- THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STDUENTS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.
- INVESTIGATION INTO THE IMPACT OF ORPHANAGES HOME ON VULNERABLE CHILDREN PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE.
- THE ANALYSIS OF THE ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS OF PUPILS WITH DISABILITY IN INTEGRATED SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE
- APPRAISING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ICT USAGE AND INTEGRATION IN SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION AND INSTRUCTION IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE
- ASSESSMENT OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
- EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON TEACHING AND LEARNING IN NURSERY AND PRIMARY SCHOOLS
- EFFECTS OF COMPUTER-BASED INSTRUCTION ON THE LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS OF HEARING IMPAIRED PUPILS IN LAGOS STATE SPECIAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS
- THE EFFECT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION ON THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY ONE PUPILS
- INFLUENCE OF HOME VIDEO ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOUR OF STUDENTS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
- INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL DISCIPLINE ON EMOTIONAL ADJUSTMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
THE INFLUENCE OF CHILD ABUSE ON THE SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PUPILS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS
The study examined the influence of child abuse on the social adjustment of children in primary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. In this study, some relevant and extensive literatures were review under relevant sub-headings. The descriptive research survey was used to assess the respondents; opinions using the questionnaire and the sampling technique. In this study, 120 (one hundred and twenty) respondents were selected and used as samples to represent the population of the study.
A total of four (4) null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study. Also, the independent t-test statistical tool was used to test and analyses the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.
At the end of the exercise, the following results were obtained:
1. There is a significant difference between the family background of children who are abused and those who are not abused.
2. There is a significant difference between the social adjustment of children abused and those not abused.
3. There is a significant difference between the academic performance of children who are abused and those who are not.
4. Finally, there is a significant difference between the abuse of children who come from high socio-economic home and those who come from low socio-economic homes.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 7
1.3 Purpose of the Study 8
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Research hypotheses 9
1.6 Significance of the Study 9
1.7 Scope of the Study 10
1.8 Limitation of the Study 10
1.9 Definition 10
Chapter Two: Literature Review 12
2.0 Introduction 12
2.1 Concept of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect 12
Parental Abuse and Neglect of Toddlers 16
2.2 Search for Causes of Child Abuse 18
2.3 Perpetrators and Families in which Neglect Occurs 24
2.4 Perpetrators and Families in which Physical Abuse Occurs 25
2.5 Psychological Maltreatment 27
2.7 Prevention and Intervention 31
2.8 Summary of Review 33
Chapter Three 37
3.1 Research Design 37
3.2 Population of Study 37
3.3 Sampling Procedure 37
3.4 Sample Size 38
3.5 Instrument 38
3.6 Administration of Instrument 38
3.7 Validity of the Instrument 39
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument 39
3.9 Procedure of Data Analysis 39
Chapter Four: Data Analysis, Hypotheses Testing and
Interpretation of Result 57
4.1 Introduction 57
4.2 Hypotheses Testing and Interpretation of Results 57
4.3 Summary of Findings 67
Chapter Five: Discussion of the Findings, Summary,
Conclusion and Recommendations 70
5.1 Introduction 70
5.2 Discussion of the Findings 70
5.3 Recommendations 72
5.4 Counselling Implication 73
5.5 Conclusion 74
5.6 Suggestion for Further Studies 75
The level of orientation achieved by the adolescent in the society today, plays back to the kind of early care which the child received from parents, pre – school teachers and the society at large. This is because all the key ingredients of emotional intelligence such as confidence, curiosity, intentionally, self control, relatedness, capacity to communicate and co-operateness that determines how a child learns and relates in school and in life general are developed.
Anderson (1999), stated that, childhood is the time we learn basic skills and establish the platform for our future. Therefore, the need for achievement orientation among adolescent in our society is paramount because it is what ever orientation he or she get that affect the feeling about himself and his relationship with others. People with a high need for achievement sick out situation in which they can compete against some standard be it grades, money, or winning at a game and prove themselves successful while people with low achievement orientation tend to be motivated primarily by a desire to avoid failure as a result, they seek out easy tasks, being sure to avoid failure or seek out very difficult tasks for which failure has no negative implications, since almost anyone would fail at them.
However, the beginning of the adolescent perception of his environment is the accumulated experiences the adolescent gathers from the infant stage to the adolescent period. This is a period the adolescent begins to see things as relative rather than absolute.
Piaget (1966) as contained in Osarenren (2000), observed that it is a period known as formal operational stage (11-15 years) the key patterns of reasoning at this stages combinational, proportional, probabilistic and correlational during this period, the adolescent reason out everything key perceive in their own way.
Bond (1989) asserted that adolescent with a background of family tension may approach schooling as unhappy and insecure, those from a culture different from that of the teacher and different from that portrayed in the learning materials may experience unusual difficulty in learning.
Some adolescents come from a home environment which provides love, understanding, an opportunity to develop individuality and a feeling of security which others do not. Quarreling parents, broken homes, child neglect, child abuse, over protection, parental domination, anxiety, hostility and destructive rivalry among siblings are likely to produce nervous tension and feelings of insecurity and consequently lead to low achievement orientation.
When the behaviour of a low achiever is compared to that of an adolescent making normal progress, it becomes obvious that there are differences in personal and social adjustment. Adolescent who are failing to achieve well are more likely to show signs of emotional and social maladjustment than their successful peers. Most adolescent with low achievement manifest some sort of maladjustment ranging in degree of mild to severe.
In the classroom, adolescent with low achievement manifest symptoms of stress in one way or the other. Often, they appear shy or restless, some seems unable to concentrate. They lack self-confidence, they become discouraged easily and tend to give up when work becomes difficult. The inability to achieve satisfactory usually means severe frustration for the adolescent when his unsuccessful attempts to achieve high make him conspicuous in a society unfavorable way, the adolescent is hurt and ashamed. His continued lack of success with attendant frustration and feelings of insecurity bring on emotional maladjustment.
Sornson (2002), stated that, some of these adolescent easily become convinced that they are stupid. This feeling of inadequacy is enhanced by the attitude of their classmates, their parents and their teachers. Sometimes, failure leads adolescent to become timid, withdrawn and they frequently day dream. Others may compensate for their feelings of inferiority by developing various forms of anti social behaivour which leads to negative self talk.
Negative statements about self originated from poor conceptualization of idea and thoughts. An individual first think of something within him before he acts. This is because a thought of an idea is first generated or conceptualized before one verbalizes or acts it. This thought might be rational or irrational, positive or negative.
The achievement orientation of an adolescent plays back at his thought process which consequently makes that adolescent make either rational or irrational statement about self which are capable of influencing his behaviour.
Hensen (1997) observed that because man has been endowed with the ability to verbalize, thinking and emotion as presented by Elis takes the forms of self talk, and this self talk directs the individuals behaviour in either rational or irrational direction
It is imperative however, that the handicapped who has been tagged with various adjectives like unproductive, totally dependant, second class citizen, by the society tends to direct his behaviour towards irrational direction and hence negative self concept, wrong perception of self, poor actualization, poor judgmental value of the ideal self. He makes distorted statements about self and about others. He is biased about other people’s opinion about him. On the whole, he is socially maladjusted in the society.
Nelson (1997), asserts that teachers can become more effective classroom managers by increasing their rate of contingent positive statement for appropriate students behaviour and decreasing the rate of negative statements for in appropriate students behaviour.
The praise and ignore techniques has been repeatedly demonstrated to be an effective classroom management procedure by some behaviourist (Becker, Madsen abd Thomas, 1987, Madson and Thomas 1988 )
Nelson (1997), carried out two experiments with classroom teachers, using self-monitoring to alter negative classroom verbalization. In experiment 1, two teachers self-recorded positive and negative classroom verbalization during different phase of the study. In experiment 11, four teachers self-recorded positive or negative classroom verbalizations and received experimental instructions to increase positive statements or to decrease negative statement the result of their study showed that self-recording tend to increase positive statements but was less effective in decreasing negative statements.
Merchenbaum (1995), noted that negative self talks contribute to maladaptive behaviour in many situations. He went further to say that adolescents thinking style or what he says to himself has an important role in the definition of the present problem.
According to Meichanban, investigations who had treated phobias with different treatment procedures have all suggested that a common mediating mechanism underlying the therapy process is a change in the client’s self statements. Those who have attempted to reduce phobia behaviour by means of desensitization, modeling, flooding and altering cognitions about internal reaction have all commented on the change process, even when no direct effort is made to change these talks.
As Herter (1994), noted the therapy technique which is used to modify the internal dialogue and maladaptive behaviour in large part depends upon how one views the thinking style. Different conceptualizations leads to different therapeutic interventions.
Mecichenbaum (1995) also observed that some semantic or cognitive therapists view the negative self. Talks and poor achievement orientation of the faulty belief system and faulty thinking patterns. It was however concluded that modeling, behavioural and imagery rehearsal, operant and aversive conditioning and others could be used to modify the adolescent’s self talk and belief systems for positive achievement orientation
1.2 Theoretical Background
As we go about our daily lives, we are constantly thinking about and interpreting the situations we find ourselves in. It is as though we have an internal voice on our head that determines how we perceive every situation. We call this inner voice our self- talk and it includes our conscious thoughts as well as our unconscious assumptions or beliefs. This study is basically anchored on four major theories. These are Rational Emotive therapy (RET), Eilis (1967), achievement orientation theory by Michem (1973), the A-B-C- of self talk by (Edelmen’s abd Remond, L 2005) and attribution theory
1. Rational Emotive Theory: The central point of RET is that psychologist can help their clients to live the most self fulfilling, creative and emotionally satisfying lives by teaching them now to organize their thinking.
Rational psychotherapy is based on the assumption that thought and emotion are not too entirely different processes but that they significantly overlap in many respects and that therefore, disordered emotions can often (though not always) he modified by changing one’s thinking. According to Elis (1967) thinking is a more harmful, less accurate directed mode of discrimation than emotional thinking and emotion tend to take the form of self-talk or internalized sentences
Nevertheless, the psychologists main goals should be those of demonstrating to client that their self- talk have been and still are the prime source of their emotional disturbance.
Specifically Sokan (1996), states that effective therapist should continually help in unmasking his clients past and especially his present illogical thinking of self defeating talks by
(a) Bringing them to his attention or consciousness
(b) Showing the client how they are causing and maintaining their disturbance and unhappiness
(c) Demonstrating exactly what that illogical links in his internalized sentence are
(d) Teaching him how to rethink and re verbalize these sentence in a more logical self helping way
In changing the clients illogical thought, he/she should be exposed to main irrational thought, that human beings are prone, to so that at the expiration of the therapy he does not fall a victim to another set.
Consequently, unequivocal attack on the client’s general and specific irrational idea and to try induce him to adopt more rational ones in their place.
Sokan (1996) lists two main ways by which rational therapist attack the irrational ideas:
(i) He serves as a frank counter –propagandist who directly contradicts and derives the self defeating propaganda of the client
(2) The therapist encourages, persuades and sometimes commends the client to partake in some activity which itself will act as a forceful center propagandist against the client irrational thoughts.
(ii) Achievement orientation: The level of aspiration in all human endeavour is a factor of the individuals internalized construct known as achievement orientation or need for achievement. Achievement orientation as a personality trait or construct encompasses learned predisposition to achieve or attain success in completion with an internalized standard of excellence. Achievement orientation makes an individual to man and execute tasks and actions leading to the achievement of a goal.
Anameze (1992), beliefs that achievement orientation enables an individuals to plan a task, feel connected with the plan and select appropriate steps and carry them out to achieve a goal. Many students who fail examination are likely to have negative achievement orientation. This can be inferred from their negative attitude towards planning academic tasks and selecting appropriate strategies to tackle them, besides, they hardly feel connected with work and this denies them success. To escape the problem many of them indulge in examination mal-practice.
According to Mauku (1996), achievement orientation or motivation is a psychological motive to accomplish, excel or attain higher goals similarly, Igwebuke (1997), defined it as the degree of completion for excellence it equally means that the internal drive that makes an individual to put in all efforts in any work in order to achieve the purpose or goal of such work or it is the internal urge that makes an individuals to set up a task of moderate difficulty , fashion out strategies of performing the task and persist in doing it in order to achieve standing excellence. All said and done, it can be seen that individuals having positive achievement orientation engage in challenging or competitive tasks, make use of their creative abilities and take responsibility for their success and failure. They equally try to perform to standard of excellence in relation to others competing with them.
Achievement orientation has three component (Cognitive ego, enhancing and effiliature) Bakare (1976). The degree or level of these components in an individuals determines the individual’s striving to succeed in academic task or any other task.
It should be noted that the way an adolescent sees himself in relation to his goals and to others, the kind of person he believe himself to be and the kind of fear and aspirations he has are major factors in delineating the things for which he strives.
Studies of levels of achievement orientation have shown that one of the important variable in determing the levels of achievement a child proposes for himself is his previous experiences in like situations and self-talk (Sears, 1996).
A-B-C of self-talk
(A) Is of Activating situation the Activating situation refers to the situation itself, or the things that happened when an adolescent begins to feel bad such as being overloaded with essays and assignments or making a silly comment which he later regretted. It is important to stick to the facts when activating situation has been identified.
(B) Is for beliefs. Belief comprise self-talk (thoughts) and assumptions, that an adolescent makes about a situation. Identifying self-talk, can sometimes be tricky this is because it is so automatic that often adolescent is not even aware of what is going on his mind, when something happens and he suddenly feel upset, he assumes that it is the situation itself that has made him feel that way. However it is not the situation (activating situation) but the way he perceive it (Beliefs) that makes him feel the way he does.
(C) Is for consequence: The consequences of beliefs include feelings and behavious feelings are emotions such as sadness, anxiety, guilt, anger, embarrassment, joy, excitement or stress. Behaviours are the things adolescents do, such as communication, withdrawal, ask for help etc thinking negatively about situations makes the adolescents feel bad and it can cause them to behave in an unhelpful way.
(iii) Attribution theory: This theory helps us to understand human motivation, reminds us that people who experience frequent achievement often attribute their success to their own effort or ability and their failure to their own lack of effort or ability people who experience repeated failure, however, often attribute their failure to bad luck or to task difficulty and their success to good luck or the case of the task (Weiner 2000), for adolescents with a history of failure teaching learning strategies alone may not be sufficient to consist entry increase effort and persistence because the attribution state often determines whether and to what extent a learning strategy will be used.
(Borkowst; Weyling, and Turner 1996) The research of attribution thoughts has spined investigations into expectancy theory (Betancert and Weriner 2002; Dweak, 1996; Licht, 2003), which states that when a person feels success is possible he or she is likely to exert greater effort, persist for a longer period of time, and attribute a greater proportion of success to the effort execrated than in someone who does not expect success (Carr, Boikowski, and Maxwell, 2001, Deshler, Shumaker and Lenz, 2004; Garner, 2000; Xasutake, Bryen and Dohin, 1996) to determine “where” and “how” self talk fits into the scheme of achievement orientation must be derived. The reality of emotional choice that people have definite control over their emotional state is known in various circle as self-talk, interpersonal communication (IAPC), imaging and visualization (Weaver 1997 ) self-talk is part of 1 APC, but the part can not be equal to the whole.
Self-talk and 1APC are separated but related model of communication, but all elements of ‘sender, receiver’, receiver,” and transmitter, are carried out within individual people.
Pearson and Nelson (1995) expanded the definition as not restricted to talking to ourselves. It also includes such activities as internal conflict planning for the future emotional evaluation of ourselves and others.
Self-talk has potentially far reaching effects and will likely be used by those who have a high internal locus of control and place a high value on achievement self-talk is categorized as being positive or negative. Positive self-talk has good implication for achievement and people’s mental and physical well-being. However, the negative is not all bad. The key to using self talk is to strive for an appropriate balance between the two.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
It is quite unfortunate that achievement orientation is seriously jeopardizing the self-talk of the adolescents in secondary schools. The adolescent self-talk could either be positive or negative, when the self talk is negative, it is because self-defeating for instance, ‘I’m going to fail for sure’.
Negative self-talk often causes adolescents to feel bad, and to experience upsetting emotions or anxiety which influences their academic work. It should be noted that what people say to themselves does affects their ability to combat and ward off achievement. To this end, an adolescent can tap into the power of his own self-talk by recognizing it for what it is, reducing harmful negativity and increasing the number of positive internal messages and it can be achieved when the right thought process is encouraged (Positive self statement), the self-talk of the adolescents will continue to be poor and invariably a succession of failure may discourage student to a point where frustration may block further efforts. This trend if unchecked, may increase drop out rate in the secondary school level. Mass failure is equally frustrating to parent and the trend may hinder Nigeria’s scientific and technological advancement and general progress.
The question that how readily comes to mind is whether gender, age and religious inclination of the adolescent affect their self-talks. If these variables are assumed to be correct then the problem of self-talk on the achievement orientation of adolescents needs to be addressed.
1.4 Purpose of Study
This study is set out to find out the influence of self-talks on achievement orientations of adolescents. Specifically, it is to achieve the following objectives.
(2) Examine the difference in self-talks between adolescent boys and girls and achievement orientation.
(3) Find out the influence of ages on adolescents self-talks and achievement orientation.
(4) Determine the role of religious inclination of the adolescents on their self-talk and achievement orientation.
(5) Examine the effect of socio-economic background on adolescent self-talks and achievement orientation.
1.5 Research Questions:
(1) To what extent does gender of the adolescent influence their self-talks and achievement orientation?
(2) Does adolescent’s age influence their self-talk and achievement orientation?
(3) Will the self-talks and achievement orientation of the adolescents be influenced by their religious inclinations?
(4) Will there be any significant influence of socio-economic background on adolescent, self-talks and achievement orientation?
1.6 Research hypothesis:
The following hypothesis will be tested in this study
(1) There is no significant influence of self-talk on achievement orientation of adolescents.
(2) The impact of age on self-talk does not significantly influence achievement orientation of adolescent.
(3) There is no significant influence of religious inclination and self-talk on achievement orientation among adolescents.
(4) There is no significant influence of socio-economic background of adolescent on achievement orientation.
1.7 Significance of the Study:
This research will help in detecting and establishing facts about the main causes of self-talks and factors predisposing adolescent on achievement orientation. Thereby helping them to modify their behaviour appropriately.
The research will help in sensitizing the readers on how to handle negative self achievement orientation. The psychologists/counselors will explore many techniques in handling this behaviour and relative effectiveness of each of the techniques used.
It will also contribute to the pool of existing literature where other researchers could make reference to.
1.8 Delimitations of Study:
This study will focus attention on the adolescents only in selected secondary schools in Surulere Local Government. It should be recognized that many factors could affect achievement orientation but this study will only examine self-talks among these factors
1.9 Limitation of Study:
This study will be limited to only adolescent in public secondary schools in Surulere Local Government. This limitation is likely to be as a result of financial and time constraints despite the limitations, however, the study will be used to generalize on the entire population.
1.10 Definition of Terms
Self –talks: This is referred to the way an individual sees himself, judges himself and values himself with a view to silently expressing the thought in statement or talking to self
Achievement Orientation: This is the particular interest, activities or aims a person has relating or connected with studying and thinking. Adolescent: The adolescent is a person who is between ages of 12 years to 19 years.