTs will surely go a long way in ameliorating the above sorry situation but will also compliment the effort of these institutions in task of providing quality education. It is a creative and an innovative development that allow teachers to teach more comfortably and conveniently. Especially in a virtual classroom where the presence of teachers and students are not necessarily required, this is made possible through a web collaboration technology. Virtual classroom just like physical classroom is interactive, and in a densely populated area, it puts the institution in a vantage position to admit more students than they currently do without compromising the quality and standard of education the offer, but rather improves it.
1.2 Objectives of the study
The objective of this project is to describe the impact of ICT on teaching in classrooms through students and teachers in various institutions of higher learning. And by this objective the goals include:
§ Ameliorating the present problem and challenges faced by institutions of (higher) learning in Nigeria in terms of matching up their facilities with the number of students the admit into their schools.
§ To create a conducive teaching and learning environment for lecturers and students respectively via eLearning.
§ To build an online network and community among the teachers and students.
§ To bring up the Nigeria higher institutions, lecturers and students to technological development and innovations as they are related to eLearning.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of ICT in classrooms implementing ICT equipments and tools in teaching-learning process as a media and methodology. Generally, to familiarize teachers and students with the use and workings of computers, and related social and ethical issues, and also to provide the prospects and trends of integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into the general educational activities.
1.4 Research Questions
· Are the teachers in the University of Lagos resourcefully putting the ICT, Instructional materials to their maximum use for effective classroom teaching?
· What are the impact of successful operation of the ICT system in the classroom and the effect on student academic achievement?
· Are the teacher’s knowledge of ICTs utilization been able to enhance their classroom teaching and management?
· How adequate are the ICT instructional materials that are available and its maximum utilization by the teachers for the achievement of performance objective in the University system.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: The use of ICT in the classroom has no significant effect on teacher’s effective classroom teaching.
Ho: There is no significant impact of successful operation of the ICTs system in the classroom and the effect on student’s academic achievement.
Ho: Teachers knowledge of ICTs has no significant relationship with his classroom teaching and management.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between availability of ICT instructional materials and the effect on teaching and learning in the University system.
1.6 Significance of the study
The increasing use of technology in all aspects of society makes confident, creative and productive use of ICT an essential skill for life. ICT capability encompasses not only the mastery of technical skills and techniques, but also the understanding to apply these skills purposefully, safely and responsibly in learning, everyday life and employment. ICT capability is fundamental to participation and engagement in modern society.
ICT can be used to find, develop, analyze and present information, as well as to model situations and solve problems. ICT enables rapid access to ideas and experiences from a wide range of people, communities and cultures, and allows students to collaborate and exchange information on a wide scale. ICT acts as a powerful force for change in society, and citizens should have an understanding of the social, ethical, legal and economic implications of its use, including how to use ICT safely and responsibly. Increased capability in the use of ICT supports initiative and independent learning, as pupils are able to make informed judgements about when and where to use ICT to enhance their learning and the quality of their work.
Discussed below are some of the significance of ICT to classroom teaching:
· Access to variety of learning resources
In the era of technology, ICT aids plenty of resources to enhance the teaching skills and learning ability. With the help of ICT now it is easy to provide audio visual education. The learning resources are being widens and widen. Now with this vivid and vast technique as part of the ICT curriculum, learners are encouraged to regard computers as tools to be used in all aspects of their studies. In particular, they need to make use of the new multimedia technologies to communicate ideas, describe projects, and order information in their work.
· Immediacy to information
IT has provided immediacy to education. Now in the year of computers and web networks the pace of imparting knowledge is very very fast and one can be educated anywhere at any time. New IT has often been introduced into well-established patterns of working and living without radically altering them. For example, the traditional office, with secretaries working at keyboards and notes being written on paper and manually exchanged, has remained remarkably stable, even if personal computers have replaced typewriters.
· Any time learning
Now in the year of computers and web networks the pace of imparting knowledge is very fast and one can be educated. One can study whenever he wills irrespective of whether it is day or night and irrespective of being in Nigeria or in US because of the boom in ICT.
· Collaborative learning
Now ICT has made it easy to study as well as teach in groups or in clusters. With the online collaboration technology we can be united together to do the desired task. Efficient postal systems, the telephone (fixed and mobile), and various recording and playback systems based on computer technology all have a part to play in educational broadcasting in the new millennium. The Internet and its Web sites are now familiar to many children in developed countries and among educational elites elsewhere, but it remains of little significance to very many more, who lack the most basic means for subsistence.
· Multimedia approach to education
Audio-Visual Education, planning, preparation, and use of devices and materials that involve sight, sound, or both, for educational purposes. Among the devices used are still and motion pictures, filmstrips, television, transparencies, audiotapes, records, teaching machines, computers, and videodiscs. The growth of audio-visual education has reflected developments in both technology and learning theory.
Studies in the psychology of learning suggest that the use of audio-visuals in education has several advantages. All learning is based on perception, the process by which the senses gain information from the environment. The higher processes of memory and concept formation cannot occur without prior perception. People can attend to only a limited amount of information at a time; their selection and perception of information is influenced by past experiences. Researchers have found that, other conditions being equal, more information is taken in if it is received simultaneously in two modalities (vision and hearing, for example) rather than in a single modality. Furthermore, learning is enhanced when material is organized and that organization is evident to the student.
These findings suggest the value of audio-visuals in the educational process. They can facilitate perception of the most important features, can be carefully organized, and can require the student to use more than one modality.
· Authentic and up to date information
The information and data which are available on the net is purely correct and up to date.
Internet, a collection of computer networks that operate to common standards and enable the computers and the programs they run to communicate directly provides true and correct information.
· Online library
ICT support thousands of different kinds of operational and experimental services one of which is online library. We can get plenty of data on this online library.
As part of the ICT curriculum, learners are encouraged to regard computers as tools to be used in all aspects of their studies. In particular, they need to make use of the new multimedia technologies to communicate ideas, describe projects, and order information in their work. This requires them to select the medium best suited to conveying their message, to structure information in a hierarchical manner, and to link together information to produce a multidimensional document.
· Distance learning
Distance Learning, method of learning at a distance rather than in a classroom. Late 20th-century communications technologies, in their most recent phases multimedia and interactive, open up new possibilities, both individual and institutional, for an unprecedented expansion of home-based learning, much of it part-time. The term distance learning was coined within the context of a continuing communications revolution, largely replacing a hitherto confusing mixed nomenclature home study, independent study, external study, and, most common, though restricted in pedagogic means, correspondence study. The convergence of increased demand for access to educational facilities and innovative communications technology has been increasingly exploited in face of criticisms that distance learning is an inadequate substitute for learning alongside others in formal institutions. A powerful incentive has been reduced costs per student. At the same time, students studying at home themselves save on travel time and other costs.
Whatever the reasoning, distance learning widens access for students unable for whatever reason (course availability, geographical remoteness, family circumstances and individual disability) to study alongside others. At the same time, it appeals to students who prefer learning at home. In addition, it appeals to organizers of professional and business education, providing an incentive to rethink the most effective way of communicating vital information.
· Better accesses to children with disabilities
Information and communication technology has brought drastic changes in the life of disabled children. ICT provides various software and technique to educate these poor peoples. Unless provided early with special training, people profoundly deaf from birth are incapable of learning to speak. Deafness from birth causes severe sensory deprivation, which can seriously affect a person's intellectual capacity or ability to learn. A child who sustains a hearing loss early in life may lack the language stimulation experienced by children who can hear. The critical period for neurological plasticity is up to age seven. Failure of acoustic sensory input during this period results in failure of formation of synaptic connections and, possibly, an irremediable situation for the child. A delay in learning language may cause a deaf child's academic progress to be slower than that of hearing children. The academic lag tends to be cumulative, so that a deaf adolescent may be four or more academic years behind his or her hearing peers. Deaf children who receive early language stimulation through sign language, however, generally achieve academically alongside their hearing peers.
1.7 Scope of the study
This research study was limited to only University of Lagos Akoka, In Yaba Local Government Area of Lagos state.
The study principally discuss the impact of information and communication technology on classroom teaching and learning in the University system, (A case study of the University of Lagos Akoka).
1.8 Definition of terms
The following terminology has been used throughout this document.
A philosophy of interaction and personal lifestyle where individuals are responsible for their actions, including learning and respect the abilities and contributions of their peers.
Electronic machine, operated under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, which can accept data (input), manipulate data according to specified rules (process), produce results (output) and store the results for future use.
Concerning the knowledge, skills and attitudes which enable a person to use computer technology to benefit themselves and others related to tasks they wish to accomplish.
Concerning the understanding of the role of computer technology in society and the social implications associated with the use of computers in society.
The view of learning that requires the learner to actively construct conceptual meaning from experiences. This view is predominant among educational theorist in the world.
A structure of interaction designed to facilitate the accomplishment of a specific end product or goal through people working together in groups.
A term used throughout the world to refer to the use of any technologies to support the processes of learning and teaching.
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(Electronic mail) Text messages and computer files exchanged through computer communication, via Internet or intranet networks.
(Information & Communications Technology) Typically used to refer to computer technologies but strictly speaking should also include other technologies used for the collection, storage, manipulation and communication of information.
The international network of networks of computers using common protocols such as TCP/IP.
A communications network, based on the same technologies used for the Internet but only available to authorised users within an organization or company.
The psycho-social and physical environments within which learning occurs. This may be physically contained within a classroom or may involve a complex of various locations, persons and materials.
That which students may demonstrate from what they have learned. In the Curriculum Framework these are described as sets of outcomes associated with areas of learning.
A term used principally in Australia to denote the use of technologies to support the processes of learning and teaching. Usually used to discuss the use of computer technologies in this capacity. Similar use to the internationally used term, educational technology.
There are 12 overarching outcomes at the beginning of the Curriculum Framework that aim to direct the focus of all learning in Western Australian schools.
A strict dictionary definition would state that pedagogy concerns the science of teaching children. It concerns what teachers do when they interact with children to support their learning. Most educators would consider that pedagogy encompasses the beliefs and actions of teachers including their teaching strategies, the organization of learning experiences and of the learning environment generally.
Learning and teaching associated with technologies where the technologies are the focus of study.
(Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) The communications protocol used to define the ‘rules’ for the transmission of data between computers and networks wishing to be part of the internet.
(Universal Resource Locator) The unique address of any document available for access over the Internet.