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THE INFLUENCE OF SPONSORSHIP ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF RACKET SPORTS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
2.1 Origin and Development of Dual Racket Sports
2.2 Decline of Racket Sports in Schools
2.3 Sport Development Policy
2.4 Concept of Sponsorship in Sports
2.5 Sponsorship and racket Sports development
2.6 Problems of Sport Sponsorship in Nigeria
2.7 Sports Marketing and Promotion
2.8 Factors stimulating Sponsorship of sports by corporate organizations
2.9 Sponsorship Effectiveness
3.1 Research design
3.2 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling Technique
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Validity of Instruments
3.7 Reliability of Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Collection
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
3.10 Pilot Study
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Descriptive Analysis of Data
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis
4.3 Discussion of Findings
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.2 Summary of the Study
Background to the Study
The significance of sports for society is unquestionable. It engenders humanity’s most important values — fairness, equality, teamwork. Sports foster citizenship and promote a healthy lifestyle. It is about emotions, passion, prestige and power. In many respects, sports sponsorship and sports development requires a significant investment. Sports can therefore be a powerful tool to foster universal values and promote transformative social change. Sports are an institutionalised physical activity in which the rules and regulations are fixed. It embraces athletics, gymnastics, games and activities of individual and team varieties. It could be engaged in competitively or for recreative purpose. Sport was differently characterized as a “game occurrence, as an institution and a social situation or secular system”. Asagba, (2008) opined that sport is getting more popular worldwide with its attendant huge financial investments. Sports in all dimensions is big business, this explains therefore that in this millennium, it is a symbol of wealth, fame and recognition which dictates, the social, political and economic growth in many countries. There is a wide variety of sports programmes that need to be financed, hence different avenues must be explored to source fund. Some of the ways are fund raising, fees or charges and tax support. Others are through government, individuals and corporate bodies.
Akarah (2009) defined sports as competitive physical activity utilizing specialized equipment and facilities with unique dimension of time and space in which the quest for record is of high significance, sports is highly competitive human physical activity that is governed by institutional rules. Sports has taken a centre stage in the conduct of diplomacy and the evolution of development and change in the world system. In the same vein, Elendu and Ogujiofor (2012) opines that sports are education, sports are life and sports bring people together. Also sports was considered by Cunningham and Benefort, (2005) as any activity, experience or business enterprise focused on fitness, athletics, recreation or leisure. In their view, sports do not have to be competitive nor does it always require specialized equipment or rules. Sports include activities such as working out, running and dancing. Sports are more than ever before, commanding global attention. Its influence on world peace, economy and the development of social relationships cannot be underestimated. It is against this background that most nations have come to appreciate the need to invest heavily on it. Sports as a social factor has over time assumed an influential status. Sports tend to exert more influence on people’s behaviour than religion or politics.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria sports development policy (2009) defined sports development as the process of continuous improvement of the sports structure, institutions and programmes in order to create a societal condition conducive to physical fitness for all and the effective functioning and self-actualization. However, despite National Sports Policy of Nigeria (2009) vision; to establish and develop a technically efficient institutions equipped with the desired professional manpower, resources, right equipment and well maintained facilities for sports development and participation; promoting school and institutional sports development and competitions at all three tiers of government school, this vision is yet to be achieved as sports are yet to take its right place in most secondary schools in Nigeria.
One of the major challenges to achieving this objective is the issue of finance which has consistently remained a burning issue of sports development in Nigeria. As with all other endeavors, finance and sponsorship are vital requirements for sports development at all levels. The relatively high overhead cost associated with financing sports programmes, camping, training and competitions continue to hinder its development. Sponsorship in grass root sports continues to lack support and maintenance. Therefore corporate, commercial and government sponsorship are needed in the development of schools sports programmes especially racket sports as it encourages grass root development of sports in the local community. Corporate sponsorship also motivate athletes to do better during their games, creates opportunities for individual to earn a living, keeps the youth out of the street from deviant behaviours and drug consumption and delinquency while participating in sports programmes (National Sports Policy of Nigeria, 2009). Labiba (2014) notes that sports is the area in which sponsorship has developed furthest. Depending on the year being audited. The term sponsorship is the acquisition of rights to affiliate or directly associate with a product or event for the purpose of deriving benefits related to that affiliation or association. The sponsor then uses this relationship to achieve its promotional objectives or to facilitate and support its broader marketing objectives. Sponsorship in general and specifically sports sponsorship is a vital part of every major company’s communication strategy in today’s business world. Marketing professionals consider sponsorships as an important tool to build brand equity and corporate image, especially in times of increased media fragmentation (Aiyejuyo, & Ayoade, 2002).
Over the last two decades sports sponsorship has gained a consistently increasing share of marketing budgets and has become a key component of the marketing communication mix, which is on par with traditional tools such as advertising, public relations, sales promotions, and personal selling. On a global scale, spending on sports sponsorships engagements has increased from $20 billion in 2004 to $29 billion in 2009 and is expected to increase to $35 billion by 2013 (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2010). Sponsorship deals constitute significant marketing investments for sponsoring firms. For example, Hyundai has recently sign with the global soccer association FIFA for a total contract value of $280 million (Fenton, 2010). In the last two decades, sponsorship, as part of financing of venues, has helped to improve the standard of stadiums and arenas fundamentally, thus opening sports events to new audiences like women and families. VIP areas, such as business seats and lounges, may also support cheaper ticket prices for the fans. Sports sponsorship; however, do not only provide benefits for the Sponsors and the Sports entities. Any negative incident concerning either the direct relationship between the two parties or just one side of it can lead to a widespread scandal with devastating impact on the potential positive goal that originally led to the sponsorship.
School sports today is in a pathetic state. Many schools no longer have interest in school sports in spite of the National Policy on Education (2004) which specified the role sports should play in the education of the Nigerian child. In schools which think about sports, it is only during their haphazardly organized annual inter-house athletic meets that school heads make unnecessary and heavy demands on parents and invitees in well worded addresses. At the end of the day, whatever is realized is not ploughed into sports development. There were series of friendly matches/contests between schools which are extinct nowadays; where such competitions exist nowadays, shameless sports organizers recourse to the use of non-bonafide students otherwise known as “mercenaries”. Stressing the need for grass root sports, a onetime national triple jumper, Chioma Ajunwa opined that it was school sports that brought so many athletes of her generation to lime-light (Interview on Weekend Sports programmes by NTA Channel 10 July, 18th 2014). There is need for Nigeria to return to grassroots and school sports if we ever hope to develop our athletes. It is against this background that this study set out to examine the influence of sponsorship on the development of racket sports in secondary school in Surulere Local Government Area, Lagos.
Statement of the Problem
For a long time now, sports has been mostly sponsored by government in Nigeria. However, economic problems made it increasingly difficult for government to do so alone, hence, different national sports associations have embarked on fund raising drives to complement the inadequate funds given by government. However, in Nigeria, sports sponsorship is still at low ebb. This work is therefore to look into the perceived impediments to effective sports sponsorship in Nigeria (Asagba, 2008).
In recent time, it has been reported that there is a decline in participation as well as in number of medals won by Nigerian professional athletes participating in international racket sports competitions such as Tennis, Badminton, Table tennis among others Akarah, Nabofa and Iheanacho, (2011) observed that Nigeria is still a failed venture and that the return of the government has not been commensurate to Nigerian government monetary policy .
Despite National Sports policy to establish a technically efficient institution equipped with desired professional manpower, resources, right equipment and well maintained facilities for sports development in schools, sports rackets have not gotten the required attention. Part of the problem being inadequate facilities and equipment for grassroots racket sports development resulting from poor funding.
Many sports sponsors, who set the tone in grassroots sports development in the past have, typically abandon grassroots sports and favour elite sports performance. Presumably this is because any success recorded is splashed across the media and raise their brand images. There seems to be a broader focus on commercial partnerships and elite sports and far less consideration towards grassroots sports like tennis, badminton among others in secondary schools, mainly because it isn’t seen as lucrative or headline grabbing. The consequence of this is seen on gradual decay of racket sports development at the grassroots level. Based on the foregoing, it became necessary to investigate the influence of sponsorship on development of racket sports in secondary schools.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sponsorship on the development of racket sports in selected secondary schools in Surulere Local Government Area. Specifically, the study was to:
1. examine the influence of sponsorship awareness on development of racket sponsorship in secondary schools
2. examine the influence of corporate image of sponsoring organization influence on racket sports development in secondary schools
3. examine the influence of sports fan involvement on racket sports development in secondary schools
4. examine the influence of purchase intention on racket sports development in secondary schools
The following questions were answered in this study:
1. Will sponsorship awareness influence the development of racket sports among secondary schools?
2. Will corporate image influence development of racket sports equipment in secondary schools?
3. Will fan involvement influence the quality of racket sports personnel in secondary schools?
4. Will purchase intention influence racket sports development in secondary schools
The following research hypotheses were developed to guide the study.
1. There was no significant influence of racket sponsorship awareness on the development of racket sports in secondary schools.
2. There was no significant influence of corporate image of an organization on racket sports development in secondary schools.
3. There was no significant influence of fans involvement on the development of racket sports in secondary schools.
4. There was no significant influence of purchase intention on the development of racket sports in secondary schools.
Significance of the Study
This study could be useful in helping the physical education personnel, coaches, teachers and sports administrators understand and improve the teaching of racket sports in secondary schools at an early age. The finding of this research might also serve as bases for further investigation in the area of evaluation of grassroots development of racket sports in the country. Furthermore, this study could reveal the states of racket sports among secondary schools and add to the existing literatures on Lagos State Ministry of sports and social development programmes in the development of racket sports in Lagos State.
Delimitation of the Study
This study was delimited to the following
1. Four indices of rackets sponsorship; sponsorship awareness, corporate Image, fans involvement and purchase intention
2. Descriptive statistics of frequency count and percentage.
3. Chi-square statistical test were used to analyse and test the hypotheses of the data collected for this study at 0.05 level of significance
4. 10 secondary school both (junior and senior) located within Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State.
5. Three hundred (320) participants including students, principals, Physical Education Teachers.
Limitation of the Study
The challenges encountered in this study include:
1. Reluctance of respondents to disclose information,
2. Distance and area covered within limited period of time.
Operational Definition of Terms
Corporate image: The perception of a corporation held by the public based on how it is portrayed through branding.
Fans involvement: Involvement with group members in the social setting/sports.
Purchase intention: A plan to purchase a particular good or services in the future.
Sponsorship awareness: Extend to which a brand is recognised by potential customers.
Sponsorship: A transactional relationship through which commercial benefits accrue for the sponsor partner and financial or service benefits for the sponsored sport partner.