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THE IMPACTS OF MOTIVATION ON WORKE’S PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY IN KADUNA STATE A STUDY OF JABA AND JEMA’A LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS
The pace at which local government service is deterioting in Nigeria is alarming. The fall in performance and productivity of the workers of the local governments in Kaduna state is of a great concern to the stakeholders. These unfortunate situations are roped on poor management, undue political interference, poor remunerations, lack of prompt promotion, nonpayment of staff entitlements and other fringe benefits due for the staff in the service and the delay in payment of staff salary. It is in light of the aforementioned scenario that the research was conducted to understand the impacts of motivation on workers performance and productivity with particular reference to Jaba and Jema’a local Government Area of Kaduna state from (2005-2009).However, the objectives of the research was to identify the factors that informed staff poor performance and productivity ,to understand the factors that sustain staff performance and productivity and also to examine the reasons behind the rate of labour turnover ,absenteeism and nonchallant attitudes of the staff in these local government councils. The research hypothesized (1) “there is no significant relationship between the level of motivation and high level of staff performance and productivity in these local government councils”. (2) “That, motivation incentives provided does not commensurate with the staff high performance in these local government councils”. (3 that, “job satisfaction do not reduces the problem of high labour absenteeism and turnover in the local government councils”. Data for the research were generated both from primary and secondary sources, and was analyzed quantitively and qualitatively ,with more focus on quantitative technique using inferential statistical tool of Chi –square, was used to test the hypotheses. The research findings revealed that managements of these local Government councils had failed in meeting the staff welfare. Workers performance and productivity depends on the kind of motivational incentives provided to them; and that staff absenteeism and turnover is as results of lack of job satisfaction by majority of staff. The research concluded that the solutions is for the management of the local government councils and the State government to keep abreast with the dominant needs and the changing expectations of these staff and equally be in constant survey of motivational incentives in relation to staff performance and productivity . The research recommended that state government should upwardly review the staff salary and other monetary allowances, staff promotion should be taking seriously …And all scholarly views used in this study have been adequately acknowledged by way of references.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 4
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study - - - - - 9
1.4 Research Hypotheses - - - - - - 10
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study - - - - - 10
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - - 11
1.7 Research Design - - - - - - - 13
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - 15
1.9 Plan of the Study - - - - - - - 18 CHAPTER TWO:
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 20
2.1 The Concepts of Motivation - - - - - 21
2.2 The Motivational Process - - - - - - 25
2.3 The Importance of Motivation in an Organization - - 26
2.3.1 The motivational and Hygiene tools - - - - 27
2.4 Leadership, Compensation and Motivation - - - 28
2.5 The Concept of Performance - - - - - 30
2.5.1 Factors that Enhances Performance - - - - 31
2.6 The Concepts of Productivity - - - - - 31
2.6.1 Factors the Enhances Productivity - - - - 32
2.7 Money as a Motivation for Performance and Productivity - 33
2.8 Approaches to Motivation - - - - - - 37
2.9 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - 42
The Evaluation of Local Government System in Nigeria, Historical
Background and Organization structure of Jaba and Jema’a Local
3.1 The evolution of Local government System in Nigeria - - 49
3.2 Historical Background of Jaba Local Government Area - 49
3.3 Historical Background of Jama’a Local Government Area - 57
3.4 Organizational Structure Jaba and Jama’a Local Government Area 59
3.5 The organizational Chart of Jaba and Jama’a Local Government Area 61
3.6 The Functions of Jaba and Jama’a Local Government Areas - 62
3.7 Staff Welfare Packages in Jaba and Jama’a Local Government Areas 63
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 65
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - 66
4.2 Test of Hypotheses - - - - - - - 71
4.3 General Discussions of Findings - - - - - 72
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 114
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 114
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 116
5.2 Recommendations - - - - - - - 117
BACKGROUND OF TO STUDY
The problem of motivating workers is as old as organized activities itself, but it has duly been, within the last half century that the scientific method has been brought to bear on efforts to address it. This relatively short period of time has been the beginning of attempts to apply conceptual and methodological tools of behavior sciences, particularly psychology to examine the relationship between Man’s motivation and his work as to the managerial issues involved in that relationship. Anywhere in the world there is this competition in all organizations, be it public or private, to attract and retain the best workers. As such, any organization that lacks an efficient and effective manpower is going to lag behind in the area of effective service delivery to clients or people. The management of social transformation in any organization therefore becomes a necessity and an indispensable task, especially if organization is to be counted among the community of other organizations that are firmly anchored on the path to development. This development entails social justice where by the basis necessities of life such as food, shelter and clothing are not just provided by the organization, but are also within the reached of the every worker.
Individuals come to organizations as a unique human being with unique personalities, traits and different needs. The traditional human relation theory, believes that a motivated worker is a satisfied employee. Hence, they see a direct relationship between motivation and performance Furthermore, over the year, researched have shown that problems in the Nigerian Public service and in Kaduna State civil service in particular are caused by lack of motivation, despite the State Government efforts of motivating the workers. This makes the worker holding their job in low esteem, depression, pessimism display of nonchallant attitudes, strikes etc and as a result led to low performance. Hence, motivation of the workers should be taken seriously as being pivotal to the success or failure of the public service.
Toward achieving the objectives of public service various remunerative packages are operated in by organization in motivating their workers to enhance their performance. However, these packages do not necessarily mean a highly satisfied work force. Although, it is clear that, monetary reward in a purely, economic sense can directly influence job performance and behavior, its impact can also be largely symbolic.
The Local Government system in Kaduna State, generally need efficient management of their available resources to achieve their objectives. As it is often said, the job of a manager entails getting result through people. These results are achieved through guidance, leadership, encouragement and motivation of the people that perform the job. As the performance of any one on his job is affected by a combination of both ability and motivation, this is done through the formulation of good personnel policies as stated by Sanusi (1998) “to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in any organization, required that we develop a long range of motivational (personnel) policies to enhance the capacity of workers and to anticipate and influence changes in performance in the organization” .These personnel policies are written statement of an organizations goal, and intentions concerning matters that affected the people in the organization (normally contained in the memoranda and Article of association of the said organization).
The Local Government system is not left out of the task of managing its workers especially through personnel policies on motivation. Indeed by the very nature and functions assigned to the third tier of government. These tiers of government should be at the forefront of service delivery, but it can not play an effective role in service delivery without adequate motivation of staff for effective performance. Effective motivation therefore, is an indispensable tool or resource for achieving productivity and thus essential for organizational survival, growth and development. It is drives that escort performance in any organization, above all, motivation is the key to the organizations survival, prosperity and future economic and social development.
Motivation in essence can be viewed as that energizing force that induces or compels and maintains behavior. This is in line with the fact that motivation “is an inner state that energizes, activates or moves and that direct or channel behavior toward goals” (Beralso and Steiner, 1974). Motivation can be seen to be those things that the management does in order to encourage or energize their employees in task performance in an organization. It is not easy to motivate an individual, for success of any motivational effort depends on the extent to which the motivator meet needs of the individual employee for whom it is intend. To motivate therefore, mean that, certain things are done with the hope that they will satisfy these drives and desires and consequently influence such person to act in a desired manner. And in ensuring satisfaction of workers in the public service, in addition to the attraction wages, fringe benefit, which are introduced in the form of health or medical care, scheme, promotion, bonus, or exgratia, over time merit award inform of bonus, best dedicated worker of the year, training and others. These fringe benefits represent extra income, additional security for more desirable working condition. Such benefits often satisfy workers needs and want that are not satisfied by salaries and those help in raising their morale.
In personnel management, there is a significance relationship between motivation and job performance which is dynamic and complex in nature. There is these believe that, workers who perform well at job are those that are motivated. In the word of Byan (1989) “high motivated workers can bring about substantial better performance, and a substantial decrease in incidence of personnel related problems” such as excessive strikes, absenteeism, redundancy, truancy etc.
The strength of the relationship between motivation and performance in any organization is so much that scholar has comes to the conclusion that poor performance or remarkable performance of workers is traceable to level of motivation in such organization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Civil service is a veritable vehicle for conveying government’s policies and actions. It also a ready source manpower requirement. A civil service of any establishment must be robust, dynamic and capable of being manipulated to achieve clearly defined objectives of any given moment.
In Kaduna State, the civil service is as old as the Nigerian nation, for it had been established by the colonialist who establishes their administration in Northern Nigerian almost a century ago. It also gave birth to other civil services in the states created out of the defunct northern region. It is universally observed that the Local Government civil service in Kaduna State is expected to be a quirt essence of excellence, embodying a perfect setting for productivity and overall efficiency. It is also regarded as the engine room for the implementation of government programmes, originating innovation and inventiveness of the grass root but this is not so in the case study. For workers in the local Government to be highly patriotic, extremely loyal and propelled by excessive zeal to render meritorious service, and imbued with boundless capacity for devotion and hard work, their welfare packages must be look into or improved so that it can add impetus to the enthusiasm of those workers who were putting in their best in supporting the laudable programmes unveiled by the government.
The general attitude of the workers towards the work should be of great concern to the Local Government management. Every organization, no matters its operational web strives effectively make use of its manpower in order to get the best out of them, to ensure high performance and for the realization of corporate objectives. However understanding and influencing the human behavior require knowledge of human needs in an organization. Most psychologists are in agreement that human behavior is not completely disorganized and without motivation. The human personality is composed of multiple elements that are related to effects some degree of apparent balance. These elements, according to Flippo (1980) are shrouded into and categorized by psychologist as “physiological, social and equisetic”, and which changes with time and circumstances.
Motivation is the force that energizes, behavior, give, direction to behavior, and underlies the tendencies to persist. Efforts to understand the motivation process have centered on several major element, needs cognitive activities and record as where as re-enforcement issue.
It is a known fact that organization can not succeed without adequately motivating it workers. The importance of motivation to the overall development and progress of any organization can not be over emphasized. When attitude of workers is generally negative and characterized by dissatisfaction, frustration, lack of interest and commitment. An individual or group with this kind of unhealthy disposition cannot be in a position to voluntarily release his energy to increase his productivity in the interest of the Councils or organization. Such attitude to work is a detriment to the survival of any Local Government or organization in general.
Over the years, the Ministry for Local Government, and Local Government service Board of Kaduna state have not been able to understand why their worker perform below expectation, despite the huge resources budgeted over the years to boast employees performance by motivating them. Further more, at the Local Government level particularly in Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Area, effort had been made yearly to budget some amount of money for motivating their workers either through re-training, re-designing jobs, providing incentives to mention a few, yet the staff still complain that there is no motivation, hence low performance.
The effectiveness, of job performance in these Local Government Areas, has been affected by several factors. These include poor remuneration, lack of promotion, non-recognition, the deplorable poor conditions of service, lack of capacity to partake in major decision making, poor leadership styles, non payment of staff claims, and lack prompt payment of salaries and other fringe benefits, responsibility without authority, distortion of the schedule of duties by the political office holders in these Local Government, lack of medical care, equal opportunity to attend training, workshop and in house training of the workers.
The existence of these aforementioned problems in these Local Government Areas, had informed these negative behaviors of the workers clearly, such as, low morale, high level of absenteeism, nonchalant and indifference attitude, boredom and monotony, disenchantment and high labour turnover. The Local Government job unfortunately has become a training ground for employees who eventually leave for the other lucrative organization. Not many people want to build their career in the Local Government service. The existence of some of this problem is assumed to be accountable for the reason, why some trained personnel refused taking up appointment with the
Local Government Council
The aforementioned scenario culminated into the need to understand these retrogressive trends in our Local Government system. The negative job attitudes, high level of absenteeism and turnover, poor performance and low productivity. This is only to better the situation through effective personnel management but also to ensure job satisfaction, and better atmosphere for high performance and optimum productivity.
From whatever perspective these problems of staff motivation is looked at, it is alarming and devastating. The researcher is constraint to ask why these problems has remained insurmountable and self- perpetuating in spite the tremendous efforts of the state and these Local Government top management to eradicate these pandemic in the Local Government Administration. The following questions become relevant and the research sought to provide answers;
Why it is that the staff of these Local Governments is not performing as expected?
Are there factors that motivate and sustains workers and productivity in Jaba and Jama’a Local Government Areas?
What are the reasons for the high rate of labour turnover, absenteeism and nonchalant attitudes of the workers in Jaba and Jama’a local Government Area over the years?
What led to workers dissatisfaction and a feeling of frustration of workers in Jaba and Jama’a Local Government Area?
Are there any motivational strategies employed/adopted by the managements of Jaba and Jama’a Local Government Area to enhance there staff performance and productivity?
1.3 Aim And Objectives Of The Study
The central aim of this research is to understand the impacts of motivation on workers performance and productivity in Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Area of Kaduna state. However, the objectives of the research include inter-alia:-
i. To identify the factors that informed poor performance of staff in
Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Areas of Kaduna State, ii. To examine the factors that motivates and sustains workers performance and productivity in Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Areas.
iii. To examine the reason behind high rate of labour turnover, absenteeism and nonchalant attitudes of the workers in Jaba and
Jema’a Local Government Areas over the years iv. To identify causes for work dissatisfaction and a feeling of frustration of the workers in these Local Governments.
v. To examine the motivational strategies being adopted by the management to enhance the staff performance and productivity. Finally, to proffer solutions and make appropriate recommendations for ensuring positive job attitude, efficient cum high performance and productivity, in these Local Government Areas.
1.4 Research Hypotheses.
In other to be able to achieve the objective of this research as raised above, the following hypothesis is hereby developed for testing.
1. That, there is no significant relationship between the level of motivation and high level of performance among staff in Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Areas, (HO).
2. That, the motivational incentives (salaries, training, promotion, fringe benefits and other allowances) provided by Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Areas do not commensurate with workers high performance, (HO).
3. that, job satisfaction does not reduce the problems of high rate of absenteeism and labour turnover in Jaba and Jema’a Local Government
1.5. Scope And Limitation Of The Study
1.5.1 Scope of The Study
The research was conducted within the time frame of 2005-2009 (five years) it therefore become imperative to narrow the research scope to five years period due to the fact that the information required could be easily obtained within this scope and time specification n.
1.5.2 Limitation of The Study
This study is concern with motivation and workers performance and productivity in Kaduna State. To analyze, these elements within the organization performance and development of the entire workers in the state, the study will required different sets of questionnaires, sampling and more elaborate theoretical analysis. This will make the study unwieldy and also would require huge financial resource and time available to conduct the research. In the light of some difficulty encountered in getting or having access to relevant documents and lack of prompt cooperation from the officials of these Local Governments due to bureaucratic processes and the classification of some documents as secret and inaccessible.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The quality and productivity of a country’s workforce is an important factor in it economic development. Therefore, every organization must continue to strives to improve the quality of her human resources in order to realizes its goals and objectives as well as contribute to the economic development of the country. To improve the quality and productivity of workers, it is essential to know what motivates them and how various environmental factors affects their behavior and performance at the workplace.
The significance of the study cannot be over emphasized.
The study will serve as a guide to the state and local government policy makers, human resources manager and other stakeholders in the Nigeria public sector. The policy makers will find it very useful especially in planning for motivational strategies to enhance workers performance and productivity in the state and local government civil service. The human resources, managers in both public and privates sectors will find it useful in the management of the human elements in an organization
The research becomes significance in that, it seek to identify the workers satisfaction and their performance as a result of certain motivational incentives.
The study will be significant to those managing the affairs and resources of these Local Government Area, in that it will assist these managers or administrators in understanding how best to improve upon their existing conditions of service of the workers and also with view to improve workers performance and there by increasing organizational efficiency, effectiveness and productivity and check the rate of workers turnover, low productivity, absenteeism and truancy in the Local Government service.
The study will equally serve as a reference material for the prospective researcher who intends to make an in-depth study of the job performance and productivity of the staff of Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
In conclusion, the research will provide base for Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Area and state government to understand the importance, appreciate the value and tolerate the workers desire for better conditions of service, and ensure effective and efficient operational tool, for management and also a reasonable integration leading to productive and creative collaboration toward mutual objective of meeting organizational goal and individual needs.
1.7. Research Design.
1.7.1. Method OF Data Collection.
For a meaningful and clear analysis of the general issue and collection of relevant data to the research, a survey research method for social science research was used:
i. Primary source of Data.
The instrument to gather original and current primary data for the researched, the researcher administered structured questionnaires and interviewed targeted population sample of the staff of Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Councils.
The structured form of questionnaires method was strongly influenced by the fact it yield more information, in the light of available limited resources, and it is the most suitable in research population coverage, for making easy contact and permitting the anonymity for respondents expression, and also give the research the ability to structure relevant questions to draw out necessary information to test the hypotheses formulated in response to questions. These source of data makes it easy for the respondents to provide answer to research questions, takes no time and easy to tabulated and analyzed: whilst, the open-ended questions are often difficult to answer objectively and could make the respondents to make responses reluctantly. Also, it is difficult to interpret, summarize, tabulate and analyze. ii. Secondary Source Of Data.
The Secondary sources of information used involves review of periodical journals, magazines, and general publications, text-books, Newspapers, theses/dissertation, internet and other publish and unpublished materials. iii. Sampling Design.
This involves taking any portion of a population or universe as representative of a whole. Thus, in understanding a research of this nature where the population is relatively large, sampling becomes imperative. In the area of population, sample size and sampling technique, Jaba Local Government Council had staff strength of Four Hundred and fifty five (455) and Jema’a Local Government Council had staff strength of Six Hundred and Thirty seven (637). Making a total population size of one thousand and ninety two (1092) staff. In these Local Government Councils. In the distribution of questionnaires, representativeness is a primary objective, Respondents were selected by the used of simple percentage parameter (%). The researcher used Thirty percent (30%), which is a fair representation of the total population of the study to draw up three Hundred and twenty eight (328) population sample size:
30% of 1092
=30/100 x 1092
Or 328 sample size.
The respondent were classified according to their rank(s)
1. Management staff 20
2. Senior staff 180
3. Junior staff 128
This staffs were randomly selected across the six departmental structure of there Local Government Councils.
1.7.2 Method Of Data Analysis
Data for the research was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, with more emphasis on the quantitative technique using Chi- square statistical tool to test the hypothesis
1.8 Definitions Of Relevant Concepts Or Terms.
i. IMPACT: oxford advanced learner’s dictionary, international student’s edition defines impact as the effects of something on other things. To cause, produce or have as a result.
ii. MOTIVATION (S.M. Ngu. 1994 :) Defined “motivation” as a driving need and satisfaction that encourage worker to work hormonally, effectively, efficiently, effectively harder in anticipation for higher reward.
iii. WORKER: Worker is someone who is recruited in an organization and is paid to work or serve the organization to which he/she is employed.
iv. PERFORMANCE: This indicates how well or satisfactory a person is fulfilling the requirement of his position on the basis of result achieved and his/her action on the job. The researcher looked at performance as the assessment of output in a giver task or work with a view of achieving result.
v. PRODUCTIVITY: Melli (1987) defined productivity as the measure of how well resources are brought together in an organization and utilized for accomplishing a set of result. The researcher sees productivity as reaching the highest level of performance with less expenditure of resources.
vi. HYPOTHESIS: A working definition of hypothesis is a speculative, a hunch, conjectural statement which a researcher is not too sure about it, credibility but is aware that a relationship exist. S.M. Ngu (2005) defined hypothesis as a temporary guess statement of the relationship between two or more variables e.g. dependent and independent variable).
vii. RESEARCH DESIGN: According to S.M Ngu (2005): Research design is refers to the methods, techniques and procedures or steps to be taken for data collection and analysis It depends on the type and purpose of a particular research.
viii. LOCAL GOVERNMENT: National Guidelines for Local Government reform (1976) defined ‘Local Government as a government level exercised through Representative Council established by law to exercise specific powers within defined areas.
ix. JOB SATISFACTION: According to Locke (1989) defined Job satisfaction as a situation in which a worker’s job fulfills what he values.
x. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: According to Fritz Heider (1970) said intrinsic motivation comes from rewards inherent to a task or activity itself. Hertzberg (1959) “said” intrinsic motivation, develop internally and comes from, something the workers want to do.
xi. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION: Fritz Heider (1970) said that this motivation comes from outside of the performers money is the most obvious example but coercion and threat of punishment are common extrinsic motivation.
xii. JOB ENRICHMENT: Job enrichment entails a situation where additional responsibilities, which are meant for certain officers, are delegated and added to a particular subordinate’s officer. The assumption is that making job more interesting will increase job satisfaction, motivation and performance.
xiii. LEADERSHIP: Roberts (1978): defined Leadership as “the ability of management to induced subordinates to work toward group goals with confidence and keenness”.
xiv. SALARIES/ WAGES: These are refers to as financial compensation for work done. Salaries are financial compensation for work done by standing professional or clerical personnel whose salaries are paid monthly.
xv. INCENTIVE AND FRINGE BENEFITS: These are defines as additional incomes that accrue to a worker in addition to his salaries and wages. They are used ton induce people to contribute their efforts towards achieving organizational goals
1.9: Plan Of The Study
The study is organized based on serial of chapterisation and the information contained in each chapter as follows:
Chapter one: is essentially discusses general background or introduction to the study, statement of the problem, which is the core base of the research, the aim and objective of the study, research hypothesis to be tested, the scope and limitation of the study, the significance of the study, the research design and the definition of some relevant key concepts.
Chapter Two, This consists of the literature review and conceptual framework. Literature review examines some various scholars especially as they relate to motivation and also relate them to the study.
The theoretical framework took a look at a number of theories of motivation, performance and productivity.
Chapter Three, This chapter discusses the historical background, the structural formation, the operational pattern and examines the sources of motivation in the case studies (Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Areas of Kaduna State).
Chapter Four, This chapter entails data presentation and analysis. It also tested the research hypotheses and provides major findings and general discussions of the study.
Chapter Five, this is the final or concluding part of the research. It also gives the research conclusion and recommendations based on finding which could help Jaba and Jema’a Local Government Areas to development better policy on motivation to improve its workers performance and productivity for the overall benefit of the case study and the entire state and the country at large.