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The study examined the influence of child abuse on the social adjustment of students in secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. The descriptive research survey was used to assess the respondents’ opinions using a researcher designed questionnaire. One hundred and twenty respondents were selected for the study using the stratified sampling technique to represent the population of the study. Four null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistical tool. Results showed that there is a significant relationship between social adjustment and each of physical, psychological, sexual and emotional abuse. These findings were discussed generally and recommendations were made.




Title page                                                                                                                   i

Certification                                                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                                                                 iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                                                     vi


Chapter One:           Introduction                                                                        1

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                            1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                           6

1.3       Purpose of the Study                                                                                  9

1.4         Research Questions                                                                                   10

1.5         Research hypotheses                                                                                 10

1.6         Significance of the Study                                                                           11

1.7         Scope and of the Study                                                                              11

1.8         Definition                                                                                                      12


Chapter Two:          Literature Review                                                               13

2.0       Introduction                                                                                                   13

2.1       Concept of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect                                      14

2.2       Parental Abuse and Neglect of Toddlers                                                17

2.3       Causes of Child Abuse                                                                              19

2.4       Effect of Emotional Abuse on Social Adjustment of Children                         24

2.5       Effect of Physical Abuse on Social Adjustment of Children               25

2.6       The Effect of Psychological Abuse on Social Adjustment of Children          26

2.7       The Effects of Sexual Abuse on Social Adjustment of Children        30

2.8       Perpetrators and Families in which Neglect Occurs                             34

2.9       Perpetrators and Families in which Physical Abuse Occurs               35

2.10    Prevention and Intervention                                                                      36

2.6         Summary of Review                                                                                    38


Chapter Three: Methodology                                                                             42

3.1         Research Design                                                                                         42

3.2         Population of Study                                                                                                42

3.3         Sampling Procedure                                                                                   43

3.4         Sample Size                                                                                                 43

3.5         Instrument                                                                                                     43

3.6         Administration of Instrument                                                                     44

3.7         Validity of the  Instrument                                                                          44

3.8         Reliability of the Instrument                                                                       44

3.9         Procedure of Data Analysis                                                                       45


Chapter Four:          Data Analysis, Presentation of Results and

Discussion of Findings                                                    46

4.1         Introduction                                                                                                   46

4.2         Hypotheses Testing                                                                                    46

4.3       Summary of Findings                                                                                 47


Chapter Five:           Summary, Conclusion and

Recommendations                                                                        53

5.1         Introduction                                                                                                   53

5.2       Discussion of the Findings                                                                                    53

5.3       Summary of the Findings                                                                           57

5.4       Conclusion                                                                                                   58

5.5       Recommendations                                                                                      59


References                                                                                                   61

Appendix                                                                                                       64





1.1         Background to the Study

The term “child abuse” is becoming alarming in our contemporary society. Its magnitude and frequency of occurrence are such that is has attracted global attention. The protection of children from all kinds of abuse has been a major crusade in our society (Henry, 2004). Parents who abuse children from all ethnic, religious, geographic, socio-economic, and educational groups, moat child abuse parents were themselves abuse as children. They regard their children as someone who should satisfy his/her parents’ psychological needs. When the child cannot do this, as he/she usually cannot, the parents may become violently angry. Most abusers are simply lonely, unloved, immature, depressed and angry persons.

The way children are abuse these days is not the way it was in the olden days. For example, many parents do undress in the full glare of their children, thereby abusing them psychologically. In those days, parents hardly undress in the presence of their children. And this has curtailed the rate of child abuse in those days. These days, parents do not see their undressing before their children as anything bad. Rather, they think that they are teaching the child on how to take care of their bodies and dresses.

Child abuse is the physical or emotional harm to children caused by parents, guardians or other adult members of the society, Achilles (2004). In the United States for example, physical abuse per a million people are reported each year. An approximately equal number of cases of serious neglect are reported. One third of all types of child abuse affect children under 1 year of age, one third from ages 1 to 3 and one third over 3 years. Every country of the world has laws requiring physicians and other professionals to report suspected child abuse.

Laymen and also strongly encouraged to report cases of child abuse or neglect in order for these children to be identified and helped (United Nations, 2000).

The rate of which adolescents are turning to become touts and hooligans in the society is one of the reasons this researcher is embarking on this study. This is because many students from good homes seem to turn out to be socially maladjusted. Perhaps due to the problem of parental abuse or neglect. The numbers of homeless, street trading, touts, area boys and girls and prostitution among our youths in the Nigerian society, especially in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State cannot but be a great source of concern.

Oloko (2005) is of the opinion that the magnitude of child abuse or neglect and its frequency of occurrence are such that it has attracted global attention for example, she claims that the protection of children from all forms of abuse has been a major crusade in our society and beyond. According to her, symposia were organized in Lagos and other places to mark the day of the African child in which people participated. Representative from United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF) were not left out. In addition, other organisation such as the Organisation for African United (OAU) the International Labour Organisation (ILO) etc frowned at this phenomenon in the society.

Children are abused in many ways by either parents or the adult members of the society. The abuse ranges from sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, emotional abuse, to total neglect which in any case leads to their negative social adjustment in the society (Russel, 2004). Child sexual abuse and neglect are widely regarded as a cause of mental health problems in adult life. The possible influence of child sexual abuse on adult social and economic functioning has not received the attention it perhaps deserves, as well as documented difficulties that sexually abused children experience in the school situation with academic performance and behaviour (Jong, Balt and Raymond, 2002).

Banjor (2006) states that, the fact that the Nigerian children are subjected to various forms of abuse and neglect by individuals and the society does not means that it is legal and fashionable to treat children in such manner. He therefore, supports the opinion of the Nigerian constitution which stipulates in chapter 11, section 18 that children of young persons and the aged in our society or communities are to be protected against moral or material neglect.

Becker, (2000) states that in the United States of America, various laws are made in order to protect the interest of children. Their provision is further buttressed by the fact that the children must not be subjected to any kind of abuse or neglect. Moreso, as they symbolize the future growth of the society in which they live.

Bamidele (2003) state that children are commonly seen in Lagos hawking while their parents/guardians comfortably sit at home waiting for the proceeds. Apart from not being in school. Female children are given out in early marriages at a very tender age. Also, the female genital mutilation abounds in almost all parts of the country today, it is very pathetic to observed that despite media reports regarding its hazards some parents and guardians still subject their children or wards to this dangerous practice.

It is impossible to eradicate child abuse or neglect when in actual fact, parents/guardians, actively encourage it. For example, in some communities, parents actually give out their children or wards as house helps only to come at the end of the month for income (Adeoye, 2000 and Kendale, 2000). Child abuse has caused untold hardship on the children who are abused, especially children given to serve people as househelps. In many cases, children who serve as househelps do not go to school. Even, when they go to school their school fees are not paid promptly and their necessary schools materials such as school uniforms, textbooks, exercise books etc are not provided. This condition of being a househelp leads a child to absenteeism, truancy and dropping out of school syndrome. These in any case, lead to poor academic performance, poor and social personal adjustment and poor socio-economic status of the child when he/she becomes an adult member of the society. In many cases, child abuse has led to prostitution, and sexual harassment which in turn led to unwanted pregnancies, aborting, death or early motherhood without education. For example a girl child who hawks wares on the street may end up being a prostitute and consequently contacting sexually transmitted disease such as the deadly HIV/AIDS and this may lead to premature death and cutting short of her opportunity and career in life (Nwagbo, 2004).

Child abuse may be limited to the following factors: Lack of parental care, poverty, loss of parents or death of breadwinner(s) in the home, parental separation of marital divorce. Some of these factors can lead to a child being left in the hands of care-giver, such as step-parents/guardians etc who now mishandle the affairs of the child in the most unfortunate way or manner which contributes abuse or care-givers to the child’s social adjustment cannot be over emphasized. Due to the abuse meted on the child by those who are supposed to take care of him/her, make the child to be socially maladjusted in the immediate community or society where he/she funds him/her self. This leads to social deviations and delinquencies which are anti-social behaviours or negative norms the society abhorres and avoids (Chen, 2003).

1.2         Statement of the Problem

The increase in the incidence of child abuse in the society has been of great concern to both the government and educationsists. The issues of child abuse has been persistent in many parts of the country. The society or environment where a child is brought up is a determinant of the level of child abuse he/she is subjected to. Due to this, the society is no longer free. Child abuse has eaten the minds of many Nigerians especially parents, guardians and other care givers in the country. The problems of child abuse include street begging for parents upkeep, hawking on the streets by kids where they can easily be exposed to dangers of being knocked down by speeding vehicles. Many children who are neglected by their parents are atimes hooligans, robbers etc while the female ones go into prostitution and other related cases, such as rape, sexual harassment, drug abuse and addiction which is a deviant behaviour in the society.

Other negative influence are personality problems, high rate of crimes in our society, corruption, absenteeism, truancy and dropping out of school which is prevalent among the abused and the neglected children etc.

It is against this background that this study is embarked upon in order to examine the effects of child abuse on the social adjustment of the pupils in the primary school level and to prefer possible solution to this problem.

Psychological maltreatment is understood to occur alone as psychological abuse or neglect, to occur in association with other forms of abuse and neglect, and to be the embedded psychological context, and meaning of other forms of neglect and abuse.

The term psychological maltreatment has come to be preferred to other labels (e.g. emotional abuse and neglect, mental abuse or injury). It includes both the cognitive and affective (psychological) meanings of maltreatment as well as perpetrator maltreatment acts of both commission and omission (Joan, 2001).

Psychological maltreatment include: spurning, i.e. hostile rejecting/degrading, verbal and non-verbal caregiver acts that reject and degrade a child; terrorizing i.e. caregivers behaviour that threatens or is likely to physically hurt, kill, abandon, or place the child or child’s loved ones or objects in recognizably dangerous situations; isolation of the child i.e. caregiver acts that consistently deny the child the opportunities to meet needs for interacting or communicating with peers or adults inside or outside the home; exploiting/corrupting the child i.e. modelling, permitting or encouraging anti-social behaviour; denying emotional responsiveness i.e. caregiver acts that ignore the child’s attempts and needs to interact and show no emotion in interactions with the child and mental health, medical and educational neglect i.e. ignoring the need for, failing or refusing to allow or provide treatment for serious emotional/behavioural, physical health, or educational problems or needs of the child.

Sexual abuse accounts for 12 percent of the one million substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect annually Reece (2000). Girls are three times more likely to be sexually abused than boys. The overwhelming victims know their abusers. Girls are more likely abused by their family members, and boys, by friends of the family.

Child sexual abuse include: penetration (oral, vaginal, or anal) often leads to more symptoms. Abuse that occurs often and lasts for years will typically be more harmful than abuse that happens only sporadically and over less time. The effects of sexual abuse of the child include: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), cognitive distortions, emotional distress, impaired sense of self, avoidance, interpersonal difficulties and physical health problems etc.

1.3         Purpose of the Study

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of child abuse on the social adjustment of children. Other specific objectives of the study include:

1.            To assess the prevalence of child abuse in Lagos State.

2.            To find out whether physical abuse of children influences their social adjustment.

3.            To ascertain whether there is any relationship between psychological abuse and social adjustment of children.

4.            To investigate whether a relationship exists between sexual abuse and children’s social adjustment.

5.            To examine if relationship exists between emotional abuse and children’s social adjustment.

1.4         Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the conduct of this study.

1.            How pronounced is child abuse in Lagos State?

2.            To what extent does physical abuse influence the social adjustment of children?

3.            Is there a relationship between psychological abuse and social adjustment of children?

4.            Is there any relationship between sexual abuse and children’s social adjustment?

5.            How does emotional abuse affects children’s social adjustment in the society?

1.5         Research Hypotheses

1.            There will be no significant relationship between physical abuse and children’s social adjustment.

2.            There will be no significant relationship between psychological abuse and children’s social adjustment.

3.            There will be no significant relationship between sexual abuse and children’s social adjustment.

4.            There will be no significant relationship between emotional abuse and children’s social adjustment in the society.

1.6         Significance of the Study

The importance of this research work will be that it would provide more knowledge to the masses especially, the parents or guardians on the implications of any form of child abuse and neglect on adolescents.

It will also enlighten people on the different forms of abuse of children and maltreatment and various ways would be suggested on the best method of handling the issue of child abuse in the society. As this has posed a serious concerns to both the government and parents in the country today.

Not only that, new and upcoming researchers and students would find this work a great treasure and a reference material in their future work.

1.7         Scope/Limitation of the Study

The study was limited to the influence of child abuse on the social adjustment of students in selected secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.

Some factors that may hinder this study are factors like fund, time, sourcing of relevant materials and other logistics in the course of carrying out this investigation.

1.8         Definition of Terms

The following terms were operational defined:

1.            Child: A child is a person who is easily controlled due to his frail personality and dictated for by the adult members of the society (Ross & Ross, 2000).

2.            Child Abuse: Child abuse is used in terms of child labour beyond the age of the child. For example, long hours of labour, sending the child to do some paid jobs in order to assist the family income when the child is supposed to go the school etc (Mindle, 2003).

3.            Child Neglect: Child neglect means a situation whereby the child is not given proper care of attention as being deprived of the basic comforts of life (Alpha, 2004).

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