- AN ANALYSIS OF CULTISM IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES
- AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF URBANIZATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY
- A LINGUISTIC STUDY OF NIGERIAN PIDGIN (A case study of Ipodo Community Market in Ikeja)
- A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF A SELECTED CAMPAIGN SPEECH OF PRESIDENT GOODLUCK JONATHAN
- A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPIAGN SPEECHES IN ENGLISH OF PRESIDENT GOODLUCK EBELE JONATHAN
- THE EFFECT OF RATIO ANALYSIS IN INVESTMENT DECISION (A Study of First Bank Nigeria Plc.)
- THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON PROFITABILITY IN NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY (A case study of First Bank of Nigeria Plc)
- ANALYSIS OF MANAGEMENT AND PERFORMANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS (Cadbury Nigeria Plc and Nestle Food Nigeria PIc.)
- THE EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE POLICIES ON THE NIGERIAN MANUFACTURING SECTOR AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
- HEALTH PROFILE OF PRISON INMATES IN NIGERIAN PRISON SERVICES. A CASE STUDY OF MEDIUM SECURITY PRISON KRIKIRI, LAGOS
THE LINGUISTIC - STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF NIGERIAN SECURITY AGENCIES USE OF LANGUAGE: A Case Study Of The Nigeria Police Force's Registers
Most of the theories on the origins of language have all shown that language arose of man's desire to adapt to his environment. For instance, the cooperation and contact theories show that language (speech) came into being out of the human instinct for survival and contact.
One of the basic conditions that must be fulfilled before an individual can claim membership of any society is the ability to communicate effectively in the language of that society (community-social group). The norms and traditions of a society are transmitted through specific linguistic codes (language). This view is in consonance with Hallowell's (1953) claim that:
“A necessary condition for socialization in man is the learning
And use of language and by the way, a socially conditioned
Aspect of it, to be relevant in that social group of which he is a
No matter how primitive a society is, its cultural values and beliefs are presented in well defined linguistic forms and nuances. Among the various functions of language in our society, specialization is perhaps one of the greatest. It gives a distinct exclusivity and pride to a group. This is perhaps why the military and police personale will call those who do not understand their peculiar meta-language as "bloody, civilians". This is echoed in Sapir's view when he noted that: "Language is a great force of socialization probably the greatest" - Edward Sapir: Culture Language and Personality: University of California press (1956) page 1.
Perhaps, Bell's opinion is even more apt when he says:
“Language is a set of culturally transmitted behaviour
patterns shared by a group of individuals.
Roger Bell, sociolinguistics: Goods, Approaches and. problems: London, B. T. Batsford Ltd (1976) P.l4. In Bell's view, language cannot be divorced from culture and society. A member of any society who does not know well, when and how to use the language peculiar to his society is a social outcast". The ability to use the specialized and predominant languages of a society enhances social mobility, way, competence, reviewing and professionalism.
Having established that the French or language use of a group society sensitizes members to the orderly society. It has equally been established that language mobilized in entirety, the personalities of members to more effectively interact with the philosophy and codes of conduct of their societies.
In conclusion, language can be used to social solidarity and group infirmity. That is the reason a member of a security agency would probably not need any formal identification, when out of uniform, when he discusses with another officer of the law in the specialized security and police language. We will immediately experience a reality of, "he talks as us; he is one of us"
On the strength of the above lies the basis of this essay - an analyses of a special variety of language used by a special group in furtherance and advancement of their set objectives; hence, the Linguistic stylistic Analysis of Nigerian security Agencies use of language, with emphasis on the Nigeria Police Register.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENT vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 2
1.3 Aim and Objective of the study 4
1.4 Significance of the study 4
1.5 Scope of the study 5
1.6 Definition of terms 6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Language as Means of Communication 9
2.2 Registers and Collocations 13
2.3 Brief History of the Nigeria Police Force 13
2.4 The concept of linguistics 17
2.5 The concept of stylistics 19
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 20
3.1 Sources of data collection 20
3.2 Method of data collection 21
3.3 Method of data analysis 21
CHAPTER FOUR - DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 General use of language by the Nigeria police Force 22
4.2 Registers of the Nigeria Police Force Junior Cadre 32
4.3 Registers of the Nigeria Police Force Junior Cadre 35
4.4 Registers and Collocations of Allied Security Operatives 37
SUMMARY: RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of Findings 43
5.2 Recommendations 44
5.3 Conclusion 45
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The truth, of course, is that it is precisely the multiplication of meanings which makes language the powerful and flexible tool that it is. The possibility of selecting adopting, standardizing of a selected set of vocabulary and specialized intended meanings for use by a society, the effectiveness and intelligibility of same have elicited a study in varieties and functions of language (English).
It is pertinent at this point to stress that in as much as uniformity in the use of language is desirable, it is not possible. Even if it were possible, it would not be in the best interest for the growth and effectiveness of the language; certain groups have peculiar sensibilities and needs. These peculiar realities must by necessity be addressed and furthered by a peculiar variety of language (English) which might be exclusive to this selected group but at best, vaguely intelligible to people outside the select group.
So far, we have seen that certain social factors have by no means acted as influence on language. While some have worked for greater clarity and efficiency, others have tampered with the adequate functioning of language.
Basically therefore, varieties of language in our study of English language, have emerged, distinguishing races, classes, occupations, etc.
This multiplicity of a compendium of varieties of one general language has considerably and unconsciously provided very powerful tool of identification uniqueness and exclusivity to certain groups in one larger general linguistic community. In the subsequent sections, it will examined how these specialized varieties have been able to satisfy the peculiar needs and sensibilities of the various linguistic groups such as the security agencies, the Nigeria Police, etc.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Language - "any language is a code"; a set of rules for generating what generative transformational grammarian call "well-formed sentences." A breach of the standard code could therefore result in an "ill-formed" utterance (sentences).
Basically, many if not all social varieties of English are derivations from the standard normative features of the language. Our case study is the Nigeria police force's Register.
The security agencies register especially the police thrive on a long established alterations of the syntactic" semantic and to some extent, the phonological components of the English language. Some of such alterations which have combined to give a unique identity to the Nigerian Police register are:
category rule violation, linguistic foregrounding,
avoidance of technical verbiage, paradigmatic
association, semantic compounding, neutralization of
semantic opposition double extender, taboo expressions,
tedious legal verbiage, etc.
The question which immediately arises is: Does this peculiar variety with all its peculiarities hamper the effective use of language for communication? OR better put, what are the socio-linguistic advantages, benefits, challenges and shortcomings of this variety?
In summary, it has been established that the tenets of socio linguistics accepts that the peculiarities of every linguistic group present a varitable ground for the growth of distinct register. Now, the Nigerian Police has a recognizable and identifiable official variety of English. How effective it is in the advancement of the organization, its intelligibility and grammaticality are basically the problem this essay will address.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to examine the Linguistic - Stylistic Analysis of Nigerian Security Agencies Use of Language. The objective of the study is to:
i. Carry out a stylistic analysis (basically semantic and syntactic), towards identifying the components of the Nigerian Police register.
ii. Make a comparative analysis of the intelligibility of the police register to members of the force vis-a-vis the civilians and the basic/standard deviations of the police register from standard formal English language expressions.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Our exhaustive analysis will reveal the mutual interaction that takes place between some of the structural components or standard everyday English language and the specialized if you like, close aspect (police register) of the language.
The study will furthermore open vistas on the extent and influence of sociolinguistic factors that come to play when a group of people develop and standardize a suitable English language diction that will reflect the syntax and semantics appropriate to their peculiar realities, while yet retaining the basic elements of the language (English language)
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the research will not extend beyond the analyses of isolated expressions which contain linguistic elements that could be designated the Police register. Some of such peculiarities have combined to acquire the description - Police register are repetitions lexical items in a structure, Linguistic foregrounding, semantic compounding, taboo expressions, tedious legal verbiage, etc.
The project will also examine the semantic components that consist of the use of martial and specialized scientific expressions.
However the phonological components of the police register which is the least affected will however not be examined in details.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Language: This is the act of speaking, writing or signing, in a given situation; often referred to by the French term, parole (2) The Diagnostic system underlying a person's use of speech writing or sign (often refereed to as competence); more generally, the system underlying the shared spoken, written or sign behavior of a whole community often referred to by the French term language (3) The biological faculty enabling individuals to learn and use speech, writing or sign - a defining feature of human behavior. (4) A particular variety or level of speech writing or sign - as encountered in such phrases as religious language and gutter language" (5) An artificially constricted system used to expound a conceptual are a (e.g. computer language) or to facilitate communication (as artificial language/), in this sense, the term contrasts with a natural language.
Syntax: The study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences and other constructions in a language. In this use, syntax is opposed to morphology, the study of, structure. More generally it is the study of the interrelationships between all elements of sentences structure (including morphemes), and of the rules governing the arrangement of sentences in sequences. In "generative grammar" the syntactic component contains rules for the generation of syntactic structures.
Semantics: A branch of linguistics related to the study of meaning in languages. In particular, the approach called structural semantics applies all the principles of structural linguistics to the study of meaning through the notion of semantic relations between lexical items (such as synonymy and antonym). In "generative grammar", the semantic component is a major area of the semantic representation to a sentence and analyses lexical times in terms of semantic features.
Sociolinguistics: To start with, linguistics is the scientific study of language. Several approaches can be distinguished, according to the linguistics focus, range and interest. Socio-linguistics is a study of the influence of one's society on his use of language whether his first language (mother tongue) second language or foreign language
Register(s): Variety according to the subject matter or social group involved in a speech act (in this case English language speech act) is known as the register of that Linguistic group. The presumption is that it is possible that an individual or a group can adopt one distinct variety peculiar to them as their permanent form of English. But the same speaker(s) has/have a repertoire of varieties and habitually switches to the appropriate one as occasion arises. Most typically, perhaps, the switch involves nothing more than turning to the particular set of lexical items habitually used for handling the subject and situation in question.
Metalanguage: A higher level language devised in order to talk about an object of study or discussion (the object language). Linguistic metalanguage includes all terminology, nomenclature and special expressions which have been introduced to talk about the human language in its use in various aspects of life.