THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANISATION (A STUDY ON TOTAL NIGERIA PLC)


Content

ABSTRACT

This research work on the impact of motivation and performance in an organisation seeks to explain why workers strive to attain particular objectives or goals. Within the context of management the focus of interest lends to be on how to ensure that all workers perform at their optimum level. Many employees see money (or higher pay) as the only motivating factor. They therefore stress emphasis on economic incentives in order to improve overall productivity and efficiency. The argument therefore is that social factors like the need for esteem and affiliation are something which people seek after and value, in order to achieve recognition and responses from others, individuals will expend a great deal of effort

 

The aspect of workers performance and motivating factors was considered in this study. The study dealt further on the problems and effect of motivation and performance. Discussion and findings on the impact of motivation and performance was looked into. It likewise encompasses the summary, conclusion as well as recommendations.

 

The study thus helped to answer the question why workers behave the way they do? Further still, the study on motivation and performance enables us to know the kind of need one can provided for workers to get the best out of them, and hence the means one can use to influence their behavior and achieve organizational objectives.

 

The research approach adopted focused mainly on primary data sources and secondary in collection of data. The study is useful in the sense that, a lot of benefits can be derived from this study. Among the beneficiaries are the government, business organization, academic and other research scholars. The researcher used the chi-square (X2) as the major tool for analyzing the hypotheses sited. Deals further with findings, summary, conclusion and recommendations.

 

Based on the findings and testing of hypotheses, it was evident that motivation does influence the behavior of workers in achieving organizational objectives. Motivation to work increases workers productivity levels with regards to increment in wages and incentives. Workers performance has significant impact on the motivation to work on a given job or task

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Chapter One:    INTRODUCTION                                        Pg

 

1.1       Background of the study                                                       1

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                      3

1.3       Research questions                                                               4

1.4       Objective of the study                                                            5

1.5        Research hypothesis                                                             6

1.6       Significance of the study                                                        7

1.7       Limitation of the study                                                 9

1.8       Definition of operational terms                                             10

 

Chapter Two:    LITERATURE REVIEW & CONCEPTUAL FRADIEWORK

 

2.1       Review of Current Literature                                                 12

2.2       Forms and types of motivation                                             17

2.3       Theorists of motivation                                                24

2.4       Motivational factors and techniques on job task                 39

2.5       The effect of motivation and performance                            48

2.6       Organizational behavior and performance appraisal          55

2.7       Problems and effect of motivation and performance           59

 

Chapter Three: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

3.1       Scope of the study                                                                 63

3.2       Selection and collection of data                                            64

3.3       Design and administration of questionnaire                        66

3.4       Sample size determination                                                    67

3.5       Sampling technique                                                               68

3.6       Operational measure of variables                                        68

3.7       Data analysis technique                                                        69

Chapter Four:   PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

 

4.1       Presentation of data                                                               71

4.2       Analysis of data                                                                      72

4.3       Hypothesis testing                                                                 77                                                    

4.4       Discussion of findings                                                           86

 

Chapter Five:    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

 

5.1       Summary drawn from findings                                             89

5.2       Conclusion from findings                                                      90

5.3       Recommendation                                                                   91

 

References

Appendix


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Since management’s ability to analyzing and improving the motivation of its workers is of more concern to effectiveness and efficiency of the organization, motivation on workers performance refers to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces which causes, channels and sustains someone’s behaviour. Within the context of management the focus of interest on motivation tends to be on how to ensure that all workers perform at their optimum level. Managers who find the key to their workers inner motivations can tap an immense source of productive energy.

 

Maslow (1954) identified that man is motivated by five basic needs (physiological, safety, love and belongings, esteem and self actualization) and will work accordingly. He ranked them as hierarchy, recognizing that as man developed his needs changed as the individual moves up the hierarchy. The major implication for management is that the needs of workers should be identified and gratified, in order to motivate the employee to work efficiently and effectively. Eltom Mayo recognized that above a certain level, monetary rewards ceased to have an effect and the operatives started to look for the satisfaction of other needs. Unfortunately, Maslow’s ideas have no clear practical application, because it had not been proved that by providing motivators to stimulate an individual’s need will result in more satisfactory work from other workers.

 

Herzberg (1959) suggested that there are elements in a person’s work and working environment which causes job dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) and different elements which create job satisfaction (motivational factors). The implications of these ideas are that managers must deal with two completely separate issues when trying to obtain good work performances from their subordinates. Firstly, they should prevent dissatisfaction by attention to hygiene factors and secondly, they should encourage greater achievement by paying attention to motivator factors.

 

There are many other theories explaining what motivates people at work. According to Penny Hacket, motivation at work comes from two sources, namely, intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction. As the name imply, intrinsic satisfaction is the derivation of satisfaction of the needs from the work itself, while extrinsic satisfaction is the deriving of satisfaction through rewards received for doing the work.

 

The ways in which motivation and performance might be achieved are likely to vary, however, according to different circumstances and situations. An individual’s motivation to work will thus vary over time and will be influenced by different factors at different times.

             

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Research has shown that management has due to its endemic antipathy towards new technology failed to motivate workers coupled with their performance throughout their employment. Rather they organize and manage other factors of production in order to achieve effective productivity at the expense of the workers. Therefore, this study is intended to evaluate and articulate the impact of motivation and performance in an organization set up using Total Nigeria Plc as a case study.

 

The statement of the problem are being hindered by certain factors, for the purpose of this study, such factors include:

(a)          To focus on what motivates workers and increase their productivity as it relates to wages and incentives.

(b)         To learn about how to motivate staff towards enhancing their job performance.

(c)          To take total responsibility for their own performance and to teach this modus operandi to others.

(d)         To understand and model self motivation as it affects workers in achieving organizational objectives.

(e)          To help workers to improve job satisfaction and adjust to innovations and changes on the job.

(f)           The need for motivation in order to arouse a person’s passion or commitment on the job.

    

1.3       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

For the purpose of this study, the following research questions have been put forward:

i.             Does motivation of workers lead to increase in organizational productivity?

ii.           Does motivation provide incentive for a worker to satisfy his/her desire?

iii.          Does the company rewards each employee according to ability and merit?

iv.          Does motivating employee influence them to work for a cause desired by the leaders?

v.            Does performance appraisal monitor workers performance and ensure effectiveness of job?

vi.          Does the company involve staff in decision making process when possible?

vii.        Does motivation aid the administration of human elements of an organization?

viii.       Does motivation also uses penalties or punishments to induce a desired behaviour?

ix.          Does introducing a performance based system has significant impact on the motivation to work?

x.           Is motivation a driving force which stimulates an individual to action?

 

1.4       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study includes:

i.             To determine motivational factors and ways of motivating workers

ii.            To ascertain the degree of workers performance and their approaches to work which would enhance motivation

iii.          To discuss the various content and process of theories of motivation

iv.          To analyze the application of these theories by management in an organization.

v.            To ascertain whether enhanced motivation to work is observed among white-collar workers when their ways of working change in response to such a change in wage system and other incentive.

vi.          To determine if job sharing and roles are responsible for job increased opportunities for developing abilities.

vii.        To evaluate and articulate the elect of motivation and performance in an organizational set up.

viii.       To ascertain whether there is a gap between wages system by company and what the worker perceives to be the change.

ix.          To identify problems and effects of motivation and performance.

x.           To suggest measure and recommendations to the identified problems

 

1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

To serve as bedrock for this study the following hypotheses will be stated in their null forms. According to Osula (2001), a hypothesis is a conjectured statement of the relationship between two or more variables. This study has come up with three hypotheses thus:

1.      H0:    Motivation does not influence the behaviour of workers in          achieving organizational objectives.

H1:    Motivation does influence the behaviour of workers in achieving organizational objective.

2.      H0:    Motivation to work does not increase workers’ productivity        levels with regards to Increment in wages and incentives.

H1.    Motivation to wok increase workers’ productivity levels with regards to increment in wages and incentives.

3.      H0.    Workers’ performance has no significant impact on the     motivation to work on given job or task.

H1.    Workers’ performance has significant impact on the motivation to work on a given job or task.

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Motivation is the general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and other innate forces that determine what people do. Workers however play a very vital role in the effective running and management of an organization as well as its development, likewise that of the economy. Thus a lot of benefits can be derived from this study. Among the beneficiaries are the Government, the economy in general, business organization, research scholars and other interest groups. In the light of the above beneficiaries, this study will bring to light the significant effect of motivation and performance in reaching personal and organizational goals and how management can develop or enhance their motivational skills towards workers’ performance.

 

To the Government: Since this study is on the impact of motivation and performance, the study will draw the attention of the government on the essence of motivating workers to achieve its goals and objectives and encourage them to contribute their utmost best in achieving government’s policies towards employment.

 

To the Business Organization: This research work is intended to provide a greater insight on motivation of workers’ performance. This research study will be of great benefits to managers, whom would be concerned about the firm’s efficiency, effectiveness and workers’ productivity.

 

To the Interest Group: The interest group includes shareholders and other investors. It will be of benefit to the interest group for it will enable them to know the adequacy of staff turnover, efficiency of the business and productivity enhancement, for if the business is not productive the interest group cannot be paid. They would also be aware of the profit earned, the existence of secured debts and the future dividends they will receive.

 

To the Academicians: This study will enable the academics to be conversant with the degree, approaches and application of motivation and performance in an organization. The academic would be able to ascertain how motivation impacts on the worker’s performance in an organizational setup and what is expected of them by way of contribution to enhancing the organizational goals and the objectives.

 

To the Researcher: At the end of the study, the researcher must have gained a lot on the impact of the motivation and performance and would be in a position to ascertain possible ways of encouraging workers to put their best towards the achievement of its set goals and objectives as well as improvement in productivity.

 

 

1.7       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The primary task for managers is to get people to contribute activities that help to achieve the mission and goals of an organization or any department or other organized unit within it. Clearly, to guide workers activities in desired directions requires knowing to the best of any managers’ ability what leads workers to do things, what motivates them. The need for recognizing motivating factors will enable the management of any organization build into the entire system factors that will induce people to contribute effectively and efficiently as possible.

 

A major limitation of the research method is the reluctance in the attitude of staff to participate in the exercise. These attitudes have a significant effect on the filling of the questionnaire; however, the general economic down turn coupled with the treat in the industrial sector witnessed recently in the country has drastically affected the funds available for this exercise. Consequently, upon these problems, the study had to be confined to the headquarters of the company in Lagos. Thus this may have no effect on the generalization of the findings of this study. Sequel to that, this research work was aimed at in-depth evaluation of impact of motivation and performance. But subject to inherent constraints associated with carrying out such a research work in Nigeria, there is an imperative need to place the research work on a space bond of one selected case study, of which Total Nigeria Plc was chosen.

 

Yet time and finance to have covered other relevant areas of the study remains an obstacle. Also, dearth of statistical information, lack of research work carried out under the same topic, will have some negative effect on the findings of the research. This is an imperative study and it suffers from the usual limitations as the responses on which it is based are influenced by the level of knowledge, understanding, competence and interest shown by the staff of the organization.

 

In spite of the above limitation, the researcher is still confident that the study retains its validity and reliability it deserved within the company studied or even elsewhere under similar condition with little or no modification. 

 

1.8       DEFINTIONS OF OPERATIONAL TERMS

Company: An association of persons, whether incorporated or not, for the purpose of carrying on some business.

 

Employee benefits: Advantages beside salary or wage that an employee may have through his employment, employee benefit is sometimes called fringe benefits.

 

Hierarchy: A specified rank or order of persons or things, thus a series of persons or things classified by rank or order.

 

Incentive Wage: method of wage payment by which workers receive extra pay production.

 

Job Evaluation: This is a generic term covering methods of determining the relative worth of jobs. Thus, job is described as being all the tasks carried out by a worker or a group of workers, in the completion of their prescribed duties.

 

Management by Objective: A process whereby superior and subordinate managers of an organization identify its common goals, define each individual’s major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him and use these measures as a guide for operating the unit and assessing, the contribution of each of its members (Odiorne, 1973).

 

Motivation: This is a driving force within an individual, produced by a state of tension that exists, a result of an unfulfilled need.

 

Motive: An inner state that energize activities or move (hence motivation) and that directs or channels behaviour towards goal (Berelson and Steiner, 1964).

 

Performance Management: This is a systematic approach to the management of people, using performance goals, measurement, feedback and recognition as a means of motivating them to realize their maximum potential. (Alo, 1999).

 

Productivity: The measure of how resources are brought together in organizations and utilized for accomplishing a set of results. Productivity is reaching the highest level of performance with the least expenditure of resources (Mali, 1978).

    


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