THE IMPACTS OF ECOMOG ON AFRICAN SECURITY: A CASE STUDY OF LIBERIA
Civil war has often been the language of communication when diplomacy failed to resolve internal or external conflict. It has also been seen as, a negative consequence of two warring factions or countries engaging in the use of force to seize power or control the machinery of government.
Liberia civil war has led to loss of innocent lives, destruction of properties and people taken refuge in neighbouring countries after attack.
ECOMOG which was a peacekeeping efforts of ECOWAS was established to maintain peace in Liberia and means of resolving crises among warring factions. The troops performed creditably and achieved the lofty objectives of ECOWAS.
Today, new government has been put in place, peace restored and stability established after the civil war.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Purpose of the Study
1.3 Significance of the Study
1.4 Scope of the Study
1.5 Research Methodology
1.6 Definition of Terms
2.1 The issue of African Security
2.2 The Liberian crisis (Origin and Nature)
3.1 The causes of Liberian Civil War: The internal factor
3.2 The External factors of Liberian Civil War
3.3 The Liberian Civil War: Its implication on African Security
4.1 Background to the formation of ECOMOG
4.2 The role of ECOMOG in the Liberian Civil War
4.3 The ECOMOG template for regional security mechanism in Africa
4.4 African security challenges: Lessons from the failures and achievements of
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The search for peace is as old as humanity, since the beginning of time mankind has revolved around conflicts, which have necessitated the desire for peace. As a result, third parties have emerged as mediators with various strategies towards maintenance of peace.
Over the years, such determined efforts have generated anti-war sentiments throughout human societies and have established many peace movements all over the world. In 1815, European statesmen converged at Vienna with the sole aim of establishing a formidable organization for the purpose of maintaining peace, though there were man of such peace conferences, but they were unable to succeed in their purpose of matching peace in the world before the outbreak of the First World War.
However, since World War 1, world leaders have been working fearlessly on promoting Peace movements and the establishment of an international organization for the global maintenance of peace and security. These fearless efforts resulted in the formation of the 'League of Nations'. This was also followed by the establishment of the United Nations in 1945, whose aims and objectives are fully set out in the preamble to its charter which states that 'We the peoples of United Nations determine to save succeeding generation from the scourge of war, which twice in a life time has brought untold sorrow to mankind'.
The continent of Africa is not an exception to this case of war. Many reasons could be adduced for the incessant conflicts' and wars on the continent of Africa. One of these reasons is deduced from the effect of colonialism on Africa. By this, we mean the artificial creation of states that are naturally incompatible, 3 these artificial states refused to possess internal mingling and this has more often than not been the major cause of conflict.
Conflicts and wars in African have not often been left without efforts at quelling these calamities. More often than not the role of the third party in mediating in Africa conflicts has "ways been noticed. The Liberian civil war was not an exception.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This research aims to bring to light the causes of the Liberian civil war in relation to African security in general with particular reference to West Africa sub-region. It intends to discuss the actual involvement of ECOMOG in the Liberian crisis which led to the restoration of peace and the problems militating against the smooth planning and execution of ECOMOG operations will also be looked into.
Furthermore, this study shall look into the interventionist approach of African States in the crisis.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is important in many ways; it examines the issues of security in Africa with particular reference to the West African sub-region. It shall also x-ray the various methods exploited by the African states to resolve conflicts. The purpose, achievements and constraints of the ECOMOG in peacekeeping and conflict resolution in the Liberian civil war shall also be discussed.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
While the object of this research is primarily on the significance of ECOMOG, as an institution for maintaining peace in West African sub-region, the Liberian civil war is chosen as a basis for analysis. Therefore, the scope of this research shall largely be consigned to the intervention of ECOMOO in the resolution of the Liberia conflict.
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
To achieve the objective of this research, secondary sources of information such as newspapers, magazines, and documents shall be used. Others like textbooks, journals and other published materials that constitute secondary sources of data shall also be used.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Pace: It can therefore be stated as a state of harmony characterized by the lack of violent conflict. It is commonly understood as the absence of hostility.
ECOWAS - Economic Community of West African States:
A regional authority formed in 1975 by the Treaty of Lagos to promote economic trade, intergovernmental cooperation and a common currency among its members
The group is comprised of Benin, C’ote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea- Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Burkina Faso, and Cape Verde.
ECOMOG - Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group
The ECOMOG was a West African multilateral armed force established by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). ECOMOG was a formal arrangement for separate armies to work together. Its backbone was Nigerian armed forces and financial resources, with sub-battalion strength units contributed by other ECOWAS members - Ghana, Guinea, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and others.
There is no universal definition of the concept of security. Edward Kolodziej has compared it to a Tower of Babel. Roland Paris (2004) views it as "in the eye of the beholder". But there is a consensus that it is important and multidimensional. It has been widely applied to "justify suspending civil liberties, making war, and massively reallocating resources during the last fifty years".
Officially, the Republic of Liberia, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Sierra Leone on the West, Guinea on the North and Cote d'Ivoire on the East. Liberia's coastline is composed of mostly mangrove forests while the more sparsely populated inland consists of forests that open to a plateau of drier grasslands. The country possesses 40% of the remaining Upper Guinean rainforest. Liberia has a hot equatorial climate, with significant rainfall during the May to October rainy season and harsh hannattan winds the remainder of the year. Liberia covers an area of 111,369 km2 (43,000 sqm) and is home to about 3.7 million people. English is the official language, while over 30 indigenous languages are spoken within the country.
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