THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS PROGRAMMES ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF USAID IN CALABAR, CROSS RIVER STATE NIGERIA


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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the influence of International Organizations Programmes on Community Development: A study of USAID in Calabar Cross River State, Nigeria. Ikot Anantigha, Ekpo Abasi, Ikot Efio Ene Osera Edida Ikot Effanga Mkpa and Ibom communities were selected from both Calabar Municipality and Calabar South Local Government Area. To achieve this, simple random sampling and accidental technique were used. Eighteen (18) items questionnaire was used by the researcher, which was administered to 281 randomly selected respondents from the population of six sampled communities. Three (3) hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using the Chi-Square Test statistic. It was found out that USAID fulfilled community development needs, had a significant relationship with community developments projects such as healthcare delivery services and does not have any significant relationship with micro enterprise training. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made including that: USAID should ensure that, their projects/activities are not politically motivated; rather they should be based on the needs and problems of the community. Also USAID should pay more attention to micro enterprise training/ loans and employment generation programmes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURE

 

FIGURE 1      Figure 2.6.1 Organizational structure of USAID in Calabar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF PLATES

PLATE 1:   Plate 2.6.1 HIV/AIDS TEST by USAID Counsellor drawing blood for Test from community member.   

PLATE 2:   Plate 2.6.2 HIV/AIDS public sensitization rally 08/26/2010 -           organized by USAID at Marina, Calabar

 

PLATE 3: Plate 2.6.3 Advocacy visit by USAID official to community leader in support of orphans and vulnerable children in Calabar, southern Nigeria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1:  Table 2.5.7.1 USAID/Nigeria QUARTERLY REPORT January –

March 2006 Quarterly Progress Report

 

TABLE 2:  Table   4.1.1 showing demographic data of respondents

 

TABLE 3:  Table 4.2.1 showing respondent’s awareness on Community                   Development services of USAID

TABLE 4: Table 4.2.2 Chi-square analysis of the relationship between    the activities of USAID and fulfilment of community development needs   in rural communities

TABLE 5:  Table 4.2.3 showing respondents participation in micro enterprise training

TABLE 6:  Table 4.2.4 Chi-square analysis of relationship between USAID and micro enterprise training in rural communities

TABLE 7:  Table 4.2.5 showing response by respondents on health services in Calabar

TABLE 8:  Table 4.2.6 Chi-square analysis of the relationship between the activities of USAID and health care services in rural communities

 

 

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS

ADRA         African and Freedom from hunger

ARD            Association of Rural Development

CBOS         Community Based Organization

CDAS         Community Development Association

CDTF         Community Development Trust Fund

ICT             Information and Communication Technology

COWAN      Country Women Association

CUSO         Canadian University Service Organization

GDOs         Grassroots Development Organization

IOs            International Organizations

IITA            Institute of Tropical Agriculture

IMF           International Monetary Fund

MDGs         Millennium Development Goals

NAPEP       National Poverty Eradication Program

NDE            National Directorate of Employment

NEEDS       National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy

OICI           Opportunities Industrialization Centre International

IPPF           International Planned Parenthood Federation

SPACE       Sustainable Practices in Agriculture and Critical Environment

UNDP         United Nation Development Project

USAID        United State Agency for International Development

USG           United States Government

WAP           Women Advancement Program

WFP            World Food Program

WTO           World Trade Organization

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                          Pages

Title page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                        iii

Acknowledgement                                                                           iv

Abstract                                                                                  v

List of figure                                                                            vi

List of plate’s                                                                           vii

Abbreviations                                                                                           

Table of contents                                                

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION                                                                            

1.1 Background of the Study                                                         1      

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                         4      

1.3 Objective of the Study                                                               5

1.4 Significance of the Study                                                          6      

1.5 Research Questions                                                                  6      

  1.6 Research Hypothesis                                                                7

1.7 Scope of the Study                                                                    8

1.8 Conceptual Clarification                                                           9      

 

CHAPTER TWO

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATUE REVIEW                         

2.1        Development and Underdevelopment                                 13

2.1.1   Financing Development                                                        15              

2.1.2   Foreign Aid in Development                                                 17

2.2        Comparative Definition of Community Development         21    

2.3     The Emergence of International Organizations                   24

2.3.1 Recent Trends in International Organizations                     26

2.4     The History of USAID                                                            28

2.5      USAID Development Strategy in Nigeria                             30

2.5.1   Improving Peace and Security                                            31

2.5.2   Strengthening Democracy and Good Governance             33

2.5.3   Improving Economic Growth and livelihood                      35

2.5.4   Investing in Education                                                        35

2.5.5   Improving Social Sector Service Delivery                           35

2.5.6   Fighting HIV/AIDS and the tuberculosis                          36

2.5.7   USAID (JOBS)                                                                      37

2.5.8   Participatory Approach Adopted by USAID                 40

2.5.9   NGOS as Collaborative Agent                                             41

2.6      Programmes of USAID in Calabar                                      45

2.6.1   USAID Partners in Calabar                                       48

2.7      Theoretical Framework                                                        52

2.7.1   Modernization Theory                                                          52

2.7.2   Basic Needs Theory                                                             58

2.7.3   State Theory of Development                                              62

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHOD                                      

3.1    Study Location                                                                       68    

3.2    Research Design                                                                    70    

3.3    Study Population                                                                   70

3.4    Sample and Sampling Process                                              71

3.5       Method of Data Collection                                                     73    

3.6       Research Instrument                                                             73

3.7    Administration of Research Instrument                               74

3.7.1 Validity of the Instrument                                                     75

3.72. Reliability of the Instrument                                                  76

3.8    Method of Data Analysis                                                        76

                                       

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS                                                             

4.1   Demographic Description of Respondents                            77    

4.2   Test of Hypotheses                                                                  78    

4.4   Discussion of findings            `                                               86

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary                                                                                88    

5.2    Conclusion                                                                             91

5.3    Recommendation                                                                   92

 

References                                                               

Appendix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 

Development agents or agencies of development receive very wide acceptability wherever they are found because of the intrinsic near magical attraction development seems to possess whether in advanced economics or in the back- woods of the rural villages in Africa. The word development has a magnetism of its own that is unquestionably acclaimed. Development is therefore a very desirable phenomenon to mankind and is becoming by synonymous to peace, security and progress i.e. the well-being of people in an undesired way.

Individuals, communities, governments, non-governmental organizations, faith based organizations, international organization etc. are championing the course of human welfare by continually embarking upon one form of development programme or the other in the bid to improve the condition of the life of the people in cities and rural areas all over the world. These agents and agencies of development embark upon projects either in health sector, agriculture, and good drinking water supply, irrigation project, and skill acquisition, literacy campaigns in the efforts to achieve the conditions or life that is good for the beneficiaries.

Despite the efforts of the state and federal governments towards developing the communities, the development task left is still enormous. Consequently, this has attracted the attention of United State Agency for International Development (USAID), which works in collaboration with other development agents and community development practitioners to fulfil some development functions. One of the development practitioners for instance is Reverend Leon Howard Sullivan. Reverend (Dr.) Leon Howard Sullivan founded Opportunities Industrialization Centres International (OICI) in the early 1960s. He started a school to prepare his African-American compatriots to handle many of the jobs that became available. After series of agitations the effort yielded positive concessions (in the form of employment) from merchants to minorities in the communities from which they earned their profits. Opportunities Industrialization Centres spread across different countries of the world, which Nigeria is one of them.

In Nigeria, there are two Opportunities Industrialization Centres, situated at Kano and Calabar. In Calabar, USAID tags their Project “OIC/JOBS”. The centre is located at South-South Community Resource Centre, Ekpo Archibong Street, Old Parliamentary Village, and Calabar. Cross River State. The Calabar office works with the support of the Cross River State Government, which has generously donated space for an office and training and employment centre to OICI.

 

USAID initiative in Calabar places more emphasis on interventions in agriculture, value addition/processing and eco-tourism to create jobs for the disadvantage and at risk youths. Specialized interventions are organized in collaboration with selected agents or partners at JOBS training centres in Calabar and outreach centres.

 

The intention of the study is to gauze how unemployment, low-income and poor population groups especially the youth are integrated into the economic growth process through USAID, NGO activities and community efforts. The need to improve the well being of man and his environment has been the basic reason behind community development

 

 

 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

High rate of unemployment, economic backwardness, lack of medical facilities, poverty and natural disaster in rural and urban areas, are currently some of the social problems affecting the world.

Every year, a large number of youths, mostly school leavers enter the labour market in search of modern sector wage employment only to discover that there are limited employment opportunities. Some of the youths are therefore forced by circumstances to create their own employment as either subsistence farmers or informal sector workers. Other engages in counterproductive activities such as armed robbery, theft, and other sorts of violence.

 

Currently, statistics revealed that young people are twice as likely to be unemployed as adults (USAID 2005). National rates of unemployment for Nigeria suggest that youths between 15 to 35 years of age represented the largest demographic portion of the unemployed.

 

Poverty has also been in high increase in Nigeria especially in rural communities. In Nigeria, the federal office of statistic, indicated that by 1960 poverty covered about 5 percent of the population of the country and by 1980 it grew to 28 percent, the extent of poverty in 1985 was about 46 percent, but dropped to 43 percent in 1996. In 1996 poverty incidence in Nigeria estimated to be 66 million in a total population of about 120 million (Akpan 2006:4). According to CIA World Fact book (2011) in 2000 45 percent lived below the poverty line which increased to 70 percent by 2007.

 

The concern of this study is to investigate the extent to which international organizations in Nigeria are contributing to rural transformation: especially in the areas of job opportunities, health services, micro enterprise training and the fulfilment of community development needs.       

 

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

 The broad objective of the study is to determine the influence of international organization programmes on community development with particular reference to USAID assisted projects in Calabar, Cross River state Nigeria.

Specifically the study desires to:

1.   To investigate the relationship between the activities of USAID and the fulfilment of community development needs in rural communities in Calabar.

2.   To determine the relationship between activities of USAID and micro enterprise training in rural communities in Calabar.

3.   To examine USAID effect on health care services in rural communities in Calabar.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study intends to diagnose and examine contributions made by the various stakeholders as well as offers the government and community development practioners, suggestion on how to attract and encourage other international agencies and NGOs to actively engage in community development activities.

The findings from this research will also contribute meaningfully to the advancement of knowledge and add to existing literatures on USAID programmes, International Organizations and Community Development in Nigeria.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In the course of this research, certain pertinent questions have been asked which paved way for the study and they are

1.   Is there any relationship between the activities of USAID and the fulfilment of community development needs in rural communities in Calabar?

2.   To what extent have activities of USAID impacted on micro enterprise training in rural communities in Calabar?

3.   What effect does USAID presence have on health care services in rural communities in Calabar?

1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses were formulated and subsequently tested in the study:

*     HYPOTHESES ONE

Ho: there is no significant relationship between the activities of USAID and the fulfilment of community development needs in rural communities in Calabar.

Hi: there is a significant relationship between the activities of USAID and the fulfilment of community development needs in rural communities in Calabar.

*     HYPOTHESES TWO

Ho: there is no significant relationship between the activities of USAID and micro enterprises training in rural communities in Calabar.

Hi: there is a significant relationship between the activities of USAID and micro enterprises training in rural communities in Calabar.

*     HYPOTHESES THREE

Ho: there is no significant relationship between the activities of USAID and provision of health care services in rural communities in Calabar.

Hi: there is a significant relationship between the activities of USAID and provision of health care services in rural communities in Calabar.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 The scope of this study specifically limited to six communities in Cross River State. These communities include: Ikot Anantigha, Ekpo Abasi, Ikot Efio Ene, Osera Ediba, Ikot Effanga Mkpa and Ibom. They were selected from Calabar. These communities were chosen because of the cost implication of carrying out a study on the impact of international organizations on community development that will cover the entire nation. The researcher believes that, findings from the sample communities will allow for nationwide generalization. 

The study examines the impact which the various USAID projects and facilities established in the six communities have on the lives of the people especially in the area of poverty reduction, employment creation, agricultural productivity, health care, youth and women involvement in rural development projects.

1.8 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

The purposes of these definitions are to modify the real definition in this research work in order to suit the specific research problem at hand. The intention is to translate real definitions into empirical units, for which data might be generated to test hypotheses and find solutions to our research problem (Charles, 2005).

Activitist: These are agitators or advocators who teach people about their right as well as drawing the attention of government to the sufferings of people or neglected communities.

Agent: This refers to a persons or a representative(s) of a country or a group in a particular community with the aim of bringing about social change.

Collaboration: a combined effort between two or more non-governmental or international organizations. It also means combined efforts between non-governmental organizations or international organizations and government authorities in carrying out community projects.

Community:  This is an aggregation of families habitually living together within a definite geographical location, more or less rooted in the soil they occupy, living in a state of mutual interdependence, supporting some basic social institution and having some measure of political autonomy (Ekong, 1988).

Community Development: United Nations in (Ering 2006), posits that: Community Development has come into international usage to connote the processes by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities, to integrate these communities into the life, and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress.

Ering (2006) further looked at community development as improvement and change taking place in the community. This implies efforts to get villagers (members of the community) to work voluntarily on project, which would improve their village or community.

Community Needs: Things desired by a group of people living in a particular geographical area. It has to also do with the improvement of their environment and general well being. These needs include; good environment, improved medical services, access roads, good drinking water, food, employment opportunities, micro credit scheme for small-medium scale business and so on.

Development: Development implies progress and economic improvement. According to Todaro (2005), Development is the process of improving the quality of all human lives. (Social, political, cultural, economic, etc) and increasing people’s freedom of choice in terms of consumer goods and services.

International Organizations: In general international organizations are based on multilateral treaties between at least two sovereign nation-states. The formation of an initially fairly loose bond among the participants is generally fortified by the development of more or less stringent institutional structures and organs to pursue certain more or less clearly defined common aims in the international arena. 

 Needs: these are the community drives or goals to be accomplished through the intervention of the development organizations or through self-help.

Non-Government Organization: Carmen Malena (as in Ering, 2007), in his monograph on Poverty and Social work, defines NGOs as a private organizations that engage in activities that relieve sufferings, preserve the environment and provide basic social services by undertaking community development programs.

OICI: This means opportunities industrialization centres international. It is a program sponsored by USAID to promote broad-based economic growth in Nigeria through sustainable employment generation and micro enterprise development services to disadvantaged, at risk youths.

Sustainability: this is when a programme or a project is established for the present generation without affecting the future.

USAID: This means United State Agency for International Development. It is an international non-governmental organization which has spread across different countries of the world with the aim of engaging in social services that   bring relieve to the suffering, empowerment of the needed, provision of entrepreneur training, micro credit scheme and community development programmes.

 

 

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