- THE EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS, IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AJEROMI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF HOME CONFLICT AS PREDICATORS OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE
- A SURVEY OF PROBLEM AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN SOME SELECTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN ALIMOSHO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.
- THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING VERBS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
- EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS, IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AJEROMI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
- INTERNET AND EDUCATION: (A CASE OF THREE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE)
- PIDGIN ENGLISH, EFFECTS AND DANGERS: A CASE OF THREE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE.
- PROBLEMS AND PROSPECT OF TEACHING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A STUDY OF TWO SELECTED SECONDARY SHOOLS IN IFAKO-IJAIYE LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNDER EDUCATIONAL DISTRICT IV OF LAGOS STATE)
- SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF HOME CONFLICT AS PREDICATORS OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ALIMOSHO LAGOS STATE
- IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA ON STUDENTS' ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
THE ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE AND TEACHERS' JOB PRODUCTIVITY IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAINLAND LOCAL EDUCATION DISTRICT OF LAGOS STATE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 Concept and Nature of Organisational Climate
2.3 Forehand and Gilmer (1994) refer to it as the set of characteristics
2.4 Theories and Concept Underlying Organizational Effectiveness
2.5 The Importance of Organisational or School Climate.
2.6 Determinants Of Organisational Climate.
2.6 Measuring Organisational Climate
2.7 Diagnosing Organisational Climate in Schools.
2.8 Halpin and Croft's Descriptive Climate Framework
2.8.1 Teacher's Behaviour
2.8.2 Principal's Behaviour
2.9 School Climate as Organizational Health
2.10 Importance of School Productivity
2.11 Approaches to School Productivity
2.12 Policy Evolution, Formulation and Objectives in Nigerian Education System towards school Productivity
2.13 The Problems in Educational Management and Implementation For Nigerian School Productivity Problems
2.14 Summary of Literature Review
METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
4.1 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF BIO-DATA.
4.2 Descriptive Analysis Of Research Questions.
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses
4.4 Summary of Findings.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
Background to the Study
The term "Organizational Culture" is currently in vogue, the concept of organisational climate has generated much more research and until recently was used by most organizational theorists such as Daal (1995), Firestone and colleagues (l997) and Corbett (1991) to capture the general feeling or atmosphere of the schools, unlike culture from the beginning.
Organisational climate has been tied to the process of developing measuring instrument (Pace and Pace, 1988).
Climate was initially conceived as a general concept to express the enduring quality of organizational life. It was noted by Reno (1999) that a particular configuration of enduring characteristic of the ecology, Milieu, social system, and culture would constitute a climate, as much as particular configuration of personal characteristic constitute a personality. According to George and George (2000) organisational climate include those characteristics that distinguish the organisation from other organizations and that influence the behaviour of people in the organisations. They introduced into their definition of climate a set of measurable properties of the work environment based on the collective perception of the people who live and work on the environment and demonstrated to influence their behaviour. Over the years, there has been some consensus on the basic properties of organisational climate. Poole and Marshall (1995) summarized theproperties as follow^
(a) Organisational climate is concerned with large units, it characterizes properties of an entire organisation or major sub units.
(b) Organisational climate describes a unit of organisation rather than evaluates it or indicate^emotional reactions to it.
(c) Organisational climate arises from routine organisational practices that are important to the organisation and its members.
(d) Organisational climate influences members behaviours and attitudes.
School climate is a broad term that refers to teachers' perceptions of general work environment of the school, it is influenced by the formal organisation, informal organisation, personalities of the participants and organisational leaderships.
Bertes (1998) suggests that organisational or school climate is a set of internal characteristics that distinguish one school from another, and influences the behaviour of its members, Bertes further stated that school climate is a relatively enduring quality of the school environment that is experienced by participants, affect their behaviour and is based on their collective perceptions of behaviour in schools. According to Kunz (1994), the definition of Organisational climate^js^a set of internal characteristics, is similar in some respects to the description of personality. Indeed, the climate of a school may roughly be conceived as the personality of a school, that is, what personality is to an individual, is what climate is to the school or organisation.
The distinctive feature of the school climate is the open, closed and climate continuum. The open school climate is characterized by high degree of trust and esprit and low disengagement. This combination suggests a climate in which both the principal and faculty are genuine in their behaviour. The principal sees through example by providing the proper blend of structure and direction as well as support and consideration - the mix dependent upon the situation.
Arnold (2001) explains that in an open school climate, teachers work well together and are committed to the task at hand. Given the reality - centred leadership of-the principal and a committed faculty, there is no need for burden of some paper work (hindrance), close supervision production (emphasis) or impersonality or a plethora of rules and regulations (aloofness). In this type of school, acts of leadership emerge easily and appropriately as they are needed. The open school is not pre-occupied exclusively with either task achievement or social needs satisfaction, both emerge freely.
Frankly speaking, the behaviour of both the principal and the entire faculty is cordial and authentic. In this situation, there is teacher -principal relationship, principal -students relationship and principal - community relationship in the school.
This situation of good climate in the school, no doubt, brings about high teachers' morale and motivation which in any case brings about an increased-, teacher productivity in the school organisation (Uzomah, 2003).
The principal’s vision is logically and intimately tied to two other premier and frequently cited characteristics of effective schools - an academic school climate (or culture) and high expectations for students achievement (Ajunwa, 1991).
Generally, an organisational climate or culture consists of shared values, rules, ideology goals, and conceptions regarding the organisation. Walter and Stanfield (1988) said of the importance of school culture that ''Culture is the 'normative glue' the consistency in values, that holds the organisation together".
In an academic climate, staff and students are aware of and they value goals of high achievement. Researchers agree that principals, influenced by school boards and district superintendents, play a vital role in creating such an atmosphere through their beliefs, attitudes, expectations, and activities, Cohen (1993), for example, reported that effective principals emphasize high achievement and express optimism about the ability of all students to meet instructional goals.
Blum (1994), similarly found that effective principals believe and emphasize, to start, that learning is the most important reason for students to be in school; that all children can learn, and that school makes the difference between success and failure. Good and Brophy (1985) also stressed that effective principals are able to create a strong sense of community that includes shared values and culture, common goals, and high expectation for both students’ achievement and the staff’s performance that creates it. One teacher in a school, with a strong academic orientation, said "I have taught in other states and other schools, but until I came here, I never realized how enjoyable teaching could be. It is not that the students are better, it is just that everyone here seems to value learning". And another teacher commented, "we're all pulling together" (Rutherfond 1985).
In less effective schools, teachers are not to share a common understanding of school - wide goals and expectations. If goals are mentioned at all, it usually in regard to personal goals or else department goals in secondary schools.
There is also an affective side to a favourable school climate or culture. Cohen (1993), for example, pointed out that a good sense of school
community requires not only shared goals but the creation of a moral order that includes respect for authority, mutual trust, and a genuine caring about individuals and their feelings and attitude. Odden (1988) similarly mentioned staff collegiality, staff - student collegiality, and again, caring attitudes about kids" as important parts of the school climate.
According-to Ayo (2000), principals can take many concrete steps to aid the development of an academic orientation and high achievement expectations, virtually all of which reflect their instructional leadership role. The following eight categories of suggestions stem from research on the observation of effective schools and effective principals.
(1) Principals can take an active and personal role in raising awareness of the need for school improvement and higher achievement expectations and gaining consensus for the changes. For example, they can communicate the expectation that instructional programs can and will improve over time. Especially, principals can empower teachers to work together to plan and incorporate improvements. They can ensure that instructional improvement strategies are given high priority and high visibility. Principals also can create procedures from eliciting parents’ and community’s support for improvement plans by speaking at PTA meeting (Patty, 2001).
(2) Principals can help build consensus on school rules and patterns of acceptable behaviour among staff, students and administration that are consistent with and promote an academic orientation (Mundi, 1994).
(3) Principals can be active in creating the concrete improvement themselves. For example, they can plan, secure, and monitor in-service staff development opportunities, obtaining staff input on the content of the training, be active and supportive in helping teachers learn to use new instructional approaches, and establish expectations for good curriculum quality through the use of standards and guidelines. They can help staff establish priorities and plan instructional improvements supervise and coordinate implementation of plan components, and monitor the results (Cobbler, 1999).
(4) Principals also can actively elicit parents’ involvement in the schools' instructional efforts, for example, by enlisting parents’ time as office and classroom aides, parents' energy in organising school - wide festivities and parents' money for expansion of school program (Hallinger and Murphy, 1987).
(5) Principals can create reward systems for students and teachers that support an academic orientation and stimulate excellence in students’ and teachers’ performance. For example, they can help create motivational devices such as school slogans, buttons, T-shirts or songs emphasizing school identity and academic achievement. Walter and Stanfieid (1988) described how school slogans help create proper values for teachers and students: "A child's right to an education is non - negotiable, "Move out of the comfort zone", and win with class, lose with dignity.
One popular strategy is the use of posters that proclaim to anyone entering the building (i.e. students, teachers, parents, community members and others) the vision, expectations, mission, direction, and goals of a school.
(6 Principals can make certain reward that student, staff and school accomplishments and awards are visible in the building and to parents and the public. Good public relations work through newspapers, radio and television and strengthen school pride and,. .school identity by praising good work and individual strengths, and by taking an interest in their personal well-being, principals can develop and maintain positive staff relations.
(7) A central and well-documented behaviour of effective principals is monitoring students’ progress, especially as reflected in test scores for each grade, each class, and each student such behaviour intrinsically reflects an academic focus and academic values. Principals can share results with teachers and elicit agreement on standards. Discrepancies from standards are used to guide corrective action.
(8) Principals can acquire materials and personal resources needed for effective instruction and use them creatively in accordance with academic priorities.
(9) Principals are responsible for the creation of a safe and orderly school environment. There are many interrelated suggestions regarding the actions principals can take. They can protect teaching and learning time from interruption, for example, by limiting public time from interruption, for example, by limiting public address system announcements (or classroom phone calls) to specified times, preventing class interruptions by message etc.
Statement of the Problem
The close school climate is the antithesis of the open school climate. In the dosed climate trust and esprit are low, and disengagement is high in the school. In this situation the principal and teachers appear simply to go through the motions, with the principal stressing routine trivial and unnecessary busy work (hindrance) and the teachers responding at minimal levels and exhibiting little job satisfaction. The principle of ineffective leadership in this situation is seen in close supervision (production emphasis).
Formal declaration and impersonality (aloofness) as well as a lack of consideration for the facility and an inability and unwillingness to provide a dynamic person examples. This misguided tactics, which are not taken seriously, produce teacher frustration and apathy. The '" behaviour of both principal and teachers in the closed school climate is least genuine and their relationship least cordial. In fact in-authenticity pervades the atmosphere of the school; thus there is teachers’ low morale, poor motivation, low interest and the resultant effect is poor work performance and low productivity in the school,
This research therefore aim/at examining the organisational climate and teachers' job productivity Lagos State schools.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this is to attempt and investigate into the organisational climate and teachers' job productivity in selected secondary schools in mainland Local Education District of Lagos State.
Other specific objectives of the study includes:
(1) Examination: Whether the culture of the school affects teachers' '- productivity.
(2) Investigate whether difference exists between the productivity of teachers who work in an open school climate and those who work in closed ones.
(3) Evaluate whether there is gender difference in the productivity of teachers due to school climate.
(4) Identify factors that militate against open school climate.
(5) Find out factor that cause closed school climate.
(6) Differentiate between open school climate and closed school climate.
These research questions will help to guide the conduct of this study.
(1) Will the culture of a school relate significantly with the others?
(2) Do school teachers understand the concept of school climate?
(3) Is there any gender difference in the productivity of teachers due to school climate?
(4) What are the factors that encourage close school climate?
(5) What are the factors that bring about open school climate?
(6) How can we differentiate between close and open school climate?
These research hypotheses will be formulated and tested in this study:
(1) There is no significant relationship between one culture and the others.
(2) There is no significant difference between the the understanding of teachers who work in open school climate and those who work in close school climate.
(3) There is no significant gender difference in the productivity of teachers due to school climate.
(4) There is no significant difference between open and closed school climate.
Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following individuals.
(1) School Principals: The study and recommendation of this study will be a great benefit to school principals, who will get more insights and more information on the essence of school climate in the school as it affects teachers’ overall productivity with this study many principals who adopt close leadership styles in the school as it affects teachers overall productivity would have a rethink and turn a new leap as that style of leadership does not augur well for high productivity of teachers and even students.
(2) Teachers: Teachers will indeed, gain a lot in this study because, it will enable them to know the impact of school climate on their productivity in the school system. The findings and recommendations of this study will enable teachers have good rapport with their principals if they want a conducive atmosphere that will be beneficial to the students. The study will help teachers to know that the kind of relationship they have with the principals will no doubt affect the students who are part of the stakeholders in the school system.
(3) Students:- The findings and recommendation of this study will give students the impetus to know that without good school climate where there should be principal-teacher relationship or student-teacher relationship, there cannot be conducive school atmosphere where meaningful teaching/learning process is carried out.
(4) Society:- The society will see this study as a veritable resource materials and a reference materials as well. With the findings and recommendations in this study, people in the larger society will be able to differentiate between open climate and the close one in the school. Also upcoming researcher will find this study a reference maternal too.
Scope of the Study
This study will investigate the effect of organisational climate on the teachers productivity in selected secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area (LGEA) of Lagos State.
Definition of Terms
(1) Hindrance:- A person or thing that makes it more difficult for somebody to do something or for something to happen.
(2) Intimacy:- The state of having a close persona! relationship with somebody.
(3) Disengagement:- To free somebody from the person holding them or to become free.
(4) Esprit:- Feeling of pride, care and support for each other.
(5) Production: The process of growing or making goods or materials, especially large quantities.
(6) Aloofness:- Not friendly or interested in other people, to show no interest in people.
(7) Consideration:- The quality of being sensitive towards others and thinking about their wishes and feelings.
(8) Thrust:- The main point of an argument, a policy.
(9) Productivity:- The rate at which a worker produces goods, and the amount produced, compared with how much time, work and money is needed to produced them.