- ANALYSIS OF AUDIT PROCEDURE IN A PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE WATER BOARD)
- THE INDEPENDENCE OF AUDITORS AND RELIABILITY OF FINANCIAL REPORTS IN THE NIGERIA BANKING SECTOR
- IMPACT OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BREWERY)
- EFFECT OF EMPLOYEES PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF NIGERIA BAG MANUFACTURING PLC)
- EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON WORKERS’ PRODUCTIVITY (A STUDY OF CADBURY NIGERIA PLC)
- IMPACT OF LABOUR TRAINING ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA ECONOMY (A Study of Nigeria Postal Service)
- THE IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ON EMPLOYEES’ PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA BREWERIES PLC
- COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICES [LIRS])
- THE IMPACT OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (A STUDY OF POWER HOLDING COMPANY OF NIGERIA)
- THE EFFECT OF NEW MINIMUM WAGE ON EMPLOYEES TURNOVER INTENTION IN PUBLIC SECTOR (ALAUSA SECRETARIAT)
THE NEXUS BETWEEN EMPLOYEES DISCIPLINE AND PRODUCTIVITY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (A STUDY OF NIGERIA BREWERIES PLC)
This project focuses on examining "The Nexus between Employees' Discipline and Productivity in the Public Sector", a case study of Nigeria Breweries Plc. The primary agent of productivity is the organizational workforce. The key requirements for ensuring and sustaining organizational productivity are mobilizing and developing the workforce through a well-structured communication, orientation, and well defined policies in place to direct the affairs and discipline of the employees in the organization. The objectives of the study are: to evaluate how the weak sanction against identified unethical individuals and indiscipline on the part of political elites, result to lack of meaningful participation in the policy making process in the public sector. To determine how employee indiscipline arising from falsification of records, absence from duty without leave, refusal to proceed on transfer and the decline on productivity in the Nigeria Breweries. The methodology used for the study was questionnaire and personal interview to collect primary data from the field, a survey research design was employed so as to simplify the sourcing of primary data. Also, the researcher made an attempt to test three hypotheses, and this was made possible with the use of simple mean and average in order to situate our findings. The findings of the study inferred that there is nexus between employee discipline and prod activity in the public sector; the finding also revealed that that weak sanction against identified unethical individuals does not result to lack of meaningful participation in policy making process in the public sector. It is therefore recommended that, stiffer penalties to be applied against offenders on some offences, Independence of the Judiciary in the true sense is necessary, Corrupt officials should be made to face the consequences of their corrupt acts and Law Enforcement Agents to be disciplined, prompt action on cases in our courts etc. It is also recommended that continuous training and development of employees' generally, positive training and development through sound education, inculcate decent work ethics through training and development where disciplined acts are brought into focus.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table of Content v
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Back ground of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objective of Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Research Hypotheses 5
1.6 Scope/Limitation of the Study 5
1.7 Significance of the Study 5
1.8 Definition of Terms 6
1.9 Organization or Plan of the Study 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction 8
2:1 Historical Background of the study 8
2.2 Conceptual Framework 9
2.3 Features of an Effective Disciplinary Process 11
2.4 Causes of Indiscipline in the Nigeria Pubic Sector 13
2.5 Disciplinary Measures against Serious Misconduct in the Public Sector 14
2.6 Employee Discipline Policy in the Public Sector 16
2.7 The relevance of Evaluating Employee Discipline in the Public Sector 18
2.8 Labour Union-Involvement in the Nigeria public Sector 19
2.9 Characteristics of Exemplary Followership in Organization 20
2.10 Prospect towards Promoting Discipline in the Nigeria Public Sector 23
2.11 Theoretical Framework 26
3.0 Introduction 33
3.1 Restatement of Research Questions & Hypotheses 33
3.2 Research Design 33
3.3 Population of the Study 34
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedures 34
3.5 Data Collection Instruments 34
3.6 Administration of Data Collection Instruments 35
3.7 Procedures for Data Analysis 36
3.8 Limitations of the Methodology 36
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4·0 Introduction 36
4.1 Respondents Characteristics and Classification 36
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data According to research question 39
4.3 Presentation and analysis of data according to test of hypotheses 47
4.4 Discussion of Findings 52
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5·0 Introduction 53
5.1 Summary of findings 53
5.2 Conclusion 54
5.3 Recommendations 55
5.4 Suggestion for Further Study 57
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the public sector, there is the need to serve constituents, the need to ensure that employees are discipline in order to blend with the organizational objectives to operate successfully, and the need to provide services that optimizes limited resources, while creating strategic direction for future advancements and productivity.
However, the strategies that consistently make the difference through a concerted employees discipline are those that mobilize and engage individuals to perform at their best. New tools and techniques or better leadership will not do the job unless there are followers who get on board with the right mix of disciplined behaviour. Programs, policies and procedures can create the environment for productivity.
But the primary agent of productivity is the organizational workforce. The key requirements for ensuring and sustaining organizational productivity are mobilizing and developing the workforce through a well-structured communication, orientation, and well defined policies in, place to direct the affairs and discipline of the employees in the organization.
When the organization is viewed as a unified system, it becomes clear that all organizational elements are crucial for sustained productivity with the ideal motivation, sanctions in order to instill utmost employee discipline. However, without the "right" human capital factors, the right employees, the organization barely moves, or it lurches along. Reflect on this by looking at, the organization and its components (i.e. the leader, the systems, and the employees) in the context of a car and all its component parts. Could you drive a car (the organization) with just a steering wheel and the drive train (the leader)? Like cars, organizations need all components working together for full functionality. Tires, seats, windshield, wipers, and other supporting components (systems) are important features of a fully working car. But, the car doesn't run without the engine, the battery, and gasoline (employee discipline). These components give the car its power.
The present democratic government is poised to wage "WAR" against corruption and other forms of acts of indiscipline in the Nigeria Public Sector. Can this nation win this war without a carefully planned strategy for fighting the war? The answer to this question is a resounding "NO". Thus, there is the need for planning how to fight that war.
The authors' interest in the study of the nature and management of unethical conducts or acts of indiscipline was spurred by the findings in the preliminary analysis of earlier work done by one of the authors. In the said work by Ogundele (2007) it was found that acts of indiscipline in various forms were the second most important problem, confronting and inhibiting the productivity of the indigenous entrepreneurs/public sector management.
The multi-dimensional problems of indiscipline (immoral or unethical behaviour) in Nigeria today. Nigeria Public Sector is now deeply infected by the deadly disease called indiscipline (immoral or unethical conduct). All Nigeria's institutions including, political, social and economic institutions" manifest this symptoms of indiscipline.
Several concerned writers had expressed one view or the other against the general lack of discipline in the Nigeria Public Sector and its impacts on productivity. Osahon (2005) examined the multi-dimensional aspects of indiscipline in the Nigeria public sector, Oji (1982) described it in the context of the need for discipline revolution in the Nigeria public sector. Nwankwo (2007), Bolaji (2005) stressed the needs for, economic and political nationalism, moral leadership and requirement of education for new leadership in the Nigeria public sector respectively.
Nzeribe's (2003) focus was ethnic and economic origin of Nigeria discipline problems. Ayagi (1990) blamed the economic and social problems of Nigeria on leadership indiscipline. Arene (2006) presented the personality models as means of solving the complex social, economic and political problems of Nigeria; Ekpo-Ufot (2004) found that several acts of indiscipline were the major factors that inhibited organizational and national goals attainment. These were confirmed by Oseni (1993) Ogundele (1999) findings. Oseni (2001) carried out a study of high level forms of corruption in the Nigeria Breweries Plc which was and still is a product of the larger society. Ogundele (2000) found that acts of indiscipline, (unethical behaviour), including bribery, robbery, fraudulent practices and corruption were the second most important inhibitors, of the productivity of two groups of public sector in Nigeria.
Therefore, unethical behaviours have negative effects on productivity of business organization in Nigeria. The same can be said for other Africans countries and business. In Nigeria and other black African countries the situation are serious based on the nation's inability to identify and thread the appropriate philosophical and developmental paths much less on ethical values (Aina, 1992). In contemporary African countries, the fashion is to get rich quick through fraudulent means rather than by hard work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
It is no more news that the very essence of establishing the Public Sector is to provide valuable services to members of the public and these agents are known as the public servants, these public servants who are supposed to uphold the laws are found violating the laws. Invariably, the gab or relationship between employee discipline and productivity in the public sector is increasingly uneven.
The inability on the part of employee in the public sector to adhered to stated rules and regulation may be considered as the root or generalized causes of indiscipline in organizations which is inimical to effective productivity be it public or private organizations. Moreso, these problems emanating from indiscipline could be linked to poor applications of concept of time and large scale bribery, corruption, falsification of records; failure to keep records, drunkenness, dishonesty; willful act or omission or general misconduct to the scandal of the public; absence from duty without leave; disobedience or lawful order, such as refusal to proceed on transfer or to accept position; negligence; suppression of records; false claims against Government among others.
It is also adduced that various reasons that resulted to the causes of unethical behaviour especially in the Nigeria Breweries Plc in line with productivity is poor leadership. Among other factors that produced corruption' in the Nigeria Public Sector: These include, several political factors, patronage and societal pressures, lack of transparency and proper enforcement of rules on regulation and government intervention in several spheres of public life and the expansion of the public sector attributes the cause of corruption in the public sector to the crisis of leadership, which is exhibited in lack of discipline on the part of political elites, lack of meaningful participation in the policy making process, poverty, underdevelopment and bureaucratic inefficiency.
In addition, other attributed causes of indiscipline in the public sector is value orientation in the society, underdevelopment, lack of sanctions against identified unethical individuals, ethnicity, and the psychological mechanisms of individual members that forces them to strive relentlessly for material success. The various problems discussed above are the commonly identified discipline challenges in the public sector particularly in the Nigeria Breweries Plc, which serve as where the research is to be carried out in the course of the study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to examine the nexus between employee discipline and productivity in the public sector, other specific objectives include:
(i) To investigate the inability on the part of employee in the public sector to adhere to the conduct of transparency, accountability and proper enforcement of rules and regulation militate against effective productivity.
(ii) To evaluate how the weak sanction against identified unethical individuals and indiscipline on the part of political elites, result to lack of meaningful participation in the policy making process in the public sector .
(iii) To determine how employee indiscipline arising from falsification of records, absence from duty without leave, refusal to proceed on transfer and the decline on productivity in the Nigeria Breweries.
(iv) To provide useful recommendations that will help to resolve the existing problems of employee discipline, and the productivity in the Nigeria Breweries Plc.
1.4 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Attempts are made to provide answers to the following research questions:
(i) Is there, any nexus between employee discipline and productivity in the public sector? .
(ii) Does the inability on the part of employee in the public sector to adhere to the conduct of transparency, accountability and proper enforcement of rules and regulations militate against effective productivity?
(iii) How does the weak sanction against identified unethical individuals and indiscipline on the part of political elites result to lack of meaningful participation in the policy, making process in the public sector?
(iv) Does employee indiscipline arising from falsification of records, absence from duty without leave, refusal to proceed on transfer responsible for the decline on productivity in the Nigeria Breweries Plc?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Attempts are made to test the following hypotheses:
(i) There is a nexus between employee discipline and productivity in the public sector.
(ii) The inability on the part of employee in the public sector to adhere to the conduct of transparency, accountability and proper enforcement of rules and regulations -militate against effective productivity.
(iii) Weak sanction against identified unethical individuals (elite) result to lack of meaningful participation on policy making process in the public sector.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will attempt to determine the nexus, between employees' discipline and productivity in the public sector, using Nigeria Breweries Plc as a case study. The scope of the study will also cover the top management staff, middle/supervisory management staff and junior staff in the Nigeria Breweries Plc Head Quarter located in Ikeja, Lagos. The selection of Nigeria Breweries Plc was necessitated as a result of time and financial constraints, which serve as an impediment to the researcher in the course of carrying out this study.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study cannot be over emphases as toe following people are bound to benefit from the findings of this study.
This study is significant to the researcher in that it has expose the researcher to identify the increasing need for discipline in the public sector with the view to advising governments and stakeholders to guide against the negative consequences of indiscipline in the public sector arising from poor leadership and lack of adherence of stipulated rules governing the organization.
The study increases the knowledge of the researcher on the implication of the deplorable level of productivity being rendered by the public enterprises owing to lack of discipline.
The society at large including government, management of organization, the reading public, other researchers, students, scholars and as well as upcoming student in this field of study can always benefit from the various recommendations enlisted which the researcher hope will receive considerable attention by government and other stakeholders, so as to reduce the ' alarming rate of public sector indiscipline which may be responsible for the decline In productivity in the "Nigeria Breweries Plc.
1.8 DEFINTION OF TERMS
Discipline: Disciplined behaviour is a sine qua non for individuals, small group, organization and national health and survival. Discipline in a broad sense means orderliness the opposite of confusion.
Productivity: This can be defined as the evaluation of ethical conduct that invariably facilitate the productivity and attainment of the growth and development of the organization.
Indiscipline: This is the breaking down or deviations of rules and regulations governing an organization. In order words indiscipline is also referred to as inimical to the productivity and growth of a particular organization.
Ethics: Ethics are set rules, values and standard that helps to promote and direct the activities of group of employees' towards the attainment set goals (productivity).
Unethical Behavior: Unethical behaviors are regarded as behaviors which deviate the set standards and values for personal interest (gain), such as sleeping while on duty, refusal to go on transfer, suppressing of public files, bribery and corruption among others.
Rules and Regulations: These are clearly defined laws that regulate the behaviors' of employees in a particular establishment, adherence to these laws attracts compensation and deviance of the stipulated laws is punishable.
Management: This can be defined as the effective utilization of both human and material resources to achieve specific objective in an organization.
Employees: This is the most important factor of production that manages' and directs other means of productions such as land, building, capital, raw materials among others.
Sanctions/Penalties: This refers to the punitive measures put in place by organization management to regulate the activities or affairs of employees towards behaving in a desired manner.
Incentives: These are motivational packages put in place by the management to intrinsically and extrinsically induce employees to give in their very best of effort towards executing their assigned task in order to promote productivity.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OR PLAN OF THE STUDY
The research work will be divided into five chapters:
Chapter one is the introduction part, which covers the background of the study, statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, research hypotheses, and significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study, definition of terms and organization of the study.
Chapter two contains the literature review and theoretical framework. In this chapter the views relating to the study of early writers on the topic are considered imperative.
Chapter three contains the research methodology which covers the research method (instrument) or approach, the population of the study, the sample and technique; the method of data collection and the method for data analyses and interpretation.