THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON THE MOTIVATION OF WORKERS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (A STUDY OF AUCHI POLYTECHNIC, AUCHI)


Content

Abstract

This study looks at the role of leadership on motivation of workers. The internal driving force that results in directing and persistence in behaviour of workers. The task of directing is rested on all supervisors or managers. To executive this task effectively, the supervisor or manager has to be a good leader, someone who led others by getting work done through them. This study examine the leadership conceptions utilized in organization with a view to determine whether the following factors like the workers satisfaction with their leader, the nature of leadership between manager and worker motivate the worker’s performance. It was concluded that there is a negative association between nature of relationship that exist between management and workers and negative association between leadership style geared towards achieving its goals. It was recommended that leaders should adopt style that will satisfy their subordinates.  

 

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                i

Certification                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                              iii

Acknowledgements                                                                iv

Abstract                                                                                  v

Table of Contents                                                                   vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                1

1.1    Background to the Study                                                      1

1.2    Statement of Problem                                                            3

1.3    Objectives of the Study                                                4

1.4    Research Questions                                                               5

1.5    Research Hypotheses                                                            5

1.6    Significance of the Study                                                       6

1.7    Scope of the Study                                                                 7

1.8    Limitations of the Study                                                        8

1.9    Definition of Terms                                                                9

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                         12

2.1    The Nature of Leadership                                                      12

2.2.1 Definition of Leadership                                                        13

2.3    Qualities of a Leader                                                              14

2.3.1 A Model                                                                                  15

2.3.2 Activator or Mobilize                                                              15

2.3.3 Flexibility                                                                                15

2.4    Management as Leaders                                                        17

2.5    Comparative Social Climate for Autocratic, Democratic

and Liaises Fair Leadership                                                  17

2.5.1 Autocratic Leadership Style                                                  18

2.5.2 Democratic Leadership Style                                                18

2.5.3 Liaises Fair/Free Rein Leadership Style                     19

2.6    Functions of a Good Leader                                                  19

2.7    Identifying an Effective Leader                                              21

2.7.1 Organization Size                                                                   22

2.7.2 Interaction of Group Members                                             23

2.7.3 Personalities of Group Members                                          23

2.8    Relationship of Performance with Motivation                      23

2.9    Leadership Behaviour and Style                                           24

2.9.1 Persuasive Leadership                                                          25

2.9.2 Intellectual Leadership                                                          25

2.9.3 Job and Production Centered Leadership                           25

2.9.4 Employees Centered Leadership                                 26

2.10  Leadership Theories and Research                                      26

2.10.1 Behavioural Approach                                                        27

2.10.2 The Michigan Studies                                                27

2.10.3 The Ohio Studies                                                                 28

2.10.4 The Management Grid (Black and Muton)                         32

2.10.5 Situation Approach                                                             39

2.10.6 Traits Approach                                                                   44

2.10.7 Transformational Approach                                                46

2.10.8 Transactional Approach                                                      46

2.10.9 Team Based Approach (Validation of Self Concept) 46

2.10.10 Mission or Vision Approach                                             47

2.10.11 Value Based Approach                                                     47

2.11  Motivation                                                                              47

2.11.1 Kinds of Motivation                                                              48

2.11.2 Steps of Motivation                                                              48

2.11.3 Techniques of Motivation                                                    50

2.11.4 Advantages of Motivation                                                    51

2.11.5 Theories of Motivation                                                         51

2.12 How Leadership Style Shapes Motivation                             55

2.13 Measurement of Effective Leadership                                    56

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                     63

3.1    Research Design                                                                    63

3.2    Actual Field Work                                                                  63

3.3    Population of the Study                                                         63

3.4    Sample Size                                                                            64

3.5    Sampling Techniques                                                            64

3.6    Sources of Data Collection                                                    64

3.7    Method of Data Presentation                                       66

3.8    Method of Data Analysis                                                       66

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION                                                           67

4.1    Introduction                                                                           67

4.2    Data Analysis                                                                         68

4.3    Test of Hypothesis                                                                  78

4.4    Discussion of Findings                                                          87

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                           89

5.1    Summary of Findings                                                            89

5.2    Conclusion                                                                             90

5.3    Recommendations                                                                 91

References                                                                              93

Appendix I                                                                              95

Appendix II                                                                             96

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

An organization comprises of people interested and working together towards the achievement of the organization. It is a common notion that a fundamental and material disagreement exist between the demand of the organization and the need of the workers. Whereas, the organization imposes demands for routine behaviour and conformity to rules and regulations workers exhibit dominant needs for creative expression and initiative.

In the light of this, it is paramount for one rested with the responsibility of supervising and motivating the workers to ensure that they work in accordance to instruction. In this case, one who wears the crown as a leader that assures the role of his leadership style in the motivation of workers has effect on their performance.

Leadership dates back to ancient times, when men of stoned age in association with each other exploited their environment through the process of farming, hunting and building etc. In this process there were always people to lead them.

In this recent time, workers have demonstrated a non-chalant attitude to their job in certain transition. The truth is not far fetched because this can be attributed to the effect of leadership style in the management of human resources in relationship to his work place.

It is no doubt that success of any organization lies in the type of leadership style adopted by various leaders in leading their subordinate to accomplish the set goals and objectives. Workers perception of satisfaction with the boss and leadership style can affect their management performance either in a negative or positive manner. It is when workers are happy that they will contribute optionally towards the goals and objectives of the organization on the other hand, if workers are not happy with their boss leadership style, they will definitely not be motivated to contribute their quota towards the achievement of the organization goals.

 

1.2   Statement of Problem

Organization exists for the purpose of achieving certain goals and objectives. Every organization has people as the hallmark function towards the realization of organizational goals and objectives. This is so because organization does not exist in isolation. For this reason, people are employed to perform different functions so as to achieve same goals and objectives of the organizations.

These people employed to work in an organization has their need to satisfy and the process, through which these needs can be met and the thought which they are satisfied in the workplace influence their performance.

The leadership style adopted by the leaders in leading their subordinate can also affect the performance of workers towards the accomplishment of the organization goals and objectives.

This is mostly the case in a situation when such a leadership style will not enable the subordinate to achieve their personal needs in the organization.

The particular style adopted by the leaders ensuring that subordinate behaviour is geared towards realization of the organization can affect the performance of the subordinate. The role of leadership style as a subordinate performance of these, has well demonstrated by such scholars like the Gregor (1957 – 1960), Monter and Blake (1996), Fielder (1967) and Likerb (1961). It was found that the researchers decide to look at the role of leadership styles on the motivation of workers performance in an organization.

1.3   Objectives of the Study

The following purposes are expected to be accomplished in this study;

i.            To determine the leadership style in the motivation of workers.

ii.          To examine the leadership style adopted by the leaders in leading their subordinates in the organization and to see the effect on workers performance.

iii.        To identify how workers perception of a leader can affect their performance.

iv.         To look at the problems associated with the leaders such by way of recommendation.

v.           To advance people’s knowledge and understanding on leadership as an important phenomenon in the organization and human resource management in the organization.

1.4   Research Questions

The following research questions shall direct and guide the thrust of this study;

i.            Does the workers perception of the leadership style of his boss motivate him to perform?

ii.          Does the workers perception of the ways of his boss involve him in decision, motivating him to perform?

iii.        Does the workers perception of the way his boss leadership style meets his needs motivate him to perform?

iv.         Does the workers perception of the ways his boss value his job motivate him to performance? 

1.5   Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis One

HO:   The nature of relationship between the workers and management in the organization will no affect the workers perception of their boss leadership style.

HI:    The nature of relationship between the workers and management in the organization will affect the workers perception of their boss leadership style.

Hypothesis Two

HO:   A worker’s satisfaction with the relationship of leadership style of his boss will not motivate him to performance.

HI:    A worker’s satisfaction with the relationship of the leadership style of his boss will motivate him to performance.

Hypothesis Three

HO:   The leadership style geared towards achieving the needs of the workers will not motivate them to performance.

HI:    The leadership style geared towards achieving the needs of the workers will motivate him to performance. 

1.6   Significance of the Study

According to Douglas McGregor (1975 – 1960) a leader cannot avoid the exercise of authority any more than he can avoid the responsibility of what happens to his organization. The significance of this study as to examine the various leadership happening to a leader to adopt different situation with a view to enhance the performance of the workers.

The study is significant in the sense that it broadens the people’s mind or knowledge in the leadership style process in the organization. New research has been generated due to findings of this study and such new research can enrich the literature on leadership and improve orientation and knowledge on the concept.

The leader has to be conscious of his unique position in the organization by making sure that the action head to conformity with demands of workers is secure. Also the study will be of great importance and improvement to the management of organization being studied and practicing manage of the other organization.

1.7   Scope of the Study

This study intends to cover up every parts of an organization. in the course of this study, questionnaire shall be distributed to all categories of workers in an organization.

This study will look at the roles played by the leaders in the organization. The various leadership styles appropriated at different situations and the relationship between the leaders and effective performance of the subordinate.

1.8   Limitations of the Study

In the process of carrying out this research work, the researcher has been faced with a lot of limitations, which are as follows;

1.          Problem of Data Collection: In the course of this research work, there has been the problem of data for the activation of the purpose of this research work. A lot of assumptions have been made based on the data given by organizations used for the purpose of achieving every research work. All efforts towards getting the necessary and relevant information for this project work was time constraint since there was no other alternatives of getting such primary information.

2.          Time Constraint: Due to the tight schedule in school, the researcher has missed some vital point of some of the necessary information as well as the primary data necessary for research work. Due to tight schedule of seeing the staff of the organization as scheduled.

1.9   Definition of Terms       

a.     Motivation: The desire and will to excel and work, it stimulates an individual to perform their work.

b.     Management: As used in this project are those people such as the top managers who control and make policies for organization.

c.     Leadership Style: The style adopted by the leaders in leading his subordinates.

d.     Perception: Process by which the workers are being motivated to performance through bearing and seeing things being made.

e.     Planning, organizing, co-ordinating and controlling of activities in an organization are the functions of a manager in an organization.

f.      Interview: This refers to the time and space between the parts of the performance.

g.     Polity makers: Making a good policy that is beneficial to the organization and the subordinate.

h.     Impoverished: As it is also used in this project, it means making poor result on performance.

i.      Incompatible: Not able to be used in combination with another.

j.      Exploitation: This means to develop the meaning of an idea or explanation of literature test.

k.     Environment factors: The place where the organization will be located based on the account of the leadership.

l.      Arbitration: Performing the duty or functions of settling disputes especially amongst his subordinate and between some other people or group.

m.    Demoralization: To destroy the morale of something or kill the spirit of something.

n.     Luminary: A person who is an expert or a great influence in a special area or activity.

o.     Activator: To make such a device or chemical process start working laying down a standard that is challenging of the higher level of needs.

p.     Authorities: As it is used in this project, it relates to as manager commands.

q.     Visionaries: To show the ability to think about or plan the nature with great imagination and intelligence.

r.      Persistent: This means a condition in which a person’s body is kept working by medical means but the person shows no signs of other brain activity.

s.     Transcend: This means to be or go beyond the usual limits; extremely great.

t.      Unanimity: As it is used in this project, means complete agreement about something among a group of people.

u.     Adaptability: Able to change or be changed in order to deal successfully with a new situation, old workers can be adaptable and quick to adapt to economic change.

v.     Empathy: The ability to understand another person’s feelings and experience.

w.     Dexterity: This means one using his hand for quantity skills.

x.     Dynamism: This means energy enthusiasm to make new things happen or make things succeed.

 

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