- THE EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS, IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AJEROMI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF HOME CONFLICT AS PREDICATORS OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE
- THE CENTRALITY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AND NATIONAL INTEGRATION: AN OVERVIEW OF IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.
- A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CULT OF AYELALA IN ILAJE ESE- ODO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE.
- A SURVEY OF PROBLEM AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN SOME SELECTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN ALIMOSHO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.
- EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON STUDENTS EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAINLAND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS, IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AJEROMI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- PIDGIN ENGLISH, EFFECTS AND DANGERS: A CASE OF THREE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE.
- PROBLEMS AND PROSPECT OF TEACHING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A STUDY OF TWO SELECTED SECONDARY SHOOLS IN IFAKO-IJAIYE LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNDER EDUCATIONAL DISTRICT IV OF LAGOS STATE)
- SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF HOME CONFLICT AS PREDICATORS OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ALIMOSHO LAGOS STATE
THE INFLUENCE OF PEER GROUP ON ADOLESCENT SMOKING HABIT AMONG STUDENTS OF SELECTED SCHOOLS IN IKORODU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.
Peer group is phenomenon peculiar to the adolescent stage. Young people have the tendency of wanting to associate with members of their age group.
However, smoking is one of the bane of many societal problems developing with the adolescents. This study investigates the influence of peer group on adolescent smoking habit among students of secondary school in Ikorodu local government area of Lagos State.
In this study, theoretical framework were reviewed which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. A total of 40 (forty) respondents were sampled for the study through stratified random sampling technique. Participant consisted of male and female with diverse characteristics. A self constructed Questionnaire was the instrument used to gather relevant data for the study. Two Null hypothesis were formulated and tested in the study using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the analysis the null hypothesis was neglected and alternative hypothesis was accepted at 0.05 level of significance, r-calculated = 0.57, r-critical= 0.30.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page Pages
Table of content
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 6
1.3 Purpose of the Study 8
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Research Hypothesis 8
1.6 Significant of the Study 9
1.7 Scope of the Study 9
1.8 Limitation of the Study 9
1.9 Definition of Terms 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature Review 11
2.2 Theoretical Perspectives 17
2.3 Social Learning Theory (Akers 1977,1998; Bandura 1977) 18
2.4 Primary Socialization Theory 19
2.5 Social Identity Theory 20
2.6 Social Network Theory 22
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Research Design 29
3.3 Population of the Study 29
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 30
3.5 Research Instrument 30
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument 30
3.7 Administration of Instruments 31
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.1 Introduction 32
4.2 Data Presentation 32
4.3 Result 33
4.4 Hypothesis Testing 34
4.5 Hypothesis One 34
4.6 Hypothesis Two 35
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSIONS, SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS,
5.1 Introduction 36
5.2 Discussion 36
5.3 Summary of the Study 38
5.4 Conclusion 38
5.5 Recommendation 39
1.1 Background of the Study
Adolescent in Latin means to grow up. Adolescence is the period of
psychological and social transition between childhood and adulthood. This is a period of adjustment Wikipedia- free encyclopedia defines Adolescence as a transition between dependent childhood and independent adulthood. Whose cultural purpose is the perception of children for Adult roles. In Nigeria the age of the adolescence falls between twelve to eighteen years, though it varies with economic status and cultures. The adolescent period is characterised by rapid physical, emotional and behavioural changes. There is an increase in height, weight accompanied by secondary sex characteristics such as enlargement in breast size for girls and growth of public hair in both boys and girls. (Eke 1989). This period which is also characterised by social, emotional and psychological changes have a direct impact on the individual self evaluation, body image and self concept.
The transition to adulthood poses a lot of challenges for the young in this modern technological age than it has been in previous years. Hall (1904) denotes this period as a period of "storm and stress" while Engels (1975) describes it as a "moratorium" phase or "crises stage", a period of conflict in the developmental state, which Piaget (1948) attributes to great increase in development of cognitive abilities of the adolescent. He maintains that the cognitive abilities gained at this stage gives the adolescent the ability to reason, dispute and theorerise on an adult level which can cause conflict for him/her since society is unable to accord him/her an adult status. Keninston (1972) describes this stage as a separate stage of life that lacks any clear definition. In this sense the adolescents are neither psychologically adolescents nor sociologically adults. They struggle in search for identity and the search for identity within society and its inability to accord them a firm identity and tentative roles leaves the future values unidentified for the adolescents. Engels content that a feeling of being nobody or wanting to be, may lead to withdrawal from the reality and in some cases to mental illness and delinquent behaviours which exposes them to vulnerable situations where they turn to their peers for assistance. According to Denga (2001) conformity to peers gives them the sense of belonging they wish and through non-conventional ways turn into delinquent acts such as armed robbery, drug abuse, in the process of desiring the taste of adult life or having access to comfort of life.
According to Mallum (1988) the inability of the Nigerian adolescent to define his status was exposed the Nigerian adolescents to many vices and social problems such as unemployment crime, delinquency, drug abuse etc.
Smoking during adolescence is primarily a social activity and research has consistently identified peer group influence as a significant factor in the uptake of smoking. Peer group may variously be defined as best friendships, romantic attachments, small social ‘network’ and larger social ‘crowds’. Each of these type of peer group may influence the decision to smoke or not to smoke.
Research has also shown that the clustering of smoking behaviour within peer groups could be because adolescents seek out friendships with individual who share similar interests, of which smoking may be just one signifier. In a review of peer influence and smoking habit, it is concluded that, the effect of peer pressure has an influence on adolescent health behaviours. It is probable that peer influences both interact with and are compounded by a host of other predictive factors and that the nature of peer influences on smoking changes over time across social and cultural groupings.
Recent research also suggest that peer influences may vary, in importance at different point among the adolescent continuum, with the influence of close friends smoking have most impact in earlier adolescence.
Initiating smoking may arise as a response to more subtle influences such as being a means of facilitating acceptance and bonding and avoiding exclusion from peer groups. Some adolescents experimenters and habitual smokers saw trying a cigarette in the spirit of joining in or ‘giving it a go’.
Being ‘cool’ is important to teenager although what is deemed to be cool also changes across time, peer groups and social contexts. Smoking has traditionally been viewed as one of the badges of ‘coolness’ among teenagers. While ‘coolness’ is still identified by young people as one of the reasons why some of their peers smoke.
Research Undertaken in Western Australia in 2004 suggests that the inverse is increasingly true, with those who smoke often regarded as ‘losers’ or trying too hard to be cool.
Refusing an offer of cigarette or declaring that I don’t smoke is increasingly socially acceptance and normative among many youth cohorts. Among groups with negative prevailing attitude to smoking, peer influence may of course, deter uptake of smoking.
British research has found that forming romantic attachment (dating) at an earlier age is a predictor for becoming a smoker later, independent of other confounding factors. The researcher speculate that dating and smoking behaviour may be connected by a desire to appear to be more grown up which is consistent with tobacco industry advertising to link its product with sex appeal and popularity. Research also suggest that young people who are sexually active have a higher risk of taking up smoking the reason for this could be that when young teenagers engage in serious intimate relationships and later had breakups, such teenagers may be at a greater risk of experiencing loneliness, isolation and depression. They often find solace and succour in cigarette smoking.
Young smokers tend to congregate together and also to overestimate the extent of smoking in their own age group, giving them a distorted sense of what is normal behaviour. The National Drug Strategy Household survey for 2004 found that about two-third (64% of recent smokers aged 12-15 said that ‘all or most of their friends and acquaintances were smokers as well. A further 20% said that ‘about half’ of their peer group were smokers only 1% of smokers in this age group said that none of their friends and acquaintances smoked. The effect declined with increasing age, with 28% of smokers aged 20 years or older reporting that all or most of their friends and acquaintance were smokers, 32% saying around half were and 39% saying only a few of their peer group smoked. Adolescent who think that smoking is normative and that most of their peers smoke, are more likely to start smoking.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Peer group is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Adolescents are loyal to their peers and they rely on them for support and understanding. Most young adult copies certain things which are considered to be in vogue from the member of their peer group.
Adolescence is clearly a sensitive period in the onset of cigarette smoking more than one –third of high school students smoke at least once in a month and 17% smoke a cigarette almost every day (USDHHS, 1998).
One major problem often confronted by adolescent is psychological. Erickson’s (1963) emphasized two main areas of personality development viz psychosocial aspect and the developmental crisis. Developmental crisis is a specific conflict whose resolution prepares a way for the next stage of life.
- Adolescent are often confronted with the problem of searching for a unique identity. Identity problem is one of the challenges confronting adolescents. Their problems are rooted form their inability to understand who they are, the type of attitude to choose, the authorities to respect, their choice of lifestyle, coupled with unavailability of parental guidance in modern society.
- Another problem confronting the adolescent is over bearing influence of education and technology. Inferring that, the adolescent rarely stay at home rather they engage in different types of risk behaviour because they are always on their own in their own group unknown to them most of these contending challenges force them into future health implications (Moronkola &Aremu, 2004) habit.
Another problem faced by adolescent in the midst of their peers is emotional instability whose sources could be low self-esteem and self concepts. When an adolescent is having such problems, they are easily cajoled by peers who encourage them to smoking cigarette in order to boost their morale among other peers who do not belong to the same cliques they belong.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study was embarked upon to investigate the influence of peer group on adolescents smoking habit among student of selected school in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State.
This research specifically seeks to investigate.
i. Whether there is any significant influence of peer group on adolescent smoking habit.
ii. Whether there is any significant influence of social relationship on adolescent smoking habit.
1.4 Research Questions
1. Is there any significant influence of peer group on adolescent smoking habit among student?
2. Is there any significant influence of social relationship on adolescent smoking habit.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1. There is no significant influence of peer group on adolescent smoking habit among students of secondary.
2. There is no significant influence of social relationship on adolescent smoking habit among students of secondary school
1.6 Significant of the Study
This research work will be of great relevance to the society as a whole. Most importantly, students, educational bodies, non governmental organization, the government and other relevant organization on how to tackle social problems that often accompany adolescent period.
It will also provide them with useful information and ideas on how to tackle psychosocial problem of adolescent.
This study will serve as a useful tool for teachers, principals, school authorities at both the state and Federal Levels on how to manage students during adolescent period which is often characterized as a period of storm and stress.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study looks at the influence of peer group on adolescents smoking habit of students in selected schools in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The study is limited to two Junior Secondary School and two Senior Secondary School situated in Ikorodu Local Government Area. This is actually due to time and financial constraint.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Adolescent: adolescent in Latin means to grow up.
Habit: A thing that you do often and almost without thinking especially something that is hard to stop doing.
Adolescence: The time in a person’s a child into an adult.
Smoking: Is to suck smoke form a cigarette, pipe etc into your mouth and let it out again.
Peer Group: Is a social group consisting of people who are equal in such respect as age educational background social status with whom a person associates with and interact within the same social aggregate.