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- THE IMPACT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF IFELODUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
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- EVALUATION OF CAPITAL BUDGETING IN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS IN NIGERIA (A Study of Ikorodu Local government)
- EVALUATION OF CAPITAL BUDGETING IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS IN NIGERIA (A Case Study of Ikorodu Local government)
- INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON PRODUCTIVITY AMONG EMPLOYEES (A CASE STUDY OF FINBANK NIGERIA PLC., LAGOS STATE)
- INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND THE PRODUCTIVITY OF MICRO-BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN NIGERIA A STUDY OF SELECTED ORGANIZATIONS IN AMUWO-ODOFIN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, LAGOS STATE
THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS PROGRAMMES ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF USAID IN CALABAR, CROSS RIVER STATE NIGERIA
This study investigated the influence of International Organizations Programmes on Community Development: A study of USAID in Calabar Cross River State, Nigeria. Ikot Anantigha, Ekpo Abasi, Ikot Efio Ene Osera Edida Ikot Effanga Mkpa and Ibom communities were selected from both Calabar Municipality and Calabar South Local Government Area. To achieve this, simple random sampling and accidental technique were used. Eighteen (18) items questionnaire was used by the researcher, which was administered to 281 randomly selected respondents from the population of six sampled communities. Three (3) hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using the Chi-Square Test statistic. It was found out that USAID fulfilled community development needs, had a significant relationship with community developments projects such as healthcare delivery services and does not have any significant relationship with micro enterprise training. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made including that: USAID should ensure that, their projects/activities are not politically motivated; rather they should be based on the needs and problems of the community. Also USAID should pay more attention to micro enterprise training/ loans and employment generation programmes.
LIST OF FIGURE
FIGURE 1 Figure 2.6.1 Organizational structure of USAID in Calabar
LIST OF PLATES
PLATE 1: Plate 2.6.1 HIV/AIDS TEST by USAID Counsellor drawing blood for Test from community member.
PLATE 2: Plate 2.6.2 HIV/AIDS public sensitization rally 08/26/2010 - organized by USAID at Marina, Calabar
PLATE 3: Plate 2.6.3 Advocacy visit by USAID official to community leader in support of orphans and vulnerable children in Calabar, southern Nigeria
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: Table 188.8.131.52 USAID/Nigeria QUARTERLY REPORT January –
March 2006 Quarterly Progress Report
TABLE 2: Table 4.1.1 showing demographic data of respondents
TABLE 3: Table 4.2.1 showing respondent’s awareness on Community Development services of USAID
TABLE 4: Table 4.2.2 Chi-square analysis of the relationship between the activities of USAID and fulfilment of community development needs in rural communities
TABLE 5: Table 4.2.3 showing respondents participation in micro enterprise training
TABLE 6: Table 4.2.4 Chi-square analysis of relationship between USAID and micro enterprise training in rural communities
TABLE 7: Table 4.2.5 showing response by respondents on health services in Calabar
TABLE 8: Table 4.2.6 Chi-square analysis of the relationship between the activities of USAID and health care services in rural communities
ADRA African and Freedom from hunger
ARD Association of Rural Development
CBOS Community Based Organization
CDAS Community Development Association
CDTF Community Development Trust Fund
ICT Information and Communication Technology
COWAN Country Women Association
CUSO Canadian University Service Organization
GDOs Grassroots Development Organization
IOs International Organizations
IITA Institute of Tropical Agriculture
IMF International Monetary Fund
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
NAPEP National Poverty Eradication Program
NDE National Directorate of Employment
NEEDS National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy
OICI Opportunities Industrialization Centre International
IPPF International Planned Parenthood Federation
SPACE Sustainable Practices in Agriculture and Critical Environment
UNDP United Nation Development Project
USAID United State Agency for International Development
USG United States Government
WAP Women Advancement Program
WFP World Food Program
WTO World Trade Organization
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
List of figure vi
List of plate’s vii
Table of contents
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Objective of the Study 5
1.4 Significance of the Study 6
1.5 Research Questions 6
1.6 Research Hypothesis 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 8
1.8 Conceptual Clarification 9
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATUE REVIEW
2.1 Development and Underdevelopment 13
2.1.1 Financing Development 15
2.1.2 Foreign Aid in Development 17
2.2 Comparative Definition of Community Development 21
2.3 The Emergence of International Organizations 24
2.3.1 Recent Trends in International Organizations 26
2.4 The History of USAID 28
2.5 USAID Development Strategy in Nigeria 30
2.5.1 Improving Peace and Security 31
2.5.2 Strengthening Democracy and Good Governance 33
2.5.3 Improving Economic Growth and livelihood 35
2.5.4 Investing in Education 35
2.5.5 Improving Social Sector Service Delivery 35
2.5.6 Fighting HIV/AIDS and the tuberculosis 36
2.5.7 USAID (JOBS) 37
2.5.8 Participatory Approach Adopted by USAID 40
2.5.9 NGOS as Collaborative Agent 41
2.6 Programmes of USAID in Calabar 45
2.6.1 USAID Partners in Calabar 48
2.7 Theoretical Framework 52
2.7.1 Modernization Theory 52
2.7.2 Basic Needs Theory 58
2.7.3 State Theory of Development 62
3.1 Study Location 68
3.2 Research Design 70
3.3 Study Population 70
3.4 Sample and Sampling Process 71
3.5 Method of Data Collection 73
3.6 Research Instrument 73
3.7 Administration of Research Instrument 74
3.7.1 Validity of the Instrument 75
3.72. Reliability of the Instrument 76
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 76
RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Demographic Description of Respondents 77
4.2 Test of Hypotheses 78
4.4 Discussion of findings ` 86
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 88
5.2 Conclusion 91
5.3 Recommendation 92
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Development agents or agencies of development receive very wide acceptability wherever they are found because of the intrinsic near magical attraction development seems to possess whether in advanced economics or in the back- woods of the rural villages in Africa. The word development has a magnetism of its own that is unquestionably acclaimed. Development is therefore a very desirable phenomenon to mankind and is becoming by synonymous to peace, security and progress i.e. the well-being of people in an undesired way.
Individuals, communities, governments, non-governmental organizations, faith based organizations, international organization etc. are championing the course of human welfare by continually embarking upon one form of development programme or the other in the bid to improve the condition of the life of the people in cities and rural areas all over the world. These agents and agencies of development embark upon projects either in health sector, agriculture, and good drinking water supply, irrigation project, and skill acquisition, literacy campaigns in the efforts to achieve the conditions or life that is good for the beneficiaries.
Despite the efforts of the state and federal governments towards developing the communities, the development task left is still enormous. Consequently, this has attracted the attention of United State Agency for International Development (USAID), which works in collaboration with other development agents and community development practitioners to fulfil some development functions. One of the development practitioners for instance is Reverend Leon Howard Sullivan. Reverend (Dr.) Leon Howard Sullivan founded Opportunities Industrialization Centres International (OICI) in the early 1960s. He started a school to prepare his African-American compatriots to handle many of the jobs that became available. After series of agitations the effort yielded positive concessions (in the form of employment) from merchants to minorities in the communities from which they earned their profits. Opportunities Industrialization Centres spread across different countries of the world, which Nigeria is one of them.
In Nigeria, there are two Opportunities Industrialization Centres, situated at Kano and Calabar. In Calabar, USAID tags their Project “OIC/JOBS”. The centre is located at South-South Community Resource Centre, Ekpo Archibong Street, Old Parliamentary Village, and Calabar. Cross River State. The Calabar office works with the support of the Cross River State Government, which has generously donated space for an office and training and employment centre to OICI.
USAID initiative in Calabar places more emphasis on interventions in agriculture, value addition/processing and eco-tourism to create jobs for the disadvantage and at risk youths. Specialized interventions are organized in collaboration with selected agents or partners at JOBS training centres in Calabar and outreach centres.
The intention of the study is to gauze how unemployment, low-income and poor population groups especially the youth are integrated into the economic growth process through USAID, NGO activities and community efforts. The need to improve the well being of man and his environment has been the basic reason behind community development
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
High rate of unemployment, economic backwardness, lack of medical facilities, poverty and natural disaster in rural and urban areas, are currently some of the social problems affecting the world.
Every year, a large number of youths, mostly school leavers enter the labour market in search of modern sector wage employment only to discover that there are limited employment opportunities. Some of the youths are therefore forced by circumstances to create their own employment as either subsistence farmers or informal sector workers. Other engages in counterproductive activities such as armed robbery, theft, and other sorts of violence.
Currently, statistics revealed that young people are twice as likely to be unemployed as adults (USAID 2005). National rates of unemployment for Nigeria suggest that youths between 15 to 35 years of age represented the largest demographic portion of the unemployed.
Poverty has also been in high increase in Nigeria especially in rural communities. In Nigeria, the federal office of statistic, indicated that by 1960 poverty covered about 5 percent of the population of the country and by 1980 it grew to 28 percent, the extent of poverty in 1985 was about 46 percent, but dropped to 43 percent in 1996. In 1996 poverty incidence in Nigeria estimated to be 66 million in a total population of about 120 million (Akpan 2006:4). According to CIA World Fact book (2011) in 2000 45 percent lived below the poverty line which increased to 70 percent by 2007.
The concern of this study is to investigate the extent to which international organizations in Nigeria are contributing to rural transformation: especially in the areas of job opportunities, health services, micro enterprise training and the fulfilment of community development needs.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the study is to determine the influence of international organization programmes on community development with particular reference to USAID assisted projects in Calabar, Cross River state Nigeria.
Specifically the study desires to:
1. To investigate the relationship between the activities of USAID and the fulfilment of community development needs in rural communities in Calabar.
2. To determine the relationship between activities of USAID and micro enterprise training in rural communities in Calabar.
3. To examine USAID effect on health care services in rural communities in Calabar.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study intends to diagnose and examine contributions made by the various stakeholders as well as offers the government and community development practioners, suggestion on how to attract and encourage other international agencies and NGOs to actively engage in community development activities.
The findings from this research will also contribute meaningfully to the advancement of knowledge and add to existing literatures on USAID programmes, International Organizations and Community Development in Nigeria.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In the course of this research, certain pertinent questions have been asked which paved way for the study and they are
1. Is there any relationship between the activities of USAID and the fulfilment of community development needs in rural communities in Calabar?
2. To what extent have activities of USAID impacted on micro enterprise training in rural communities in Calabar?
3. What effect does USAID presence have on health care services in rural communities in Calabar?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses were formulated and subsequently tested in the study:
Ho: there is no significant relationship between the activities of USAID and the fulfilment of community development needs in rural communities in Calabar.
Hi: there is a significant relationship between the activities of USAID and the fulfilment of community development needs in rural communities in Calabar.
Ho: there is no significant relationship between the activities of USAID and micro enterprises training in rural communities in Calabar.
Hi: there is a significant relationship between the activities of USAID and micro enterprises training in rural communities in Calabar.
Ho: there is no significant relationship between the activities of USAID and provision of health care services in rural communities in Calabar.
Hi: there is a significant relationship between the activities of USAID and provision of health care services in rural communities in Calabar.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study specifically limited to six communities in Cross River State. These communities include: Ikot Anantigha, Ekpo Abasi, Ikot Efio Ene, Osera Ediba, Ikot Effanga Mkpa and Ibom. They were selected from Calabar. These communities were chosen because of the cost implication of carrying out a study on the impact of international organizations on community development that will cover the entire nation. The researcher believes that, findings from the sample communities will allow for nationwide generalization.
The study examines the impact which the various USAID projects and facilities established in the six communities have on the lives of the people especially in the area of poverty reduction, employment creation, agricultural productivity, health care, youth and women involvement in rural development projects.
1.8 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
The purposes of these definitions are to modify the real definition in this research work in order to suit the specific research problem at hand. The intention is to translate real definitions into empirical units, for which data might be generated to test hypotheses and find solutions to our research problem (Charles, 2005).
Activitist: These are agitators or advocators who teach people about their right as well as drawing the attention of government to the sufferings of people or neglected communities.
Agent: This refers to a persons or a representative(s) of a country or a group in a particular community with the aim of bringing about social change.
Collaboration: a combined effort between two or more non-governmental or international organizations. It also means combined efforts between non-governmental organizations or international organizations and government authorities in carrying out community projects.
Community: This is an aggregation of families habitually living together within a definite geographical location, more or less rooted in the soil they occupy, living in a state of mutual interdependence, supporting some basic social institution and having some measure of political autonomy (Ekong, 1988).
Community Development: United Nations in (Ering 2006), posits that: Community Development has come into international usage to connote the processes by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities, to integrate these communities into the life, and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress.
Ering (2006) further looked at community development as improvement and change taking place in the community. This implies efforts to get villagers (members of the community) to work voluntarily on project, which would improve their village or community.
Community Needs: Things desired by a group of people living in a particular geographical area. It has to also do with the improvement of their environment and general well being. These needs include; good environment, improved medical services, access roads, good drinking water, food, employment opportunities, micro credit scheme for small-medium scale business and so on.
Development: Development implies progress and economic improvement. According to Todaro (2005), Development is the process of improving the quality of all human lives. (Social, political, cultural, economic, etc) and increasing people’s freedom of choice in terms of consumer goods and services.
International Organizations: In general international organizations are based on multilateral treaties between at least two sovereign nation-states. The formation of an initially fairly loose bond among the participants is generally fortified by the development of more or less stringent institutional structures and organs to pursue certain more or less clearly defined common aims in the international arena.
Needs: these are the community drives or goals to be accomplished through the intervention of the development organizations or through self-help.
Non-Government Organization: Carmen Malena (as in Ering, 2007), in his monograph on Poverty and Social work, defines NGOs as a private organizations that engage in activities that relieve sufferings, preserve the environment and provide basic social services by undertaking community development programs.
OICI: This means opportunities industrialization centres international. It is a program sponsored by USAID to promote broad-based economic growth in Nigeria through sustainable employment generation and micro enterprise development services to disadvantaged, at risk youths.
Sustainability: this is when a programme or a project is established for the present generation without affecting the future.
USAID: This means United State Agency for International Development. It is an international non-governmental organization which has spread across different countries of the world with the aim of engaging in social services that bring relieve to the suffering, empowerment of the needed, provision of entrepreneur training, micro credit scheme and community development programmes.