THE INFLUENCE OF RELIGO-CULTURAL FACTORS ON SUCCESSION PLAN AMONG ADULTS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS.


Content

ABSTRACT

The study examined the influence of religio-cultural factors on succession plan among adults in Mainland Local Government of Lagos State, Nigeria. In this study, some extensive and related literatures were reviewed in subheadings. The descriptive research survey was applied for the sampling of the opinions of the selected participants in the study with the use of questionnaire. A total of 200 (Two Hundred) participants were selected as the representatives of the entire population of the study. A total of five null hypotheses were tested in this study using the analysis of variance and the t-test tools at 0.05 level of significant. At the end of the data analyses, the results that emerged showed that: There is a significant influence of religio-cultural factors on succession plan among adults in Lagos State; There is a significant influence of ethnic background on succession plan among adults in Lagos State and there is a significant influence of religious belief on succession plan among adults in Lagos State. Also there is no significant influence of tribalism on succession plan among adults in Lagos State. Finally, it was found that there is a there is no significant influence of socio-economic status on succession plan among adults in Lagos State. Based on the outcomes of the data analyses, it was recommended that religio-cultural factors which has been found to be of the major factors militating against effective succession plan amongst adults in many communities in Lagos State, should not be regarded as one the factors that plan important role in any succession plan in the Nigerian society. It also recommended that people should play down the role of religion and culture in picking who succeeds who in the Nigerian societies. Succession plans should be based on merit rather than on religion and on cultural heritage.

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGES

Title page                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                                                          iv

Abstract                                                                                          vi

Table of contents                                                                            vii                                                    

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0   Background of the Study                                                      1

1.2   Statement of the problem                                                      6

1.3   Purpose of the study                                                            7

1.4       Research Questions                                                             8

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                           8

1.6   Scope of the study                                                                 9

1.7   Significance of the Study                                                       9

1.8    Definition of Terms                                                               10

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction                                                                              12

2.1 The Concept and Nature of Religion                              12

2.2 The Concept and Nature of Society                                         14

2.3 Relationship between Religion and Society                             16

2.4 The Measures of Religiosity                                                      17

2.5 The Positive Functions of Religion                                           21    

2.6 The Negative Functions of Religion                                          24

2.7 Culture, Social Change and Education                                   27

2.8 The Characteristics of Culture                                       29    

2.9 The Functions of Culture                                                         31

2.10 The Nature and Definition of Leadership                     33

2.11 The Views on Leadership                                                        34

2.12    characteristics of a Leader                                                    35

2.13 Determinants of an Effective Leader                                      38

2.14  Religio-Cultural Factors and succession Plan                     40

      in the Community

2.15 Summary of Review                                                                47

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction                                                                              48

3.1 Research Design                                                                       48

3.2 Population of the Study                                                            48

3.4 Instrumentation                                                                        49

3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument                                      49

3.6 Procedure for Data Collection                                                  49

3.7 Data Analysis Method                                                               49

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS.

4.1 Introduction                                                                     50

4.2 Hypotheses Testing and Interpretation of Results                  50

 

CHAPTER FIVE:DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND ECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Introduction                                                                              56

5.1 Discussion of Findings                                                             56

5.2 Summary of the Study                                                              61

5.3 Conclusions                                                                     62

5.4 Recommendations                                                           62

   References                                                                                     65

   Appendix                                                                             70

 


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of the Study

In every society, there is a laid down plan which is made for the succession of leadership among adults. This succession plan runs in the family, the church, the community and other areas of human endeavours. According to Uzor (2000), without succession plans, humans cannot live in peace in their local communities, because there will be constant quarrels and successionv problems that can crop up from time to time as a result of who to, succeed who in the community at any point in time, especially in the area of leadership or headship. When there is no succession plan in any community, there may be anarchy and bad blood among adults in the society. It may equally cause tribal, family and community rivalry and confusion.

 

Also, Adeleke (2005), opined that succession plans can help individuals to dwell together in a particular society or family and is capable of assisting people to follow the line of leadership succession so that individuals who had led the community can be replaced without rancour and acrimony among the adults in the family, the church or the larger community.

In another development, Onyema (2007), views succession plan as leadership changing process in a family or society. According to Onyema, succession plan leads to smooth replacement or rotation of leadership to avoid tussle. The ways and manners in which people in the community should be governed or led must be spelt out through planning to ensure peace, tranquility and orderliness in the society. Handing over power or headship of any community ought to be planned so that adults in the society are in the-know about who succeeds who from time to time. This is because, in any family, church or society where there is good succession plan, there seems to be unity, goodwill and continuity that enable people to live together with one another (Anyanwu, 2006).

 It will be perhaps note-worthy to define religion and culture, for one to be able to grasp their meaning. Religion is conceptualized by Kenny (2005) as any system which relates man to the ultimate values, whether God or something else, and which embodies a creed, a code, a cult and a communion. Charles (2000) has distinguished three essential features of religion as belief, feeling and action. Central to religion are beliefs about God or gods, the nature and destiny of man, the meaning of history and the hope for the future. The distinction between a religious person and someone who is irreligious, is the religious commitment of the individual. This means that, for one to affirm that one is religious, it must be seen that the individual should feel God's existence, have the belief that God has the ultimate power to do all things and that the individual is expected to take action through commitment to the things of, like going to church and participating in other religious activities.

Culture on the other hand, is said to be difficult to be defined, as every scholar sees culture differently. According to Amanze (1999), culture connotes three critical issues and ideas inherent in it, namely: cultivation, meaning nurture of human nature; colonization, which means going out to benefit every new place in creation and cult, in the best sense of the world, symbolizes bringing in the fruit of our labour to God as an act of worship to Him. When cultures, particularly widely differing ones, impact or influence on one another, both are bound to be affected. In some instances, the consequences are traumatic and even devastating. For example, the influence of civilization on the wide areas of Africa, has affected quite a number issues in African countries. Issues like killing of twins, superstitious beliefs, rituals before succession in the family and community and so on.

Religious belief in many cases, runs counter to some cultural and traditional ways of doing things in the African society. Unlike culture, religion in its authentic form is totally devoid of negative features. There have been secularists and anthropologists who have protested that religious activity is harmful to the culture of unsophisticated people. In some instances, these anthropologists are right, because, certain cultures are vile, therefore, it is no loss if they go into extinction. In this instance, one can say that some religious activities are anti-culture. For instance also, religion has prevented some activities of culture which are negative to human lives and development (Anyikwa, 2004). As Ayo (2008), nothing is more deeply enter twined with a people's culture than their religious beliefs to which they have adhered from time immemorial.

The following are some of the ideas or beliefs that have either been critically challenged or whose meaning has been purified by the advent of religion: fear of dead, yoke of magic, witchcraft, divination, healing, rite of renewal, ill-luck, purification etc (Overlaran, 2010).

Alanyande (2009), states that some religio-cultural factors that influence succession plan in any community or society are: ethnicity, religion, civilization, socio-economic status, -E0litics, education and so on. For instance, ethnicity plays a significant role in the succession plan in the- Nigerian communities today because Nigeria as a multi-tribal nation, still has the problem of playing ethnic politics among the citizenry. Penny (2006) opined that people tend to award leadership positions to their king's men irrespective of the person's inadequacies and lack of qualification. Also, religion is another factor that play crucial role in succession plan in the society and the church. People in Nigeria usually play politics with religion, every individual in the country particularizes their religion whether good or bad. For this reason, many Nigerians would like to see their religious faithful to be in any leadership position whether the person knows what to do about leadership or not. A typical example, is the present Jonathan administration, which has received critical opposition and resistance from the North where Islam is predominant. Uzoma (1998), is of the opinion that that religion is a very strong instrument or factor that determines who leads Nigeria, further Uzoma (1998), claimed that the rivalry existing between the Christians and

Muslims cannot be overemphasized, as each religion keeps promoting and projecting its own without recourse to merit. Another factors that exists and seems to play a role in the succession plan in Nigeria, are modernization and civilization which come as a result of education and learning. In Nigeria today, ones level of education places the individual on leadership in the country (Adeleke,2003).

                             

Adeleke is of the opinion that individual's level of academic qualification makes the individual to rise to certain height of leadership, and it is hard for an illiterate to occupy the position of leadership such as, the president, senate, house of representatives and other lofty positions in Nigeria. Equally, the socio-economic status of an individual to a great extent, determines what leadership position the person gets in Nigeria. For instance, many people in the country today, influence people to climb to leadership due to their socio-economic and social backgrounds Anyakogu (2009). As Anyakogu puts it, Nigerian leadership positions have been monetized, it is given to the highest bidder.

 

According to Alanyande (2009), when individuals in a society are well educated and have received the western civilization, it can affect the way they behave in the society and by extension, it can lead to the way they handle the issues of leadership in the community. Also, the socio-economic status and the religious beliefs, ethnic background, politics, educational background are some of the factors that can play leading role in the succession plan in a given family, local administration, the church and the larger community.

 

1.2 Statement of the problem:

Lack of effective succession plan has been the bane of peace, orderliness, continuity and unity in communities of African nations, especially in Nigeria. This is because, many communities in Nigeria, do not have good succession plans that is enduring and effective which can always bring about peaceful succession of individuals in the community, the church or the family. Due to no clear-cut succession plans in many societies of Nigeria, it has resulted in unpopularity in the replacement or succession of leaders of the community, the church, local administration or the family. Religion and cultural factors such as belief system, politics, education, socio-economic background, ethnicity and so on play negative roles on planning the succession of leadership or headship of the institutions in the country. Injustice and sentiments, tribalism, favoritism, godfatherism and so on, have been seen to creep into the way and manner people are chosen to replace people in the society generally.

 

The above identified problems gave rise to the examination of the influence of religio-cultural factors on succession plan among adults in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos state, Nigeria.

1.3 Purpose of the study:

The objectives of this study is to examine whether:

1.   Religio-cultural factors influence the succession plan among adults in Lagos State.

2.   Ethnic background influences the succession plan among adults in Lagos state.

3.   Religious-belief influences succession plan in the community in Lagos State.

4.   Tribalism influences the succession plan among adults in Lagos state.

5.   Socio-economic status influences the succession plan among adults in Lagos state.

1.6       Research Questions:

The following research questions will be raised in this study:

1.   Will religio-cultural factors influence succession plan among adults in Lagos State?

2.   To what extent will ethnic background influence succession plan among adults in Lagos state?

3.   Will religious-belief influence succession plan among adults in Lagos state?

4.   To what extent will tribalism influence succession plans among adults in Lagos state?

5.   Will socio-economic status influence succession plan among adults in Lagos state?

1.7       Research Hypotheses:

The following research hypotheses are tested in this study:

1.   There is no significant influence of religio-cultural factors on succession plan among adults.

2.   There is no significant influence of ethnic background on succession plan among adults.

3.   There is no significant influence of religious-belief on succession plan among. Adults.

4.   There is no significant influence of tribalism on succession plan among adults.

5.   There is no significant influence of socio-economic status on succession plan among adults.

1.6 Scope of the study:

The study will cover the influence of religio-cultural factors on succession plan among adults in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.

1.7 Significance of the Study:  

This study will be significant in many ways and will be beneficial to the following individuals:

1.   The Students: The students will benefit from this study because it will enable them to be in the-know concerning the impact religio-cultural factors have on succession plan among adults in a given community, church, family and so on. This will equally help many students to be able to appreciate the role of religion and culture and the way things are done in the society.

2.   Teachers: No doubt, teachers will be able to also appreciate the relationship between religion, culture and succession plan in the community or family in Lagos State and other areas of Nigerian society.

3.   The Pastors, Community Leaders and Others: Also the Pastors, the community leaders and others who live in the same community will realize the importance of religion and culture in the society. This will equally assist them to come in terms with leadership succession in the community.

4.   Researchers, Scholars and Theologians: In this study, researchers, theologians and other scholars will benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study because it enable them to come in proper terms with the knowledge inherent in religio-cultural factors and succession among adult members of the larger community in Lagos State and beyond.

5.   The Society: No doubt, the larger society will be in the vantage position to be exposed to the knowledge of variables in this study under review.

1.8 Definition of Terms

The following operational terms were defined in this study;

1. Religio-Cultural: This is a term that explains the religious and cultural aspects of human life, belief and system of adjusting to the religious and cultural behaviours of individual or group of individuals in the society.

2. Factors: This term describes the elements or characteristics of certain things that determine the progress or hinderance of things.

3. Socio- Economic Status: This is the level of social stratification of an individual or group of individuals in a society. It is determined by level of education, possession and economic acquisition in the society.

4. Leadership: This is the way or system of leading people in the community, state, or country.

5. Succession Plan: Succession plan means the process by which people replace others who had been there before them.

 

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